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1.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):7365-7385, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010527

ABSTRACT

Rationale and Objectives-At present, sinonasal mucormycosis is most worrisome COVID-19 related complication in India while western countries have relatively stayed aloof. But given the pervasive nature of fungi and presence of all predisposing conditions even in western countries, it is imperative to have knowledge about the imaging patterns and staging of the disease. In this study, we try to single out factors responsible for the sudden increment in the incidence of sinonasal mucormycosis among covid-19 patients and discuss their imaging features. Patients and Methods-The case records of 30 patients, between January to May, 2021, with positive RT-PCR for COVID-19 and biopsy proven sinonasal mucormycosis were retrospectively evaluated. Results – Out of 30 patients, 28 had raised random blood glucose level and 24 had raised ferritin level. On imaging, nasal cavity involvement was seen in 18 patients. Paranasal sinuses were involved in 28 patients. The disease process also showed involvement of orbit, neck spaces and intracranial extension. We divided sinonasal mucormycosis into four groups and mortality was seen in patients of stage 3 and 4 (total mortality was 26.7%). Conclusion-MRI played an important role in diagnosis and staging of sinonasal mucormycosis as well as determining the extrasinus extent of disease. Mortality was seen in patients presenting in advanced stage of the disease, with orbital or intracranial extension. Thus, it is imperative that high index of suspicion, early imaging with diagnosis and aggressive management protocol needed to reduce morbidity and mortality.

2.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(3):120-122, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939144

ABSTRACT

Rationale: COVID-19 usually presents with flu-like symptoms and signs, but some rare presentations like leukemoid symptoms cannot be ignored. Patient's concerns: A 37-year-old female presented to the outpatient department with flu-like symptoms. Diagnosis: The RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection was positive, while complete blood cell and peripheral blood smear showed leukemoid reaction. Intervention: Paracetamol and fexofenadine for flu-like symptoms and leukemoid presentation. Outcomes: On the 10th day, the patient was asymptomatic and RT-PCR was negative. So the patient was discharged and leukemoid presentation subsided after clearance of viral disease. Lessons: COVID-19 has a myriad of presentations, and unusual symptoms/signs especially in this pandemic could be induced by COVID-19 infection.

3.
Medical Science ; 25(117):2885-2890, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1893920

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 poses a great challenge to the global health Care system all over the world. The contribution of your frontline worker toward defeating the pandemic is immeasurable on the other hand the health care professional also burdens up and faces disturbance in the mental and physical health. Methodology: Study was conducted with an objective to assess the mental health and coping strategies used by health professionals during COVID-19 Pandemic. A cross sectional survey design was used and sample was collected by Snowball sampling technique from different state and union territories of India. A total 106 healthcare professionals responded and enrolled themselves in the study. Result: in present study most of the participants 53(50.0%) reported moderate depression, 53(50.0%) moderate anxiety and 49 (46.2%) had mild stress. The data analysis reported that maximum numbers of participants had access to psycho-educational material like leaflet, brochure and books provided by the institution (60.4%) compared to (39.6%) who did not get this privilege, next, majority of the participant (76.4%) had availability of resources like internet, TV, newspaper, social media etc. More than half of the participants were able to avail counselling services (55.7%), psychotherapy (63.2%) etc. Conclusion: This pandemic has led to anxiety, stress, depression and other mental health issues among the people especially in health care profession. Mental health problems like stress, anxiety and depression can adversely affect the physical health of the health professionals as well as their competency to care for sick.

4.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880476

ABSTRACT

Background: Tocilizumab is an IgG1 class humanized monoclonal antibody targeting IL-6 receptor (IL-6R). IL-6 is a key cytokine involved in cytokine storm of severe COVID-19. Tocilizumab down-regulates IL-6 preventing fatal and permanent damage to vital organs, significantly preventing COVID-19 related mortality and morbidity. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of Tocilizumab (biosimilar) developed by Hetero Biopharma Ltd, India vs reference medicinal product (RMP)-Tocilizumab manufactured by Roche in cytokine storm of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study enrolled patients aged 18 to 65 years, with laboratory-confirmed, hospitalized, severe COVID-19 disease with elevated inflammatory markers not on mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomized (3:1 ratio) to receive either Test-Tocilizumab (Test) 8 mg/kg or RMP-Tocilizumab 8mg/kg, maximum 800mg, administered once on day 1. The primary endpoint was the cumulative proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation by Day 14. Secondary endpoints included 28 day mortality rate, proportion of patients with a 2-point decrease in WHO ordinal scale, time to clinical failure (death or required mechanical ventilation or withdrawn), change in inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, Ferritin and D-dimer) and duration of hospital stay in days. Safety endpoints included the incidence of adverse events;the proportion of patients discontinued the study due to adverse events and the incidence of any post-treatment bacterial and/or fungal infection. Results: Out of 211 patients screened, 172 patients were randomized (131 to Test and 41 to RMP) to receive Tocilizumab 8mg/kg. Patients were similar in both groups at baseline in terms of age, gender, weight etc. Fourteen (10.69%) patients in Test and 5 (12.20%) patients in RMP progressed to mechanical ventilation by Day 14 (p=0.7789). Overall, 9 (7.83%) patients died in Test vs 5 (13.16%) in RMP during 28 days follow up (p=0.3382). Clinical improvement was seen 62.60% and 77.10% vs 53.66% and 73.17% in Test vs RMP at day 14 and 28 respectively. The time to clinical failure was 6 vs 5 days and time to clinical improvement was 11 vs 11.5 days. Hospitalization duration was 12.9 versus 13.8 days in the Test and RMP. ARDS, Insomnia and Pain were most commonly reported adverse events. Conclusion: Tocilizumab biosimilar is comparable with RMP-Tocilizumab in preventing mechanical ventilation in severe COVID19 pneumonia patients.

5.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:11609-11622, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874846

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been under emergency due to novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19). Due to a lack of powerful preventative strategies (such as vaccinations) and pharmaceutical treatments, various preventive techniques have been implemented worldwide. Boosting the immune system is one of the most popular tools which has gained worldwide attention. However, the general public's impression is tainted by a lack of understanding of immune-boosting strategies and timetables. We carried out questionnaire-based research in India to assess people's actual knowledge of immunity and immunity-boosting techniques. The data analysis highlighted the idiographic convolutions in comprehending the various essential aspects affecting these people's immunity perception. The findings show that the general population understands the need to have a healthy immune system to combat any disease. More focus, however, is needed on false immunity-boosting claims and the careful implementation of immunity-boosting methods with professional advice. The study has the potential to address bottlenecks in reaching sustainable development objectives, notably United Nations' sustainable development goal three, which is Health and Well-being. Ensuring healthy lifestyles and encouraging well-being at all ages is critical to long-term development. The world is currently experiencing a global health catastrophe causing human distress, undermining the global economy, and upending the lives of billions of people worldwide. © The Electrochemical Society

6.
Journal of Global Health Reports ; 5(e2021069), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1865734

ABSTRACT

Background: There are various COVID-19 vaccines launched in different parts of the world. As the vaccination drive is increasing, the reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are increasingly reported. Therefore, this research aims to document the adverse events and their determinants following COVID-19 vaccination.

7.
Journal of SAFOG ; 14(1):35-40, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822541

ABSTRACT

Importance: Given the high mortality and cost of health care, especially in isolation settings, the idea of using nebulized hydrogen peroxide may play a very significant role in inactivation of coronavirus, thus reducing the infectivity period leading to reduced requirement of isolation and improving morbidity and mortality in people suffering with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019). Aim and objective: Objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of nebulized hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in reducing the viral load and disease severity of patients suffering with COVID-19. Design: Double-blinded randomized control trial. HOPE in COVID-19 study. Setting: Tertiary care COVID hospital (single center). Participants: Moderate sick COVID-19-positive patients were included in the study after they qualified the inclusion criteria. Intervention: Patients were nebulized using 1 mL of ozonized 3% H2O2 after diluting with 4 mL of normal saline three times a day for 5 days. The control group was nebulized with normal saline only. Main outcome: Outcome was assessed for reduction in oxygen requirement (number of days on oxygen), symptoms resolution (dyspnea, cough, and fever), and number of days it took to be RT-PCR negative for COVID-19. Results: The early data from trial showed promising trends toward a better outcome. The study showed that in the case group who were nebulized with hydrogen peroxide resulted in better outcome in terms of parameters assessed in the study and the differences from the control group were statistically significant (p ≤0.001, CI 95%). Outcome in the form of mortality (odds ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.02–3.14, p = 0.31, z = 1.007) was statistically insignificant. The number needed to treat for our study was 10.

8.
Vaccine ; 40(23): 3103-3108, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783825

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant has dominated SARS-CoV-2 infections in Tokyo, Japan from June 2021 to date. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess BNT162b2 vaccine effectiveness during the surge in Delta among 3,911 healthcare workers (HCWs) at a medical center of Tokyo with a high vaccination rate of 84.1%. With strict infection control protocols including universal masking, only a small number of cases among vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs were identified before June. As Delta spread in Tokyo, 16 cases among 3,289 fully vaccinated HCWs and 11 cases among 574 unvaccinated HCWs were reported in July and August (case rate in August: 4.0 vs. 19.2 per 1,000). All breakthrough cases were confirmed as Delta. While our study confirms a robust vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine against Delta, rising breakthrough cases suggest that continued infection control measures are warranted in higher risk environments, even when high rates of vaccination coverage are achieved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
9.
Environmental Resilience and Transformation in times of COVID-19: Climate Change Effects on Environmental Functionality ; : 357-372, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1783101

ABSTRACT

Mountains of Nepal are rich in natural resources as well as shelter for many ethnic group and indigenous community. Mountain people depend on natural resources and unique landscapes to survive, to preserve a unique sense of identity, and to provide livelihoods for centuries. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented damage to the mountain economy given the immediate effect on ecotourism and remittance, which are the main source of income for communities in the mountains. People in mountains have been using indigenous and local knowledge for utilization of natural resources for their survival. Skilled manpower returning home from abroad can be beneficial and with the use of appropriate technology will be beneficial for those returning from the abroad due to various reasons. Sustainable harvesting of natural resources and various micro/small enterprises can be developed using the appropriate technology. These enterprises not only creates jobs but also can contribute to improve the local to national level economy. A new approach is required combining the science and engineering aspect with local communities contributing their local knowledge and practices, which can develop socio-environmental resilience-building and transformation in mountains of Nepal. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.

10.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-330088

ABSTRACT

Several fast-spreading variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have become the dominant circulating strains that continue to fuel the COVID-19 pandemic despite intensive vaccination efforts throughout the world. We report here cryo-EM structures of the full-length spike (S) trimers of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants, as well as their biochemical and antigenic properties. Mutations in the B.1.1.7 protein increase the accessibility of its receptor binding domain and also the binding affinity for receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The enhanced receptor engagement can account for the increased transmissibility and risk of mortality as the variant may begin to infect efficiently infect additional cell types expressing low levels of ACE2. The B.1.351 variant has evolved to reshape antigenic surfaces of the major neutralizing sites on the S protein, rendering complete resistance to some potent neutralizing antibodies. These findings provide structural details on how the wide spread of SARS-CoV-2 enables rapid evolution to enhance viral fitness and immune evasion. They may guide intervention strategies to control the pandemic.

11.
9th IEEE International Conference on Power Systems, ICPS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1714057

ABSTRACT

Power systems are designed to be operated under expected weather conditions. Unexpected weather conditions sometimes create widespread damage to the power system. The failure rate of equipment in power system along with redundancy and accuracy of forecasting decide the scope of damage. Eastern coast of Indian sub-continent experiences cyclones of varying intensity every year. These cyclones have severe impact on the infrastructure including the power infrastructure. The proactive operation strategy to counter each stage of uncertainty helps not only in managing the power system but also in early restoration. Amid the NCOVID-19 pandemic, Indian power system witnessed super cyclone named 'AMPHAN' which originated in the Bay of Bengal. The cyclone, after landfall passed through densely populated regions affecting the load centers. Cyclone of matching severity was last witnessed by India in the year 1999. The landfall of cyclone started during afternoon hours of 20th May 2020. The proactive action strategy based on past experience resulted in minimization of loss to electrical system and power supply outage. This paper presents the proactive measures taken by POSOCO and power utilities across all key sectors, viz., generation, transmission, distribution, during different phases of cyclone trajectory and the impact of cyclone on Indian power system. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293483

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has outcompeted previously prevalent variants and become a dominant strain worldwide. We report here structure, function and antigenicity of its full-length spike (S) trimer in comparison with those of other variants, including Gamma, Kappa, and previously characterized Alpha and Beta. Delta S can fuse membranes more efficiently at low levels of cellular receptor ACE2 and its pseudotyped viruses infect target cells substantially faster than all other variants tested, possibly accounting for its heightened transmissibility. Mutations of each variant rearrange the antigenic surface of the N-terminal domain of the S protein in a unique way, but only cause local changes in the receptor-binding domain, consistent with greater resistance particular to neutralizing antibodies. These results advance our molecular understanding of distinct properties of these viruses and may guide intervention strategies.

13.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293189

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has outcompeted previously prevalent variants and become a dominant strain worldwide. We report here structure, function and antigenicity of its full-length spike (S) trimer in comparison with those of other variants, including Gamma, Kappa, and previously characterized Alpha and Beta. Delta S can fuse membranes more efficiently at low levels of cellular receptor ACE2 and its pseudotyped viruses infect target cells substantially faster than all other variants tested, possibly accounting for its heightened transmissibility. Mutations of each variant rearrange the antigenic surface of the N-terminal domain of the S protein in a unique way, but only cause local changes in the receptor-binding domain, consistent with greater resistance particular to neutralizing antibodies. These results advance our molecular understanding of distinct properties of these viruses and may guide intervention strategies.

14.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293140

ABSTRACT

Memory B cell reserves can generate protective antibodies against repeated SARS-CoV-2 infections, but with an unknown reach from original infection to antigenically drifted variants. We charted memory B cell receptor-encoded monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 19 COVID-19 convalescent subjects against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and found 7 major mAb competition groups against epitopes recurrently targeted across individuals. Inclusion of published and newly determined structures of mAb-S complexes identified corresponding epitopic regions. Group assignment correlated with cross-CoV-reactivity breadth, neutralization potency, and convergent antibody signatures. mAbs that competed for binding the original S isolate bound differentially to S variants, suggesting the protective importance of otherwise-redundant recognition. The results furnish a global atlas of the S-specific memory B cell repertoire and illustrate properties conferring robustness against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

15.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-292872

ABSTRACT

Several fast-spreading variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have become the dominant circulating strains that continue to fuel the COVID-19 pandemic despite intensive vaccination efforts throughout the world. We report here cryo-EM structures of the full-length spike (S) trimers of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants, as well as their biochemical and antigenic properties. Mutations in the B.1.1.7 protein increase the accessibility of its receptor binding domain and also the binding affinity for receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The enhanced receptor engagement can account for the increased transmissibility and risk of mortality as the variant may begin to infect efficiently infect additional cell types expressing low levels of ACE2. The B.1.351 variant has evolved to reshape antigenic surfaces of the major neutralizing sites on the S protein, rendering complete resistance to some potent neutralizing antibodies. These findings provide structural details on how the wide spread of SARS-CoV-2 enables rapid evolution to enhance viral fitness and immune evasion. They may guide intervention strategies to control the pandemic.

16.
24th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, CSCW 2021 ; : 338-342, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1515328

ABSTRACT

Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Human- Computer Interaction (HCI) have long studied how technology can support material and relational aspects of care work, typically in clinical healthcare settings. More recently, we see increasing recognition of care work such as informal healthcare provision, child and elderly care, organizing and advocacy, domestic work, and service work. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has underscored long-present tensions between the deep necessity and simultaneous devaluation of our care infrastructures. This highlights the need to attend to the broader social, political, and economic systems that shape care work and the emerging technologies being used in care work. This leads us to ask several critical questions: What counts as care work and why? How is care work (de)valued, (un)supported, or coerced under capitalism and to what end? What narratives drive the push for technology in care work and whom does it benefit? How does care work resist or build resilience against and within oppressive systems? And how can we as researchers advocate for and with care and caregivers? In this one-day workshop, we will bring together researchers from academia, industry, and community-based organizations to reflect on these questions and extend conversations on the future of technology for care work. © 2021 ACM.

17.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 32:80, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1489727

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic in March of 2020. Many studies have assessed the association between different comorbidities and COVID-19 outcomes. In this overview of reviews, we aim to summarize the association between CKD and different COVID-19 outcomes. Methods: We performed a systematic search through Embase, PubMed, Epistemonikos, and Cochrane as well as preprint databases from January 1, 2020 to January 5, 2021. After searching systematic reviews, we updated the search by identifying primary studies published after August 2020, which was the date of last search in the reviews. We focused on systematic reviews and large primary studies. We followed the GRADE methodology to assess the certainty in effect estimates. Data was pooled based on random effects model. Results: We included a total of 69 systematic reviews and 66 primary studies in our overview. We did not identify any systematic reviews that directly reports on CKD and the risk of contracting COVID-19. There was no convincing difference on the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection in patients with and without CKD in primary studies (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.76-1.33). CKD is associated with higher risk of COVID-19 related mortality pooled hazard ratio (HR) 1.48 (95% CI 1.33-1.65) and pooled odds ratio (OR) 1.77 (95% CI 1.54-2.02)(moderate certainty), hospitalization pooled risk ratio (RR) 1.63 (95% CI 1.03-2.58) (moderate certainty) and disease severity pooled RR 1.56 (95% CI 1.3-1.86) (moderate certainty). Notably, the risk of COVID-19 attributed hospitalization and mortality were higher in patients with more advanced CKD stage. Conclusions: Evidence consistently demonstrated an increased risk of mortality, hospitalization and disease severity in patients with CKD and COVID-19 infection. The results highlight the importance of recognizing patients with CKD as a high-risk group and of prioritizing these patients for COVID-19 prevention strategies including vaccination.

18.
3rd International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications, ICIRCA 2021 ; : 1048-1053, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1476057

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 (previously known as '2019 novel coronavirus') took the big form and outspread rapidly around the world becoming a pandemic. Artificial intelligence tools come out to be one of the fastest solutions to detect the disease and in another way helping to control the spread. This paper signifies how chest X-ray images use deep learning techniques which are very useful for analyzing images to detect the virus and spotting high-risk patients for controlling the spread. Further, it shows how the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) technology of deep learning helps to detect the virus quickly. A CNN is a type of artificial neural network that is used for image pre-processing and consists of many layers that aid in detection. A sequential CNN model is proposed with different kernel sizes, filters, and having different parameters using a dataset of 2159 images. The output shows that a model with an adequate amount of filters, max-pooling layers, dropout layers and dense layers imparts the highest accuracy of 99.53% in detecting the coronavirus. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech, PowerTech 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1455462

ABSTRACT

The NCOVID-19 pandemic has been an unforeseen calamity which affected almost all the countries in the world. On March 11, 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) declared NCOVID-19 as a pandemic. The Government of India (GOI) took several actions to control the spread of the pandemic in the country and issued several guidelines for public and organizations. The adversity caused by pandemic required continuity of electric supply to consumers. The latter was achieved through proper planning and execution. The Indian Power System Operator, POSOCO through its National and Regional Load Dispatch Centers (NLDC and RLDCs) assessed the situation early and took all planned efforts for the Indian power system operation which is essential for keeping 'lights ON' during these hours of crisis. Strategic team at the top management level and tactical teams at the individual control center level were formed to handle any unforeseen circumstances. This paper has discussed the various actions taken by POSOCO during NCOVID-19 scenario and impact of it on Indian power system. Impact of exceptional events as faced during pandemic period, like, Janata Curfew, Lights-Off event, Super Cyclonic Storms 'Amphan', 'Nisarga', and Solar eclipse is also discussed in the paper. The insights gained during these events may enhance the capability to envisage and handle such multiple high impact low probability events in the future. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 1-2, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455134

ABSTRACT

Evidence of BNT126b2 vaccine effectiveness and breakthrough has been primarily demonstrated in populations outside of Asia; studies in the Western Pacific region are limited. Our retrospective cohort study assessed SARS-CoV-2 cases after vaccine rollout starting from mid-March 2021 at a tertiary hospital in Tokyo. Of 8,749 staff members, no fully vaccinated staff demonstrated confirmed infection, versus 19 cases in unvaccinated or partially vaccinated staff, by the end of June. Three breakthrough cases were identified in July, correlating with spread of delta variant in Tokyo. While our findings confirm the effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine in Asian populations, the presence of breakthrough cases despite strict infection control regulations suggest that ongoing public hygiene measures are required even after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Japan , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tertiary Care Centers
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