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1.
S Afr J Surg ; 60(4): 229-234, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis to treatment interval (DTI), an index of quality assurance in high-income countries (HICs) is lacking in South Africa. This study aimed to determine DTIs and their impact on CRC survival in a South African cohort. METHODS: Participants (n = 289) from the Colorectal Cancer in South Africa (CRCSA) cohort were identified for inclusion. The DTI was defined as the duration between the diagnosis and initial definitive treatment and categorised into approximate quartiles (Q1-4). The DTI quartiles were 0-14 days, 15-28 days, 29-70 days, and ≥ 71 days. Overall survival (OS) was illustrated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between DTI groups using Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression. RESULTS: There was no significant impact of the DTI (as quartiles) on overall CRC survival. The median length of time between DTI in this cohort was 29 days. Significant associations were identified between the DTI and self-reported ethnicity (p-value = 0.025), the site of the malignancy (colon vs rectum) (p-value < 0.0001), multidisciplinary team (MDT) review (p-value = 0.015) and the initial treatment modality (p-value < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Prolonged DTIs did not significantly impact survival for those with CRC in the CRCSA cohort. Symptom to diagnosis time should be investigated as a determinant of survival.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy
2.
S Afr Med J ; 112(3): 201-208, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has imposed unprecedented stressors on South Africa (SA)'s healthcare system. Superimposed on the country's quadruple burden of disease, pandemic-related care further exposes existing inequities. Some of these inequities are specific to hospital-based inpatient services, such as the geographical maldistribution of hospital beds, lack of oxygen supplies and assisted ventilation, and scarcity of trained healthcare workers. Certain high-risk groups, such as individuals with cardiometabolic comorbidity, are likely to develop severe COVID-19 disease requiring hospitalisation with potential for a prolonged length of stay (LoS). It may be helpful for health authorities to identify those at risk for prolonged LoS to facilitate appropriate health systems planning. OBJECTIVES: To identify hospital admission laboratory parameters associated with a hospital stay >14 days in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective observational study design was used. Laboratory data were obtained from an SA private laboratory for 642 inpatients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia, comprising 7 months of admission laboratory data from six private hospitals in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province. RESULTS: Of 642 hospital admissions for pneumonia, 497 were confirmed to have COVID-19 infection (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test positive). In the COVID-19-positive group, hospital LoS was prolonged in 35.4% of admissions. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association with the following risk factors for prolonged LoS: older age; male sex; high serum creatinine, sodium (Na), chloride, potassium and urea levels and low estimated glomerular filtration rate; raised white blood cell count, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and an elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); and elevated levels of D-dimers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and procalcitonin (PCT). The strongest univariate associations (relative risk (RR) ≥2.0) with a hospital stay >14 days were high Na levels, NRL >18, high PCT levels and IL-6 >40 pg/mL. On multivariable analysis, the following factors remained significantly associated with prolonged LoS: older age (RR 1.015 per year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005 - 1.024); hypernatraemia (RR 1.80; 95% CI 1.25 - 2.60); hyperkalaemia (RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.18 - 2.20); and neutrophilia (RR 1.47; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.88). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic preparedness requires hospital-based inpatient care to be prioritised in resource-limited settings, and availability of beds and prompt admissions are essential to ensure good clinical outcomes. In this study of COVID-19 patients admitted with pneumonia, multivariable analysis showed older age, hypernatraemia, hyperkalaemia and neutrophilia to be associated with LoS >14 days. This may assist with healthcare systems planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 121: 57-64, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of the hospital environment as contributory to healthcare acquisition of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasingly recognized. Ultraviolet light decontamination can minimize the environmental bioburden, thereby potentially reducing healthcare acquisition. This effect has been demonstrated for typical environmental MDROs, e.g. meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant entero-cocci, and Clostridioides difficile; however, its role in reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) incidence rates is unclear. AIM: To evaluate the impact of continuous ultraviolet light (C-UV) on healthcare acquisition rates of CRE. METHODS: A 26-month pragmatic, prospective interventional study with addition of C-UV decontamination to standard cleaning was conducted in units at high risk for CRE acquisition. Introduction of C-UV followed a 12 month baseline period, with a two-month wash-in period. Implementation included terminal decontamination at discharge and a novel in-use protocol, whereby rooms occupied for ≥48 h were decontaminated during the course of the patients' in-hospital stay. Incidence density rates of CRE during the intervention period were compared to the baseline period using interrupted time series regression. Rates were adjusted for ward/admission prevalence and analysed according to C-UV protocol. FINDINGS: The in-use C-UV protocol demonstrated a significant negative association with the incidence density rate of CRE when adjusting for CRE admission rate (P = 0.0069). CRE incidence density rates decreased significantly during the intervention period (P = 0.042). Non-intervention units demonstrated no change in incidence density rates when adjusting for ward and/or admission prevalence. CONCLUSION: C-UV decontamination can potentially reduce healthcare acquisition of CRE when implemented with an in-use protocol.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Delivery of Health Care , Disinfection/methods , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , Ultraviolet Rays
4.
Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med ; 27(2)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) manifests with a range of disease severities. A small proportion of COVID-19 patients are severely ill; however, a significant proportion of these patients are critically ill, and require admission and mechanical ventilation, which is associated with a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that may predispose patients with COVID-19 to severe disease that requires mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: We performed a retrospective audit of patients admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia to the intensive care unit (ICU) and medical wards to evaluate the potential associations between comorbid conditions, lymphopenia and IgG subclass deficiency with a need for MV. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in the study. Almost half of the patients (47%; n=24) were documented to have IgG2 deficiency, 43% (n=22) had lymphopenia and 37% (n=19) had combined lymphopenia and IgG2 subclass deficiency. Of the 24 patients who required MV, 75% had IgG2 subclass deficiency, 73% had lymphopenia and 50% had both. The relative risk for requiring MV was 2.64, 3.38 and 2.81 for lymphopenia, IgG2 subclass deficiency and both, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lymphopenia, low IgG2 concentrations or the combination of both may be used to identify patients with severe COVID-19 that are at increased risk for MV. This may facilitate earlier identification of patients at high risk, who may benefit from more intensive therapy.

5.
S Afr J Surg ; 59(1): 2-6, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 25% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) will be diagnosed with CRC liver metastases (CRCLM) during the course of their disease. No data regarding CRCLM presentation, management and survival outcomes has been published from either the private or public health care sectors in South Africa. This study aimed to address this deficit, reporting on a private sector cohort. METHODS: A retrospective review of a private health care funder's database from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015 was performed. ICD-10 diagnosis codes were used to identify CRC and CRCLM. Procedure codes assigned to hospital admissions were used to identify the type of surgical treatment. Chemotherapy was identified by the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system of medicines. Treatment patterns were assessed and five-year overall survival (OS) was calculated. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional-hazards regression was used for between group survival comparisons. RESULTS: Six hundred and one (601) of 3 412 patients presenting with CRC (17.6%) were diagnosed with CRCLM at presentation or during the follow-up period. Sixty patients with CRCLM (10.0%) underwent resection of the primary CRC and liver resection for metastases, 281 (46.8%) underwent CRC resection only, 180 (30%) received chemotherapy only, and 47 (7.8%) received no treatment. Five-year OS for these groups were 57.3%, 15.6%, 9.8% and 0% respectively. CONCLUSION: Five-year OS of the various CRCLM treatment pathways in a South African private sector population compares to results published in international series. However, a smaller proportion of patients with CRCLM underwent liver resection, compared to international studies.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Liver Neoplasms , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Hepatectomy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(12): 1186-1190, 2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, there are no national guidelines for the conduct or quality assessment of colonoscopy, the gold standard for investigation and diagnosis of bowel pathology. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical profile of patients and evaluate the practice of colonoscopy using procedural quality indicators at the Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre (WDGMC) outpatient endoscopy unit (OEU). METHODS: We conducted a prospective, clinical practice audit of colonoscopies performed on adults (≥18 years of age). A total of 1 643 patients were included in the study and variables that were collected enabled the assessment of adequacy of bowel preparation, length of withdrawal time and calculation of caecal intubation rate (CIR), polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). We stratified PDR and ADR by sex, age, population group, withdrawal time and bowel preparation. CIR, PDR and ADR estimates were compared between patient groups by the χ2 test; Fisher's exact test was used for 2 × 2 tables. A p-value <0.05 was used. Benchmark recommendations by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE)/American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Task Force on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) were used in this audit to assess individual endoscopist performance and that of the endoscopy unit as a whole. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 55.7 (standard deviation (SD) 14.4; range 18 - 91) years, ~60% were female, and the majority (75.5%) were white. Of the outpatients, 77.6% had adequate bowel preparation (ASGE/ACG benchmark ≥85%). The CIR was 97.0% overall, and screening colonoscopy was 96.3% (ASGE/ACG benchmark ≥90% overall and ≥95% for screening colonoscopies). The median withdrawal time for negative-result screening colonoscopies was 5.7 minutes (interquartile range (IQR) 4.2 - 9.3; range 1.1 - 20.6) (ASGE/ACG benchmark ≥ 6minutes), and PDR and ADR were 27.6% and 15.6%, respectively (ASGE/ACG benchmark ADR ≥25%). We demonstrated a 23.7% increase in PDR and 14.1% increase in ADR between scopes that had mean withdrawal times of ≥6 minutes and <6 minutes, respectively. Although the number of black Africans in the study was relatively small, our results showed that they have similar ADRs and PDRs to the white population group, contradicting popular belief. CONCLUSIONS: The WDGMC OEU performed reasonably well against the international guidelines, despite some inadequacy in bowel preparation and lower than recommended median withdrawal times on negative-result colonoscopy. Annual auditing of clinical practice and availability of these data in the public domain will become standard of care, making this audit a baseline for longitudinal observation, assessing the impact of interventions, and contributing to the development of local guidelines.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnosis , Colonic Polyps/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , Benchmarking , Colonic Polyps/epidemiology , Colonoscopy/standards , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Medical Audit , Middle Aged , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prospective Studies , Quality Indicators, Health Care , South Africa , Young Adult
7.
S Afr Med J ; 110(11): 1128-1133, 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (50 - 82%) and is associated with multi-organ dysfunction. Vitamin D deficiency alters pathways of glutamine metabolism in critical illness, but the impact of vitamin D status on glutamine levels is poorly characterised. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with organ dysfunction and glutamine levels in a South African (SA) ICU. METHODS: Records of 103 adult patients admitted to the Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre ICU, Johannesburg, SA were retrospectively reviewed. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and glutamine levels were measured on admission. The association between admission vitamin D levels and glutamine levels, illness severity scores, organ support and outcomes was examined. RESULTS: On ICU admission, 66% (68/103) of patients were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) (95% confidence interval (CI) 56 - 75). Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation (40% v. 14%) (p=0.013) and a higher median sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on admission (6 (interquartile range (IQR) 3 - 8) v. 4 (IQR 2 - 6)) (p=0.047) and on day 7 (5 (IQR 2 - 10) v. 2 (IQR 1 - 4)) (p=0.017). Median admission serum glutamine levels were 481 µmol/L, with 38% deficient (<420 µmol/L) (95% CI 28 - 48). Vitamin D deficiency status on admission was not significantly associated with median admission glutamine levels (p=0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is common in ICU patients in SA. Deficient patients were more severely ill and required more respiratory support. No significant relationship between deficiency and median glutamine levels was noted.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness/epidemiology , Glutamine/blood , Intensive Care Units , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , South Africa , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis
8.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 382-388, 2020 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Colorectal Cancer South Africa (CRCSA) study is an observational cohort of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Johannesburg, South Africa (SA). We found that the mean age at the time of CRC diagnosis was 56.6 years, consistent with studies from SA and sub-Saharan Africa. In high-income settings, comorbidity adversely affects CRC survival, and patients are substantially older at the time of CRC diagnosis. Given the younger age at CRC diagnosis in the CRCSA cohort, we hypothesised that comorbidity may be less prevalent and have little impact on CRC survival. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of comorbidity and whether comorbidity adversely affects overall survival (OS) of CRC patients. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the CRCSA study between January 2016 and July 2018 were included. The cohort comprised a convenience sample of adults with histologically confirmed CRC, treated at the University of the Witwatersrand Academic Teaching Hospital Complex. Demographic, clinical and histological variables were collected at baseline and participants were followed up for OS. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scoring system was used to classify participants as 'no comorbidity' (CCI score 0) and '1 or more comorbidities' (CCI score ≥1). A descriptive analysis of the cohort was undertaken, while survival across comorbidity groups was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models. Multivariable Cox PH regression was performed to examine the effect of comorbidity on survival (unadjusted) and then adjusted for variables. RESULTS: There were 424 participants, and the mean (standard deviation) age was 56.6 (14.1) years (range 18 - 91). Only 19.1% of participants had ≥1 comorbidities, of which diabetes mellitus was most frequent (12.3%), followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (4.7%) and cardiovascular disease (3.1%). There was no significant difference in unadjusted and adjusted risk of death for the group with ≥1 comorbidities compared with those with no comorbidity. However, an incidental finding showed a significantly increased risk of death for those receiving potentially curative treatment later than 40 days after CRC diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: In the CRCSA cohort from Johannesburg, comorbidity is uncommon, with no significant adverse effect on OS. If potentially curative treatment is initiated within 40 days of CRC diagnosis, OS could be improved. To fully understand the epidemiology of CRC in SA, population-based registries are essential, and future research should aim to identify health system failures that lead to delays in intervention beyond 40 days in patients with CRC.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Comorbidity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Sampling Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
S Afr J Surg ; 57(3): 6-10, 2019 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For those with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation is considered the treatment of choice. Since 2006, the transplant programme at Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre (WDGMC) has offered liver transplantation for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. While the number of patients transplanted was small, we are unaware of any published data from Southern Africa describing outcomes in this group of liver transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to describe our experience as a case series. METHODS: The records of all patients with HCC who underwent deceased donor liver transplantation between April 2006 and March 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were extracted from transplant clinic patient files, histopathology and pathology laboratory reports and an existing database of all liver transplant recipients at WDGMC. Patient survival was calculated from the time of transplant and survival estimates were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Thirty-one liver transplants were reviewed. The most common causes of underlying liver disease were infectious, mostly hepatitis B virus, and diseases of lifestyle including alcoholic/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Median age at transplant, 57 years (IQR 44-65 years), was younger than observed internationally, but consistent with reports from Africa. Male recipients predominated, in keeping with published trends. Overall, outcomes were worse than expected but for recipients who were within the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) criteria for transplantation; survival was comparable to previously published data. CONCLUSION: Despite limitations, this is the first documented series of patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCC in South Africa and demonstrates that good results can be achieved in appropriately selected patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , South Africa , Survival Rate
10.
S Afr Med J ; 108(11): 929-936, 2018 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is the standard of care for the treatment of liver failure worldwide, yet millions of people living in sub-Saharan Africa remain without access to these services. South Africa (SA) has two liver transplant centres, one in Cape Town and the other in Johannesburg, where Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre (WDGMC) started an adult liver transplant programme in 2004. OBJECTIVES:  To describe the outcomes of the adult liver transplant programme at WDGMC. METHODS:  This was a retrospective review of all adult orthotopic liver transplants performed at WDGMC from 16 August 2004 to 30 June 2016 with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. The primary outcome was recipient and graft survival and the effect of covariates on survival. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis included all adults who underwent their first transplant for end-stage liver disease (ESLD) (N=275). Proportional hazards regression analysis using hazard ratios (HRs) was conducted to determine which covariates were associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. RESULTS:  A total of 297 deceased-donor liver transplants were performed during the study period; 19/297 (6.4%) were for acute liver failure (ALF) and the remainder were for ESLD. The median age of recipients was 51 years (interquartile range 41 - 59), and two-thirds were male. The most common cause of ESLD was primary sclerosing cholangitis. The median follow-up was 3.2 years, and recipient survival was characterised in the following intervals: 90 days = 87.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83.1 - 91.0), 1 year = 81.7% (95% CI 76.6 - 85.8), and 5 years = 71.0% (95% CI 64.5 - 76.5). Allograft survival was similar: 90 days = 85.8% (95% CI 81.1 - 89.4), 1 year = 81.0% (95% CI 75.8 - 85.2), and 5 years = 69.1% (95% CI 62.6 - 74.7). The most significant covariates that impacted on mortality were postoperative biliary leaks (HR 2.0 (95% CI 1.05 - 3.80)), recipient age >60 years at time of transplant (HR 2.06 (95% CI 1.06 - 3.99)), theatre time >8  hours (HR 3.13 (95% CI 1.79 - 5.48)), and hepatic artery thrombosis (HR 5.58 (95% CI 3.09 - 10.08)). The most common infectious cause of death was invasive fungal infection. CONCLUSIONS:  This study demonstrates that outcomes of the adult orthotopic liver transplant programme at WDGMC are comparable with international transplant centres. Management of biliary complications, early hepatic artery thrombosis and post-transplant infections needs to be improved. Access to liver transplantation services is still extremely limited, but can be improved by addressing the national shortage of deceased donors and establishing a national regulatory body for solid-organ transplantation in SA.

11.
S Afr Med J ; 108(5): 403-407, 2018 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is a potentially life-threatening condition that is becoming increasingly common. A persistent burden of this infectious illness has been demonstrated over the past 4 years at Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre (WDGMC), Johannesburg, South Africa, through implementation of active surveillance of hospital-acquired infections as part of the infection prevention and control programme. Oral treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin is recommended, but there is a major problem with symptomatic recurrence after treatment. Replacement of normal flora by the administration of donor stool through colonoscopy or nasogastric/duodenal routes is becoming increasingly popular. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for the development of CDAD in patients referred for faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) and evaluate the safety of administration of donor stool as an outpatient procedure, including via the nasogastric route. METHODS: A retrospective record review of patients with recurrent CDAD referred for FMT at WDGMC between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016 was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were identified, all of whom fulfilled the criteria for recurrent CDAD. One-third were aged >65 years, and the majority were female. The most common risk factors were prior exposure to antibiotics or proton-pump inhibitors and underlying inflammatory bowel disease. Three procedures were carried out as inpatients and 24 in the outpatient gastroenterology unit. At 4-week follow-up, all patients reported clinical resolution of their diarrhoea after a single treatment and there were no recurrences. The FMT procedure was associated with no morbidity (with particular reference to the risk of aspiration when administered via the nasogastric route) or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This case series confirms that FMT is a safe and effective therapy for recurrent CDAD. In most cases it can be administered via the nasogastric route in the outpatient department. We propose that the recently published South African Gastroenterology Society guidelines be reviewed with regard to recommendations for the route of administration of FMT and hospital admission. Meticulous prescription practice by clinicians practising in hospitals and outpatient settings, with particular attention to antimicrobials and chronic medication, is urgently required to prevent this debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Cross Infection , Diarrhea/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Metronidazole , Vancomycin , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Intubation, Gastrointestinal/methods , Male , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Recurrence , South Africa/epidemiology , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/adverse effects
12.
S Afr Med J ; 108(2): 118-122, 2018 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in South Africa (SA), and the sixth most lethal. Approximately 25% of patients will have synchronous metastatic disease at the time of their primary CRC diagnosis. Although chemotherapy is used in most stages of the disease, surgical resection of the primary tumour and metastases remains the most successful treatment modality to achieve cure or prolong survival. To date, no data on CRC presentation and management have been published in SA. OBJECTIVES: To determine CRC presentation, general management patterns and overall survival in the SA private healthcare sector. METHODS: A retrospective review of a private healthcare funder's database from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revision) (ICD-10) diagnosis codes were used to identify colorectal cancer and liver and/or pulmonary metastatic disease. Procedure codes assigned to hospital admissions were used to identify type of surgical treatment. Chemotherapy was identified by the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System of medicines. Treatment patterns were determined and 5-year survival rates for these were calculated. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression was used for between-group comparisons of survival. Data analysis was carried out using SAS version 9.4 for Windows. RESULTS: A total of 3 412 patients were included in the study, 2 267 with CRC only and 1 145 with liver (LM) or pulmonary metastases (PM). The mean age was 64.1 years (range 21 - 97), and 54.6% were male; these did not differ statistically between the study groups. Twenty percent of patients with LM or PM underwent surgical resection of their metastases. Five-year survival rates following surgical resection of all disease for CRC only, CRCLM, CRCPM and CRCLMPM were 71.7%, 57.3%, 31.5% and 26.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SA CRC patients treated in the private healthcare sector have similar disease presentation to that in published international series, with similar outcomes following various treatment pathways; however, it seems that fewer resections of metastases are undertaken compared with international trends.

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