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American Journal of the Medical Sciences ; 365(Supplement 1):S208-S209, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2230426


Case Report: A 4-year-old African American male presented to an outside emergency department (ED) following sudden inability to move left upper extremity. Past medical history was unremarkable and routine vaccinations were up to date. Radiograph of affected extremity ruled out fractures and patient was discharged to follow up with primary care physician. Two days later mother brought him to our ED due to persistent left upper extremity paralysis, poor appetite, and subjective fever. On exam his left arm was warm and tender to dull and sharp touch;he had definite loss of active movement, hypotonia and absence of deep tendon reflexes. The patient had winging of left scapula and could not shrug left shoulder. MRI of cervical and thoracic spine showed enlargement of spinal cord from C2-C6 level with gray matter hyperintensity, slightly asymmetric to the left. Laboratory studies showed leukocytosis (14 000/mcL) and CSF studies showed pleocytosis of 89 WBC/mcL (93.3% mononuclear cells and 6.7% polymorphonuclear cells), 0 RBCs, normal glucose and protein, and a negative CSF meningoencephalitis multiplex PCR panel. Due to high suspicion of demyelinating or autoimmune condition he was treated with high dose steroids and IVIG. Subsequently neuromyelitis optica was ruled out as aquaporin-4 receptor antibodies (AB) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein AB were normal. CSF myelin basic protein and oligoclonal bands were absent ruling out demyelinating disorders. CSF arboviruses IgM and West Nile IgM were negative. He showed minimal improvement in left upper extremity movement but repeat spinal cord MRI one week later showed improved cord thickness with less hyperintensity. Respiratory multiplex PCR was negative including enteroviruses. Repeat CSF studies after IVIG showed increased IgG index and IgG synthesis suggestive of recent spinal cord infection, consistent with acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Pre-IVIG blood PCR was invalid for enteroviruses due to PCR inhibitors found in the sample. Blood post-IVIG was negative for mycoplasma IgM, West Nile IgM, and arboviruses IgM. Enterovirus panel titers (post-IVIG) were positive for coxsackie A (1:32), coxsackie B type 4 (1:80) and 5 (1:320), echovirus type 11 (1:160) and 30 (1:80) as well as positive for poliovirus type 1 and 3. These titers could not distinguish acute infection from patient's immunity or false-positives as a result of IVIG. He was discharged with outpatient follow-up visits with neurology, infectious disease, occupational and physical therapy, showing only mild improvement after discharge. Discussion(s):With the anticipated resurgence of AFM after the peak of COVID-19 pandemic, our case illustrates the need to consider this diagnostic possibility in patients with flaccid paralysis. It is important to remember CSF IgG synthesis is not affected by IVIG. In addition when treatment plans include IVIG, appropriate samples should be collected before IVIG to facilitate accurate work-up for infectious diseases. Copyright © 2023 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation.

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences ; 365:S95-S96, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2211701
Critical Care Medicine ; 51(1 Supplement):69, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190477