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1.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 94, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rapidly improving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mostly defined by early extubation, had been recognized as an increasingly prevalent subphenotype (making up 15-24% of all ARDS cases), associated with good prognosis (10% mortality in ARDSNet trials). We attempted to determine the prevalence and prognosis of rapidly improving ARDS and of persistent severe ARDS related to COVID-19. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in three intensive care units (ICU) during the second pandemic wave in Greece. We defined rapidly improving ARDS as extubation or a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2:FiO2) greater than 300 on the first day following intubation. We defined persistent severe ARDS as PaO2:FiO2 of equal to or less than 100 on the second day following intubation. RESULTS: A total of 280 intubated patients met criteria of ARDS with a median PaO2:FiO2 of 125.0 (interquartile range 93.0-161.0) on day of intubation, and overall ICU-mortality of 52.5% (ranging from 24.3 to 66.9% across the three participating sites). Prevalence of rapidly improving ARDS was 3.9% (11 of 280 patients); no extubation occurred on the first day following intubation. ICU-mortality of patients with rapidly improving ARDS was 54.5%. This low prevalence and high mortality rate of rapidly improving ARDS were consistent across participating sites. Prevalence of persistent severe ARDS was 12.1% and corresponding mortality was 82.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly improving ARDS was not prevalent and was not associated with good prognosis among patients with COVID-19. This is starkly different from what has been previously reported for patients with ARDS not related to COVID-19. Our results on both rapidly improving ARDS and persistent severe ARDS may contribute to our understanding of trajectory of ARDS and its association with prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 814587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether vitamin C provides any benefit when administered in critically ill patients, including those with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is controversial. We endeavored to estimate the effect of administration of vitamin C on clinical outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 by performing an observational study and subsequent meta-analysis. METHODS: Firstly, we conducted an observational study of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who consecutively underwent invasive mechanical ventilation in an academic intensive care unit (ICU) during the second pandemic wave. We compared all-cause mortality of patients receiving vitamin C ("vitamin C" group) or not ("control" group) on top of standard-of-care. Subsequently, we systematically searched PubMed and CENTRAL for relevant studies, which reported on all-cause mortality (primary outcome) and/or morbidity of critically ill patients with COVID-19 receiving vitamin C or not treatment. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random effects model. The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO. RESULTS: In the observational study, baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Mortality was 20.0% (2/10) in the vitamin C group vs. 47.6% (49/103; p = 0.11) in the control group. Subsequently, the meta-analysis included 11 studies (6 observational; five randomized controlled trials) enrolling 1,807 critically ill patients with COVID-19. Mortality of patients receiving vitamin C on top of standard-of-care was not lower than patients receiving standard-of-care alone (25.8 vs. 34.7%; RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.57-1.26; p = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: After combining results of our observational cohort with those of relevant studies into a meta-analysis of data from 1,807 patients, we found that administration vitamin C as opposed to standard-of-care alone might not be associated with lower of mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional evidence is anticipated from relevant large randomized controlled trials which are currently underway. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier: CRD42021276655.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320307

ABSTRACT

Background: For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality rates vary widely depending on many factors, among which hospital resources and clinical setting seem important. We sought to determine the outcome of critically ill patients admitted in the usual multidisciplinary ICUs of a big referral for COVID-19 tertiary-care hospital with adequate resources. Methods: : We performed a prospective observational study of all adult patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to four COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece, from March 11 to April 27, 2020. Results: : Among 50 critically ill patients, ICU and hospital mortality for the entire cohort was 32% (16/50), whereas 66% (33/50) of patients were discharged alive from the ICU and 2% (1/50) were still treated in the ICU until June 16, 2020. ICU and hospital mortality for those who received invasive mechanical ventilation was 39% (16/41). Patients who eventually died had already increased risk of death on ICU admission, as suggested by the high values of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, the presence of current malignancy and occurrence of cardiac arrest in 44% (7/16) of patients, and the general need for circulatory support by noradrenaline. Median PaO 2 /FiO 2 on ICU admission for the entire cohort was 121 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg] and most patients had moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) according to the Berlin Definition. The primary cause of death of all patients was multi-organ failure, most commonly due to sepsis, whereas none died from refractory hypoxemia, neurologic dysfunction or withdrawal of life support. Hospital stay was long in patients who survived [median 24 days (IQR, 15-35 days)] and was frequently complicated by bacteremias [36% (12/33)]. Conclusion: Severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have equal or even lower mortality rates compared to ARDS due to other causes, when they are admitted in general ICUs with experienced and adequate staff without limitations in hospital resources, where established ARDS therapies are used.

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6.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S453-S453, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564149

ABSTRACT

Background Due to COVID-19 gastrointestinal microbiome alterations, COVID-19 can be complicated by Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with COVID-19pneumonia Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on PCR Covid-19 positive patients admitted in the ICU from September,2020 to 30th April 2021. All patients in the cohort study were on mechanical ventilation, or at some point during their ICU admission required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-onset (HO-CDI), defined as a positive C. difficile test over 3 days after admission. Results Overall, during the study period, a total of 240 PCR Covid-19 patients were admitted to the ICU;of these, 11 (4.5%) were COVID-19 CDI positive. Nine were males (81%). The mean hospital stay for these COVID-19 patients was 12 days (range 1–59 days). HO-CDI median day of identification was 12 days. All patients received ≥2 antibiotics and dexamethasone at admission. Compared to historical controls, COVID-19 patients did not have a higher overall CDI positive rate. However, mortality among COVID-19 HO-CDI patients was increased 7/11 (63%). Conclusion Whether COVID-19 itself increases an individual’s risk for CDI remains unclear. Multiple contributing factors drive CDI incidence, severity, and recurrence. Although protective measures such as gowns and gloves during COVID-19 increased, CDI cases in the hospital setting should continue to emphasize the importance of antimicrobial stewardship. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

7.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S203-S203, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563992

ABSTRACT

Background The aim of this work were to investigate the rate and aetiology of bloodstream infection collected from COVID and non-COVID patients admitted in the ICU Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on PCR Covid-19 positive patients admitted in the ICU from 20th March to 30th April 2020. Corresponding data from the same period in 2019 collected of all consecutive patients admitted in the same ICU were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of microbiologically documented bloodstream infections at least 8 hours after admission. All patients in the cohort study were on mechanical ventilation, or at some point during their ICU admission required mechanical ventilation. Results We identified a total of 19 (38%) BSIs in the COVID-19 group and 10 (12%) BSI in the non-COVID-19 group (p=0,8). COVID-19 patients had an increased probability to develop ICU-BSI, at a median of 8 days of ICU admission as opposed to 6 in the non-COVID-19 group. Patients were comparable in terms of age, and APACHE II score. Out of 19 BSI CoVID-19 patients, 14 (73%) were male vs 5 (50%) in the non-CoVID-19 BSI patients (p=0.0007). Of all BSI-CoVID-19 patients, 7 cases (37%), 3 (16%), and 3(16%) had underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity vs 1(9%), 0(0%), and 0 (0%) in the BSI-non CoVID-19 patients statistically significant at p=0.004, p=0.05, and p=0.05, respectively. ICU-acquired BSIs were mostly due to multi-drug-resistant pathogens. Clinical outcomes were statistically significantly different between patients with CoVid-19 BSI 7(37% ) and 2(20%)in BSI- non-CoVID-19 pneumonia (p=0.02). Conclusion Our findings emphasize that although the incidence of BSI in CoVID-19 positive ICU admitted patients slightly increased their impact on overall outcome was significantly worse. Consequently, it is important to pay attention to bacterial superinfections in critical patients positive for COVID-19. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

8.
Endocr Connect ; 10(6): 646-655, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Following the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic, reports pointed on a high prevalence of thyroiditis-related thyrotoxicosis. Interpretation of thyroid tests during illness, however, is hampered by changes occurring in the context of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In order to elucidate these findings, we studied thyroid function in carefully selected cohorts of COVID-19 positive and negative patients. DESIGN: Cohort observational study. METHODS: We measured TSH, FT4, T3 within 24 h of admission in 196 patients without thyroid disease and/or confounding medications. In this study, 102 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive; 41 admitted in the ICU, 46 in the ward and 15 outpatients. Controls consisted of 94 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients; 39 in the ICU and 55 in the ward. We designated the thyroid hormone patterns as consistent with NTIS, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism. RESULTS: A NTIS pattern was encountered in 60% of ICU and 36% of ward patients, with similar frequencies between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients (46.0% vs 46.8%, P = NS). A thyrotoxicosis pattern was observed in 14.6% SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients vs 7.7% in ICU negative (P = NS) and, overall in 8.8% of SARS-CoV-2 positive vs 7.4% of negative patients. In these patients, thyroglobulin levels were similar to those with normal thyroid function or NTIS. The hypothyroidism pattern was rare. CONCLUSIONS: NTIS pattern is common and relates to the severity of disease rather than SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thyrotoxicosis pattern is less frequently observed with similar frequency between patients with and without COVID-19. It is suggested that thyroid hormone monitoring in COVID-19 should not differ from other critically ill patients.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945844

ABSTRACT

For critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, extremely high mortality rates (even 97%) have been reported. We hypothesized that overburdened hospital resources by the extent of the pandemic rather than the disease per se might play an important role on unfavorable prognosis. We sought to determine the outcome of such patients admitted to the general ICUs of a hospital with sufficient resources. We performed a prospective observational study of adult patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to COVID-designated ICUs at Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece. Among 50 patients, ICU and hospital mortality was 32% (16/50). Median PaO2/FiO2 was 121 mmHg (interquartile range (IQR), 86-171 mmHg) and most patients had moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hospital resources may be an important aspect of mortality rates, since severely ill COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe ARDS may have understandable mortality, provided that they are admitted to general ICUs without limitations on hospital resources.

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