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1.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 44(3): 230-236, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134266

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore a modified CT scoring system, its feasibility for disease severity evaluation and its predictive value in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: This study was a multi-center retrospective cohort study. Patients confirmed with COVID-19 were recruited in three medical centers located in Beijing, Wuhan and Nanchang from January 27, 2020 to March 8, 2020. Demographics, clinical data, and CT images were collected. CT were analyzed by two emergency physicians of more than ten years' work experience independently through a modified scoring system. Final score was determined by average score from the two reviewers if consensus was not reached. The lung was divided into 6 zones (upper, middle, and lower on both sides) by the level of trachea carina and the level of lower pulmonary veins. The target lesion types included ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, overall lung involvement, and crazy-paving pattern. Bronchiectasis, cavity, pleural effusion, etc., were not included in CT reading and analysis because of low incidence. The reviewers evaluated the extent of the targeted patterns (GGO, consolidation) and overall affected lung parenchyma for each zone, using Likert scale, ranging from 0-4 (0=absent; 1=1%-25%; 2=26%-50%; 3=51%-75%; 4=76%-100%). Thus, GGO score, consolidation score, and overall lung involvement score were sum of 6 zones ranging from 0-24. For crazy-paving pattern, it was only coded as absent or present (0 or 1) for each zone and therefore ranging from 0-6. Results: A total of 197 patients from 3 medical centers and 522 CT scans entered final analysis. The median age of the patients was 64 years, and 54.8% were male. There were 76(38.8%) patients had hypertension and 30(15.3%) patients had diabetes mellitus. There were 75 of the patients classified as moderate cases, as well as 95 severe cases and 27 critical cases. As initial symptom, dry cough occurred in 170 patients, 134 patients had fever, and 125 patients had dyspnea. Reparatory rate, oxygen saturation, lymphocyte count and CURB 65 score on admission day varied among patients with different disease severity scale. There were 50 of the patients suffered from deterioration during hospital stay. The median time consumed for each CT by clinicians was 86.5 seconds. Cronbach's alpha for GGO, consolidation, crazy-paving pattern, and overall lung involvement between two clinicians were 0.809, 0.712, 0.678, and 0.906, respectively, showing good or excellent inter-rater correlation. There were 193 (98.0%) patients had GGO, 147 (74.6%) had consolidation, and 126(64.0%) had crazy-paving pattern throughout clinical course. Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 183(92.9%) patients. Median time of interval for CT scan in our study was 7 days so that the whole clinical course was divided into stages by week for further analysis. From the second week on, the CT scores of various types of lesions in severe or critically patients were higher than those of moderate cases. After the fifth week, the course of disease entered the recovery period. The CT score of the upper lung zones was lower than that of other zones in moderate and severe cases. Similar distribution was not observed in critical patients. For moderate cases, the ground glass opacity score at the second week had predictive value for the escalation of the severity classification during hospitalization. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849, the best cut-off value was 5 points, with sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 75.0%. Conclusions: It is feasible for clinicians to use the modified semi-quantitative CT scoring system to evaluate patients with COVID-19. Severe/critical patients had higher scores for ground glass opacity, consolidation, crazy-paving pattern, and overall lung involvement than moderate cases. The ground glass opacity score in the second week had an optimal predictive value for escalation of disease severity during hospitalization in moderate patients on admission. The frequency of CT scan should be reduced after entering the recovery stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , China , Female , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
2.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(1):159-166, 2020.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1064018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for acute myocardial injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a COVID-19 cohort, in which 149 confirmed COVID-19 patients enrolled were divided into the group of myocardial injury (19 cases) and the group of non-myocardial injury (130 cases). Myocardial injury was defined according to Fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction released by European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in 2018, that cardiac troponin (cTn) was above 99th percentile of the reference level. Clinical information and results of laboratory tests of the eligible patients were collected. Factors associated with myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients were evaluated. RESULTS: Compared with the group of non-injury, the patients in the group of injury were older and had a larger proportion of severe or critical cases (P < 0.05), higher respiratory rate and lower percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) without oxygen therapy on admission (P < 0.05). All inflammatory indexes except for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significant elevation in the patients of the group of injury (P < 0.05). Analyzed by Spearman correlation test, we showed that the levels of circulatory cTnI were in positive correlation with the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), ferritin, receptor of interleukin-2 (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (ρ > 0, P < 0.05). Lower SpO(2) without oxygen therapy on admission (OR: 0.860, 95%CI: 0.779-0.949, P=0.003) and higher plasma IL-6 levels (OR: 1.068, 95%CI: 1.019-1.120, P=0.006) were independent risk factors for acute myocardial injury in the patients with COVID-19 by multivariate Logistic regression analyses. CONCLUSION: Hypoxic state and inflammation may play a key role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6):1075-1081, 2020.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-979345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the differences in lymphocyte subsets in patients with different clinical classifications of corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19). METHODS: Eighty-one patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the isolation ward under the responsibility of three medical aid teams in the Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, from February 8, 2020 to March 28, 2020, were selected to collect clinical data. According to the relevant diagnostic criteria, the disease status of the patients was classified into moderate cases (n=35), severe cases (n=39) and critical cases (n=7) when lymphocyte subset testing was performed. Their blood routine tests, lymphocyte subsets and other indicators were tested to compare whether there were differences in each indicator between the patients of different clinical classification groups. RESULTS: The differences in the absolute count of total lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, CD4(+)T-lymphocytes, CD8(+)T-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells among the three groups of patients were all statistically significant (P < 0.05), and the critical cases were significantly lower than the moderate and severe cases in the above indicators, and the indicators showed a decreasing trend with the severity of the disease. In 22 patients, the six indicators of the absolute count of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, CD4(+)T-lymphocytes, CD8(+)T-lymphocytes and NK cells, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio were all within the normal reference range in the first test, and 59 patients had abnormalities of the above indicators, with the absolute count of NK cells and CD8(+) T lymphocytes decreasing most frequently (61%, 56%). The patients with the absolute count of NK cells and CD8(+) T lymphocytes below the normal reference range were one group, and the remaining abnormal patients were the other group. There were more critical cases in the former group (moderate : severe : critical cases were 4 : 8 : 7 vs. 19 : 21 : 0, respectively, P=0.001), and all the deaths were in this group (6 cases vs. 0 case, P=0.001). The absolute B lymphocyte count was below the normal reference range in 15 patients, and the remaining 64 cases were within the normal range. The ratio of moderate, severe and critical cases in the reduced group was 4 : 7 : 4, and the ratio of critical cases was more in normal group which was 30 : 31 : 3, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.043). CONCLUSION: The more critical the clinical subtype of patients with COVID-19, the lower the absolute count of each subset of lymphocytes.

4.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5):803-808, 2020.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-847673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental contamination degree of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, to offer gui-dance for the infection control and to improve safety practices for medical staff, by sampling and detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from the air of hospital wards, the high-frequency contact surfaces in the contaminated area and the surfaces of medical staff's protective equipment in a COVID-19 designated hospital in Wuhan, China. METHODS: From March 11 to March 19, 2020, we collected air samples from the clean area, the buffer room and the contaminated area respectively in the COVID-19 wards using a portable bioaerosol concentrator WA-15. And sterile premoistened swabs were used to sample the high-frequency contacted surfaces in the contaminated area and the surfaces of medical staff's protective equipment including outermost gloves, tracheotomy operator's positive pressure respiratory protective hood and isolation clothing. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid of the samples were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. During the isolation medical observation period, those medical staff who worked in the COVID-19 wards were detected for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid with oropharyngeal swabs, IgM and IgG antibody in the sera, and chest CT scans to confirm the infection status of COVID-19. RESULTS: No SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in the tested samples, including the 90 air samples from the COVID-19 wards including clean area, buffer room and contaminated area, the 38 high-frequency contact surfaces samples of the contaminated area and 16 surface samples of medical staff's protective equipment including outermost gloves and isolation clothing. Moreover, detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by oropharyngeal swabs and IgM, IgG antibodies in the sera of all the health-care workers who participated in the treatment for COVID-19 were all negative. Besides, no chest CT scan images of medical staff exhibited COVID-19 lung presentations. CONCLUSION: Good ventilation conditions, strict disinfection of environmental facilities in hospital wards, guidance for correct habits in patients, and strict hand hygiene during medical staff are important to reduce the formation of viral aerosols, cut down the aerosol load, and avoid cross-infection in isolation wards. In the face of infectious diseases that were not fully mastered but ma-naged as class A, it is safe for medical personnel to be equipped at a high level.

5.
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences ; 52(4):780-784, 2020.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724913

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus is a newly discovered pathogen in late December 2019, and its source is currently unknown, which can lead to asymptomatic infection, new coronavirus pneumonia or serious complications, such as acute respiratory failure. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new type of respiratory disease that is currently spreading all over the world and caused by this coronavirus. Its common symptoms are highly similar to those of other viruses, such as fever, cough and dyspnea. There is currently no vaccine or treatment for COVID-19. Everyone is susceptible to infection with this disease, and owing to the long-term use of immunosuppressants, the immunity of kidney transplant recipients is suppressed, and it is more likely to be infected with the disease. At present, its impact on kidney transplant recipients is unclear. This article reports the clinical features and therapeutic course of novel coronavirus infection in a patient after renal transplantation. A 37-year-old female patient who received a kidney transplant 6 months before was diagnosed with novel coronavirus pneumonia. The patient's symptoms (such as fever, chills, dry cough, muscle aches), laboratory tests (such as decreased white blood cell count, elevated liver enzymes and D-dimer, positive viral nucleic acid test), and chest CT (multiple left lower lung plaque ground glass shadow) were similar to those of non-transplanted novel coronavirus pneumonia patients. In terms of treatment, because the immunity of kidney transplant recipients has been suppressed for a long time, it is a very common strategy to suspend the use of immunosuppressive agents. Therefore, the patient immediately discontinued the immunosuppressive agent after admission, so that she could restore immunity against infection in a short time. At the same time, the use of glucocorticoids was also very important. Its immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects played a large role in the treatment process.In addition, prophylactic antibiotics was needed, and nephrotoxic drugs should be used with caution. Finally, following discounting the use of immunosuppressant and a low-dose glucocorticoid-based treatment regimen, COVID-19 in this renal transplant recipient was successfully cured. The cure of this case was of great significance, and this adjuvant nonspecific antiviral therapy could provide a template for the treatment of other such patients.

6.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; 55(9):671-678, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-703883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the related guidelines of nutrition support therapy (hereinafter referred to as nutrition support) in acute respiratory disease, and to provide evidence-based evidences for clinical nutrition in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Retrieved from PubMed, EMBase, CNKI, etc., websites of association in nutrition and global guideline databases. The guidelines in nutrition support for related diseases were collected. Recommendations were summarized after data extraction and quality evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 10 guidelines were enrolled, with development time ranging from 2006 to 2019. There were 6 guidelines with quality of level A, 3 with level B, and 1 with level C. “scope and purpose”, “clarity” and “independence” showed the higher scores in AGREE Ⅱ, and “applicability” showed generally low scores. There were differences among emphases of guidelines, however, supplements for each other, and the recommendations for the same questions showed substantial agreement. CONCLUSION: The recommendations, in high quality guidelines of critical illness, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, etc., could be applied to nutrition support in COVID-19.

7.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(3): 420-424, 2020 Jun 18.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of myocardial injury upon corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection remain unknown,evidence of impact on outcome is insufficient, therefore, we aim to investigate the risk factors for death among COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes in this study. METHODS: This was a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Patients of Sino-French Eco-City section of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China attended by Peking University Supporting Medical Team and admitted from Jan. 29, 2020 to Mar. 20, 2020 were included. The positive nucleic acid of COVID-19 virus and combination with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes were in the standard. We collected the clinical data and laboratory examination results of the eligible patients to evaluate the related factors of death. RESULTS: In the study, 94 COVID-19 patients enrolled were divided into the group of death (13 cases) and the group of survivors (81 cases), the average age was 66.7 years. Compared with the survival group, the death group had faster basal heart rate(103.2 beats/min vs. 88.4 beats /min, P=0.004), shortness of breath(29.0 beats /min vs. 20.0 beats /min, P<0.001), higher neutrophil count(9.2×109/L vs. 3.8×109/L, P<0.001), lower lymphocyte count(0.5×109/L vs. 1.1×109/L, P<0.001), creatine kinase MB(CK-MB, 3.2 µg/L vs. 0.8 µg/L, P<0.001), high sensitivity cardiac troponin Ⅰ(hs-cTnⅠ, 217.2 ng/L vs. 4.9 ng/L, P<0.001), N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP; 945.0 µg/L vs. 154.0 µg/L, P<0.001), inflammatory factor ferritin(770.2 µg/L vs. 622.8 µg/L , P=0.050), interleukin-2 recepter(IL-2R, 1 586.0 U/mL vs. 694.0 U/mL, P<0.001), interleukin-6(IL-6, 82.3 ng/L vs. 13.0 ng/L, P<0.001), interleukin-10(IL-10, 9.8 ng/L vs. 5.0 ng/L, P<0.001)were higher than those in the survival group. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, abnormal increase of IL 2R, IL-6, and IL-10. Multivariate regression showed that old age (OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.03-1.19, P=0.026), low non oxygen saturation(OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.72-0.99, P=0.041), and abnormal increase of IL-10(>9.1 ng/L, OR=101.93, 95%CI=4.74-2190.71, P=0.003)were independent risk factors for COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients combined with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes, the risk factors for death were old age, low non oxygen saturation, low lymphocyte count, myocardial injury, and abnormal increase of IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-10. Old age, low non oxygen saturation and abnormal increase of IL-10 were independent risk factors.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Jun;
Non-conventional in Zhu Lan Gong Nianqiao Liu Bin Lu Xia zhen Dong zhen Song Shu Hongge Ma Ke Xu Xizhen Guo zhiliang Lu enfen zhen Dongrui Ge Qinggang cai Junzhao Jiang Jipin Wei Lai zhang Weijie zhen Gang zhen zhishui 1873-7560 | Jun | ID: covidwho-625435
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