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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22270799

ABSTRACT

IntroductionViral sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has been used for outbreak investigation, but there is limited evidence supporting routine use for infection prevention and control (IPC) within hospital settings. MethodsWe conducted a prospective non-randomised trial of sequencing at 14 acute UK hospital trusts. Sites each had a 4-week baseline data-collection period, followed by intervention periods comprising 8 weeks of rapid (<48h) and 4 weeks of longer-turnaround (5-10 day) sequencing using a sequence reporting tool (SRT). Data were collected on all hospital onset COVID-19 infections (HOCIs; detected [≥]48h from admission). The impact of the sequencing intervention on IPC knowledge and actions, and on incidence of probable/definite hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) was evaluated. ResultsA total of 2170 HOCI cases were recorded from October 2020-April 2021, with sequence reports returned for 650/1320 (49.2%) during intervention phases. We did not detect a statistically significant change in weekly incidence of HAIs in longer-turnaround (IRR 1.60, 95%CI 0.85-3.01; P=0.14) or rapid (0.85, 0.48-1.50; P=0.54) intervention phases compared to baseline phase. However, IPC practice was changed in 7.8% and 7.4% of all HOCI cases in rapid and longer-turnaround phases, respectively, and 17.2% and 11.6% of cases where the report was returned. In a per-protocol sensitivity analysis there was an impact on IPC actions in 20.7% of HOCI cases when the SRT report was returned within 5 days. ConclusionWhile we did not demonstrate a direct impact of sequencing on the incidence of nosocomial transmission, our results suggest that sequencing can inform IPC response to HOCIs, particularly when returned within 5 days.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260247

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCOVID-19 has restricted singing in communal worship. We sought to understand variations in droplet transmission and the impact of wearing face masks. MethodsUsing rapid laser planar imaging, we measured droplets while participants exhaled, said hello or snake, sang a note or Happy Birthday, with and without surgical face masks. We measured mean velocity magnitude (MVM), time averaged droplet number (TADN) and maximum droplet number (MDN). Multilevel regression models were used. ResultsIn 20 participants, sound intensity was 71 Decibels (dB) for speaking and 85 dB for singing (p<0.001). MVM was similar for all tasks with no clear hierarchy between vocal tasks or people and >85% reduction wearing face masks. Droplet transmission varied widely, particularly for singing. Masks decreased TADN by 99% (p<0.001) and MDN by 98% (p<0.001) for singing and 86-97% for other tasks. Masks reduced variance by up to 48%. When wearing a mask, neither singing task transmitted more droplets than exhaling. ConclusionsWide variation exists for droplet production. This significantly reduced when wearing face masks. Singing during religious worship wearing a face mask appears as safe as exhaling or talking. This has implications for UK public health guidance during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20123281

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesCOVID-19 is spreading in long-term care facilities with devastating outcomes worldwide, especially for people with chronic health conditions. There is a pressing need to adopt effective measures prevention and containment of in such settings. DesignRetrospective cohort study assessing the effect of enhanced surveillance and early preventative strategies and comparing outcomes for people with severe epilepsy and other comorbidities SettingThree long-term care facilities: Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy (CCE), St. Elisabeth (STE), and The Meath (TM) with different models of primary and specialist care involvement, in the United Kingdom Participants286 long-term residents (age range 19-91 years), 740 carers who had been in contact with the residents during the observation period between 16 March and 05 June 2020. InterventionsEarly preventative and infection control measures with identification and isolation of symptomatic cases, with additional enhanced surveillance and isolation of asymptomatic residents and carers at one site (CCE) Main outcome measuresInfection rate for SARS-CoV-2 among residents and carers, asymptomatic rate and case fatality rate, if available. ResultsDuring a 12-week observation period, we identified 29 people (13 residents) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive with confirmed outbreaks amongst residents in two long-term care facilities (CCE, STE). At CCE, two out of 98 residents were symptomatic and tested positive, one of whom died. A further seven individuals testing positive on weekly enhanced surveillance had a completely asymptomatic course. One asymptomatic carer tested positive after contact with confirmed COVID-19 patients in another institution. Since 30 April 2020, during on-site weekly enhanced surveillance all 275 caregivers tested repeatedly negative. At STE, three out of 146 residents were symptomatic and tested positive, a fourth tested positive during hospital admission for symptoms not related to COVID-19. Since April 6, 2020, 105/215 carers presenting with typical symptoms for COVID-19 were tested, of whom 15 tested positive. At TM, testing of symptomatic carers only started from early/mid-April, whilst on-site testing, even of symptomatic residents, was not available until recently. During the observation period, eight of 80 residents were symptomatic but none was tested. Twenty-six of 250 carers were symptomatic and were tested, of whom two tested positive. ConclusionsInfection outbreaks in long-term care facilities for vulnerable people with epilepsy can be quickly contained, but only if asymptomatic cases are identified through enhanced surveillance at individual and care staff level. We observed a low rate of morbidity and mortality which confirmed that preventative measures with isolation of suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19 can reduce resident-to-resident and reverse resident-to-carer transmission.

4.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-095414

ABSTRACT

Several related human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are endemic in the human population, causing mild respiratory infections1. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a recent zoonotic infection that has quickly reached pandemic proportions2,3. Zoonotic introduction of novel coronaviruses is thought to occur in the absence of pre-existing immunity in the target human population. Using diverse assays for detection of antibodies reactive with the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, we demonstrate the presence of pre-existing humoral immunity in uninfected and unexposed humans to the new coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive antibodies were readily detectable by a sensitive flow cytometry-based method in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals and were particularly prevalent in children and adolescents. These were predominantly of the IgG class and targeted the S2 subunit. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced higher titres of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IgG antibodies, targeting both the S1 and S2 subunits, as well as concomitant IgM and IgA antibodies, lasting throughout the observation period of 6 weeks since symptoms onset. SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera also variably reacted with SARS-CoV-2 S and nucleoprotein (N), but not with the S1 subunit or the receptor binding domain (RBD) of S on standard enzyme immunoassays. Notably, SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera exhibited specific neutralising activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotypes, according to levels of SARS-CoV-2 S-binding IgG and with efficiencies comparable to those of COVID-19 patient sera. Distinguishing pre-existing and de novo antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 will be critical for our understanding of susceptibility to and the natural course of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20071373

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has led to a pandemic infecting more than two million people worldwide in less than four months, posing a major threat to healthcare systems. This is compounded by the shortage of available tests causing numerous healthcare workers to unnecessarily self-isolate. We provide a roadmap instructing how a research institute can be repurposed in the midst of this crisis, in collaboration with partner hospitals and an established diagnostic laboratory, harnessing existing expertise in virus handling, robotics, PCR, and data science to derive a rapid, high throughput diagnostic testing pipeline for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in patients with suspected COVID-19. The pipeline is used to detect SARS-CoV-2 from combined nose-throat swabs and endotracheal secretions/ bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Notably, it relies on a series of in-house buffers for virus inactivation and the extraction of viral RNA, thereby reducing the dependency on commercial suppliers at times of global shortage. We use a commercial RT-PCR assay, from BGI, and results are reported with a bespoke online web application that integrates with the healthcare digital system. This strategy facilitates the remote reporting of thousands of samples a day with a turnaround time of under 24 hours, universally applicable to laboratories worldwide.

6.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-028316

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory tract infection. The standard molecular diagnostic test is a multistep process involving viral RNA extraction and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Laboratories across the globe face constraints on equipment and reagents during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have developed a simplified qRT-PCR assay that removes the need for an RNA extraction process and can be run on a real-time thermal cycler. The assay uses custom primers and probes, and maintains diagnostic sensitivity within 98.0% compared to the assay run on a high-throughput, random-access automated platform, the Panther Fusion (Hologic). This assay can be used to increase capacity for COVID-19 testing for national programmes worldwide.

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