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Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480888


Ammonia (NH3) is a vital compound in diversified fields, including agriculture, automotive, chemical, food processing, hydrogen production and storage, and biomedical applications. Its extensive industrial use and emission have emerged hazardous to the ecosystem and have raised global public health concerns for monitoring NH3 emissions and implementing proper safety strategies. These facts created emergent demand for translational and sustainable approaches to design efficient, affordable, and high-performance compact NH3 sensors. Commercially available NH3 sensors possess three major bottlenecks: poor selectivity, low concentration detection, and room-temperature operation. State-of-the-art NH3 sensors are scaling up using advanced nano-systems possessing rapid, selective, efficient, and enhanced detection to overcome these challenges. MXene-polymer nanocomposites (MXP-NCs) are emerging as advanced nanomaterials of choice for NH3 sensing owing to their affordability, excellent conductivity, mechanical flexibility, scalable production, rich surface functionalities, and tunable morphology. The MXP-NCs have demonstrated high performance to develop next-generation intelligent NH3 sensors in agricultural, industrial, and biomedical applications. However, their excellent NH3-sensing features are not articulated in the form of a review. This comprehensive review summarizes state-of-the-art MXP-NCs fabrication techniques, optimization of desired properties, enhanced sensing characteristics, and applications to detect airborne NH3. Furthermore, an overview of challenges, possible solutions, and prospects associated with MXP-NCs is discussed.

Life Sci ; 257: 118105, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654811


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented disease caused by highly pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 and characterized by extreme respiratory deterrence, pneumonia and immune damage. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the sequence similarity of SARS-CoV-2 with other SARS-like bat viruses. The primary source and intermediate host are not yet confirmed, although transmission from human to human is universally confirmed. The new SARS-CoV-2 virus reaches cells via ACE-2 and subsequently down-regulates ACE-2, leaving angiotensin II unbalanced in affected organs primarily in the lungs, heart, brain, and kidneys. As reported recently, numerous secondary complications i.e., neurological, nephrological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and hepatic complications, are associated with COVID-19 infection along with prominent respiratory disease including pneumonia. Extensive research work on recently discovered SARS-CoV-2 is in the pipeline to clarify pathogenic mechanisms, epidemiological features, and identify new drug targets that will lead to the development of successful strategies for prevention and treatment. There are currently no appropriate scientifically approved vaccines/drugs for COVID-19. Nonetheless, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, azithromycin were tested against COVID-19 in clinical trials, and finally, FDA approved emergency use of remdesivir in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Additionally, administration of convalescent plasma obtained from recovered COVID-19 patients to infected COVID-19 patients reduces the viral burden via immunomodulation. This review analysis therefore concentrates primarily on recent discoveries related to COVID-19 pathogenesis along with a full description of the structure, genome, and secondary complication associated with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, a short and brief clinical update has been provided concerning the development of therapeutic medications and vaccines to counter COVID-19.

Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chemokines , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology