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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Belief that vaccination is not needed for individuals with prior infection contributes to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Among individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 before vaccines became available, we assessed whether vaccinated individuals had reduced odds of reinfection. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among adult New York City residents who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, did not test positive again >90 days after initial positive test through July 1, 2021, and did not die before July 1, 2021. Case-patients with reinfection during July-November 2021 and control subjects with no reinfection were matched (1:3) on age, sex, timing of initial positive test in 2020, and neighborhood poverty level. Matched odds ratios (mOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 349,827 eligible adults, 2,583 were reinfected during July-November 2021. Of 2,401 with complete matching criteria data, 1,102 (45.9%) were known to be symptomatic for COVID-19-like-illness, and 96 (4.0%) were hospitalized. Unvaccinated individuals, compared with individuals fully vaccinated within the prior 90 days, had elevated odds of reinfection (mOR, 3.21; 95% CI, 2.70, 3.82), of symptomatic reinfection (mOR, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.31, 3.83), and of reinfection with hospitalization (mOR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.91, 4.79). All three vaccines authorized or approved for use in the U.S. were similarly effective. CONCLUSION: Vaccination reduced odds of reinfections when the Delta variant predominated. Further studies should assess risk of severe outcomes among reinfected persons as new variants emerge, infection- and vaccine-induced immunity wanes, and booster doses are administered.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1725-1729, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876240

ABSTRACT

New York City (NYC) was an epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the United States during spring 2020 (1). During March-May 2020, approximately 203,000 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH). To obtain more complete data, DOHMH used supplementary information sources and relied on direct data importation and matching of patient identifiers for data on hospitalization status, the occurrence of death, race/ethnicity, and presence of underlying medical conditions. The highest rates of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths were concentrated in communities of color, high-poverty areas, and among persons aged ≥75 years or with underlying conditions. The crude fatality rate was 9.2% overall and 32.1% among hospitalized patients. Using these data to prevent additional infections among NYC residents during subsequent waves of the pandemic, particularly among those at highest risk for hospitalization and death, is critical. Mitigating COVID-19 transmission among vulnerable groups at high risk for hospitalization and death is an urgent priority. Similar to NYC, other jurisdictions might find the use of supplementary information sources valuable in their efforts to prevent COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296792

ABSTRACT

Background Belief in immunity from prior infection and concern that vaccines might not protect against new variants are contributors to vaccine hesitancy. We assessed effectiveness of full and partial COVID-19 vaccination against reinfection when Delta was the predominant variant in New York City. Methods We conducted a case-control study in which case-patients with reinfection during June 15– August 31, 2021 and control subjects with no reinfection were matched (1:3) on age, sex, timing of initial positive test in 2020, and neighborhood poverty level. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate matched odds ratios (mOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Of 349,598 adult residents who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020, did not test positive again >90 days after initial positive test through June 15, 2021, and did not die before June 15, 2021, 1,067 were reinfected during June 15–August 31, 2021. Of 1,048 with complete matching criteria data, 499 (47.6%) were known to be symptomatic for COVID-19-like-illness, and 75 (7.2%) were hospitalized. Unvaccinated individuals, compared with fully vaccinated individuals, had elevated odds of reinfection (mOR, 2.23;95% CI, 1.90, 2.61), of symptomatic reinfection (mOR, 2.17;95% CI, 1.72, 2.74), and of reinfection with hospitalization (mOR, 2.59;95% CI, 1.43, 4.69). Partially versus fully vaccinated individuals had 1.58 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.06) times the odds of reinfection. All three vaccines authorized or approved for use in the U.S. were similarly effective. Conclusion Among adults with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination reduced odds of reinfections when the Delta variant predominated.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1450-1456, 2020 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389856

ABSTRACT

During the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reports of a new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been increasing in Europe and the United States (1-3). Clinical features in children have varied but predominantly include shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and elevated inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 (1). Since June 2020, several case reports have described a similar syndrome in adults; this review describes in detail nine patients reported to CDC, seven from published case reports, and summarizes the findings in 11 patients described in three case series in peer-reviewed journals (4-6). These 27 patients had cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and neurologic symptoms without severe respiratory illness and concurrently received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or antibody assays indicating recent infection. Reports of these patients highlight the recognition of an illness referred to here as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), the heterogeneity of clinical signs and symptoms, and the role for antibody testing in identifying similar cases among adults. Clinicians and health departments should consider MIS-A in adults with compatible signs and symptoms. These patients might not have positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test results, and antibody testing might be needed to confirm previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of the temporal association between MIS-A and SARS-CoV-2 infections, interventions that prevent COVID-19 might prevent MIS-A. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis and long-term effects of this newly described condition.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1074-1080, 2020 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695725

ABSTRACT

In April 2020, during the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe, a cluster of children with hyperinflammatory shock with features similar to Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome was reported in England* (1). The patients' signs and symptoms were temporally associated with COVID-19 but presumed to have developed 2-4 weeks after acute COVID-19; all children had serologic evidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). The clinical signs and symptoms present in this first cluster included fever, rash, conjunctivitis, peripheral edema, gastrointestinal symptoms, shock, and elevated markers of inflammation and cardiac damage (1). On May 14, 2020, CDC published an online Health Advisory that summarized the manifestations of reported multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), outlined a case definition,† and asked clinicians to report suspected U.S. cases to local and state health departments. As of July 29, a total of 570 U.S. MIS-C patients who met the case definition had been reported to CDC. A total of 203 (35.6%) of the patients had a clinical course consistent with previously published MIS-C reports, characterized predominantly by shock, cardiac dysfunction, abdominal pain, and markedly elevated inflammatory markers, and almost all had positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. The remaining 367 (64.4%) of MIS-C patients had manifestations that appeared to overlap with acute COVID-19 (2-4), had a less severe clinical course, or had features of Kawasaki disease.§ Median duration of hospitalization was 6 days; 364 patients (63.9%) required care in an intensive care unit (ICU), and 10 patients (1.8%) died. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to expand in many jurisdictions, clinicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of MIS-C and report suspected cases to their state or local health departments; analysis of reported cases can enhance understanding of MIS-C and improve characterization of the illness for early detection and treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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