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1.
J Clin Virol Plus ; : 100103, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028189

ABSTRACT

There is a massive demand to identify alternative methods to detect new cases of COVID-19 as well as to investigate the epidemiology of the disease. In many countries, importation of commercial kits poses a significant impact on their testing capacity and increases the costs for the public health system. We have developed an ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using a recombinant viral nucleocapsid (rN) protein expressed in E. coli. Using a total of 894 clinical samples we showed that the rN-ELISA was able to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 with high sensitivity (97.5%) and specificity (96.3%) when compared to a commercial antibody test. After three external validation studies, we showed that the test accuracy was higher than 90%. The rN-ELISA IgG kit constitutes a convenient and specific method for the large-scale determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human sera with high reliability.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4831, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991599

ABSTRACT

Both T cells and B cells have been shown to be generated after infection with SARS-CoV-2 yet protocols or experimental models to study one or the other are less common. Here, we generate a chimeric protein (SpiN) that comprises the receptor binding domain (RBD) from Spike (S) and the nucleocapsid (N) antigens from SARS-CoV-2. Memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for SpiN could be detected in the blood of both individuals vaccinated with Coronavac SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and COVID-19 convalescent donors. In mice, SpiN elicited a strong IFN-γ response by T cells and high levels of antibodies to the inactivated virus, but not detectable neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Importantly, immunization of Syrian hamsters and the human Angiotensin Convertase Enzyme-2-transgenic (K18-ACE-2) mice with Poly ICLC-adjuvanted SpiN promotes robust resistance to the wild type SARS-CoV-2, as indicated by viral load, lung inflammation, clinical outcome and reduction of lethality. The protection induced by SpiN was ablated by depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and not transferred by antibodies from vaccinated mice. Finally, vaccination with SpiN also protects the K18-ACE-2 mice against infection with Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Hence, vaccine formulations that elicit effector T cells specific for the N and RBD proteins may be used to improve COVID-19 vaccines and potentially circumvent the immune escape by variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Nucleocapsid , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 2(3): 100101, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977454

ABSTRACT

There is a massive demand to identify alternative methods to detect new cases of COVID-19 as well as to investigate the epidemiology of the disease. In many countries, importation of commercial kits poses a significant impact on their testing capacity and increases the costs for the public health system. We have developed an ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using a recombinant viral nucleocapsid (rN) protein expressed in E. coli. Using a total of 894 clinical samples we showed that the rN-ELISA was able to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 with high sensitivity (97.5%) and specificity (96.3%) when compared to a commercial antibody test. After three external validation studies, we showed that the test accuracy was higher than 90%. The rN-ELISA IgG kit constitutes a convenient and specific method for the large-scale determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human sera with high reliability.

4.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715785

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have indicated that antibody responses can be robustly induced after the vaccination in individuals previously infected by SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses in vaccinated individuals with or without a previous history of COVID-19, we compared levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the sera from 21 vaccinees, including COVID-19-recovered or -naïve individuals in different times, before and after immunization with an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies elicited after COVID-19 and/or immunization with an inactivated vaccine were measured by ELISA and Plaque Reduction Neutralizing assays. Antibody kinetics were consistently different between the two vaccine doses for naïve individuals, contrasting with the SARS-CoV-2-recovered subjects in which we observed no additional increase in antibody levels following the second dose. Sera from SARS-CoV2-naïve individuals had no detectable neutralizing activity against lineage B.1 SARS-CoV-2 or Gamma variant five months after the second vaccine dose. Contrarily, SARS-CoV-2-recovered subjects retained considerable neutralizing activity against both viruses. We conclude that a single inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose may be sufficient to induce protective antibody responses in individuals with previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 594-602, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759596
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