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1.
Malar J ; 21(1): 90, 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: India has a substantial burden of malaria, concentrated in specific areas and population groups. Spatio-temporal modelling of deaths due to malaria in India is a critical tool for identifying high-risk groups for effective resource allocation and disease control policy-making, and subsequently for the country's progress towards United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. METHODS: In this study, a spatio-temporal model with the objective of understanding the spatial distribution of malaria mortality rates and the rate of temporal decline, across the country, has been constructed. A spatio-temporal "random slope" model was used, with malaria risk depending on a spatial relative risk surface and a linear time effect with a spatially-varying coefficient. The models were adjusted for urban/rural status (residence of the deceased) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), using 2004-13 data from the Million Death Study (MDS) (the most recent data available), with nationwide geographic coverage. Previous studies based on MDS had focused only on aggregated analyses. RESULTS: The rural population had twice the risk of death due to malaria compared to the urban population. Malaria mortality in some of the highest-risk regions, namely the states of Odisha and Jharkhand, are declining faster than other areas; however, the rate of decline was not uniformly correlated with the level of risk. The overall decline was faster after 2010. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for increased attention in high-risk rural populations, which already face challenges like inadequate infrastructure, inaccessibility to health care facilities, awareness, and education around malaria mortality and prevalence. It also points to the urgent need to restart the MDS to document changes since 2013, to develop appropriate malaria control measures.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Humans , India/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rural Population , Urban Population
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146798, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171263

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of infection during SARS-CoV-2 viral waves, the factors associated with infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection among Canadian adults remain undocumented. Objective: To assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2 viral waves in Canada by measuring seropositivity among adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study conducted 2 rounds of an online survey about COVID-19 experience and analyzed immunoglobulin G levels based on participant-collected dried blood spots (DBS) to assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first and second viral waves in Canada. A sample of 19 994 Canadian adults (aged ≥18 years) was recruited from established members of the Angus Reid Forum, a public polling organization. The study comprised 2 phases (phase 1 from May 1 to September 30, 2020, and phase 2 from December 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021) that generally corresponded to the first (April 1 to July 31, 2020) and second (October 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021) viral waves. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G seropositivity (using a chemiluminescence assay) by major geographic and demographic variables and correlation with COVID-19 symptom reporting. Results: Among 19 994 adults who completed the online questionnaire in phase 1, the mean (SD) age was 50.9 (15.4) years, and 10 522 participants (51.9%) were female; 2948 participants (14.5%) had self-identified racial and ethnic minority group status, and 1578 participants (8.2%) were self-identified Indigenous Canadians. Among participants in phase 1, 8967 had DBS testing. In phase 2, 14 621 adults completed online questionnaires, and 7102 of those had DBS testing. Of 19 994 adults who completed the online survey in phase 1, fewer had an educational level of some college or less (4747 individuals [33.1%]) compared with the general population in Canada (45.0%). Survey respondents were otherwise representative of the general population, including in prevalence of known risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among unvaccinated adults increased from 1.9% in phase 1 to 6.5% in phase 2. The seropositivity pattern was demographically and geographically heterogeneous during phase 1 but more homogeneous by phase 2 (with a cumulative incidence ranging from 6.4% to 7.0% in most regions). The exception was the Atlantic region, in which cumulative incidence reached only 3.3% (odds ratio [OR] vs Ontario, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.02). A total of 47 of 188 adults (25.3%) reporting COVID-19 symptoms during phase 2 were seropositive, and the OR of seropositivity for COVID-19 symptoms was 6.15 (95% CI, 2.02-18.69). In phase 2, 94 of 444 seropositive adults (22.2%) reported having no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in phase 1 who were retested in phase 2, 111 individuals (81.8%) remained seropositive. Participants who had a history of diabetes (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.90) had lower odds of having detectable antibodies in phase 2. Conclusions and Relevance: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study found that the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Canada was modest until March 2021, and this incidence was lower than the levels of population immunity required to substantially reduce transmission of the virus. Ongoing vaccination efforts remain central to reducing viral transmission and mortality. Assessment of future infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity is practicable through the use of serial online surveys and participant-collected DBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Science ; 375(6581): 667-671, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990216

ABSTRACT

India's national COVID death totals remain undetermined. Using an independent nationally representative survey of 0.14 million (M) adults, we compared COVID mortality during the 2020 and 2021 viral waves to expected all-cause mortality. COVID constituted 29% (95%CI 28-31%) of deaths from June 2020-July 2021, corresponding to 3.2M (3.1-3.4) deaths, of which 2.7M (2.6-2.9) occurred in April-July 2021 (when COVID doubled all-cause mortality). A sub-survey of 57,000 adults showed similar temporal increases in mortality with COVID and non-COVID deaths peaking similarly. Two government data sources found that, when compared to pre-pandemic periods, all-cause mortality was 27% (23-32%) higher in 0.2M health facilities and 26% (21-31%) higher in civil registration deaths in ten states; both increases occurred mostly in 2021. The analyses find that India's cumulative COVID deaths by September 2021 were 6-7 times higher than reported officially.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cause of Death , Family Characteristics , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Mortality
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(1): e114-e123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sierra Leone's child and maternal mortality rates are among the highest in the world. However, little is known about the causes of premature mortality in the country. To rectify this, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone launched the Sierra Leone Sample Registration System (SL-SRS) of births and deaths. Here, we report cause-specific mortality from the first SL-SRS round, representing deaths from 2018 to 2020. METHODS: The Countrywide Mortality Surveillance for Action platform established the SL-SRS, which involved conducting electronic verbal autopsies in 678 randomly selected villages and urban blocks throughout the country. 61 surveyors, in teams of four or five, enrolled people and ascertained deaths of individuals younger than 70 years in 2019-20, capturing verbal autopsies on deaths from 2018 to 2020. Centrally, two trained physicians independently assigned causes of death according to the International Classification of Diseases (tenth edition). SL-SRS death proportions were applied to 5-year mortality averages from the UN World Population Prospects (2019) to derive cause-specific death totals and risks of death nationally and in four Sierra Leone regions, with comparisons made with the Western region where Freetown, the capital, is located. We compared SL-SRS results with the cause-specific mortality estimates for Sierra Leone in the 2019 WHO Global Health Estimates. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2019, and Dec 15, 2020, we enrolled 343 000 people and ascertained 8374 deaths of individuals younger than 70 years. Malaria was the leading cause of death in children and adults, nationally and in each region, representing 22% of deaths under age 70 years in 2020. Other infectious diseases accounted for an additional 16% of deaths. Overall maternal mortality ratio was 510 deaths per 100 000 livebirths (95% CI 483-538), and neonatal mortality rate was 31·1 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% CI 30·4-31·8), both among the highest rates in the world. Haemorrhage was the major cause of maternal mortality and birth asphyxia or trauma was the major cause of neonatal mortality. Excess deaths were not detected in the months of 2020 corresponding to the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Half of the deaths occurred in rural areas and at home. If the Northern, Eastern, and Southern regions of Sierra Leone had the lower death rates observed in the Western region, about 20 000 deaths (just over a quarter of national total deaths in people younger than 70 years) would have been avoided. WHO model-based data vastly underestimated malaria deaths and some specific causes of injury deaths, and substantially overestimated maternal mortality. INTERPRETATION: Over 60% of individuals in Sierra Leone die prematurely, before age 70 years, most from preventable or treatable causes. Nationally representative mortality surveys such as the SL-SRS are of high value in providing reliable cause-of-death information to set public health priorities and target interventions in low-income countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Queen Elizabeth Scholarship Program.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Mortality, Premature , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Malaria/mortality , Male , Maternal Mortality , Middle Aged , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
5.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 2: 100055, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding vaccination intention during early vaccination rollout in Canada can help the government's efforts in vaccination education and outreach. METHOD: Panel members age 18 and over from the nationally representative Angus Reid Forum were invited to complete an online survey about their experience with COVID-19, including their intention to get vaccinated. Respondents were asked "When a vaccine against the coronavirus becomes available to you, will you get vaccinated or not?" Having no intention to vaccinate was defined as choosing "No - I will not get a coronavirus vaccination" as a response. Odds ratios and predicted probabilities are reported for no vaccine intentionality in demographic groups. FINDINGS: 14,621 panel members completed the survey. Having no intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 is relatively low overall (9%) with substantial variation among demographic groups. Being a resident of Alberta (predicted probability = 15%; OR 0.58 [95%CI 0.14-2.24]), aged 40-59 (predicted probability = 12%; OR 0.87 [0.78-0.97]), identifying as a visible minority (predicted probability = 15%; OR 0.56 [0.37-0.84]), having some college level education or lower (predicted probability = 14%) and living in households of at least five members (predicted probability = 13%; OR 0.82 [0.76-0.88]) are related to lower vaccination intention. INTERPRETATION: The study identifies population groups with greater and lesser intention to vaccinate in Canada. As the Canadian COVID-19 vaccination effort continues, policymakers may use this information to focus outreach, education, and other efforts on the latter groups, which also have had higher risks for contracting and dying from COVID-19. FUNDING: Pfizer Global Medical, Unity Health Foundation, Canadian COVID-19 Immunity Task Force.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240778, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085714

ABSTRACT

Random population-based surveys to estimate prevalence of SARS-CoV2 infection causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are useful to understand distributions and predictors of the infection. In April 2020, the first-ever nationally representative survey in Canada polled 4,240 adults age 18 years and older about self-reported COVID experience in March, early in the epidemic. We examined the levels and predictors of COVID symptoms, defined as fever plus difficulty breathing/shortness of breath, dry cough so severe that it disrupts sleep, and/or loss of sense of smell; and testing for SARS-CoV-2 by respondents and/or household members. About 8% of Canadians reported that they and/or one or more household members experienced COVID symptoms. Symptoms were more common in younger than in older adults, and among visible minorities. Overall, only 3% of respondents and/or household members reported testing for SARS-CoV-2. Being tested was associated with having COVID symptoms, Indigenous identity, and living in Quebec. Periodic nationally representative surveys of symptoms, as well as SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, are required in many countries to understand the pandemic and prepare for the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Surveys/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Report , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Cancer ; 126 Suppl 10: 2353-2364, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348567

ABSTRACT

The adoption of the goal of universal health coverage and the growing burden of cancer in low- and middle-income countries makes it important to consider how to provide cancer care. Specific interventions can strengthen health systems while providing cancer care within a resource-stratified perspective (similar to the World Health Organization-tiered approach). Four specific topics are discussed: essential medicines/essential diagnostics lists; national cancer plans; provision of affordable essential public services (either at no cost to users or through national health insurance); and finally, how a nascent breast cancer program can build on existing programs. A case study of Zambia (a country with a core level of resources for cancer care, using the Breast Health Global Initiative typology) shows how a breast cancer program was built on a cervical cancer program, which in turn had evolved from the HIV/AIDS program. A case study of Brazil (which has enhanced resources for cancer care) describes how access to breast cancer care evolved as universal health coverage expanded. A case study of Uruguay shows how breast cancer outcomes improved as the country shifted from a largely private system to a single-payer national health insurance system in the transition to becoming a country with maximal resources for cancer care. The final case study describes an exciting initiative, the City Cancer Challenge, and how that may lead to improved cancer services.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Health Plan Implementation/methods , National Health Programs , Universal Health Insurance , Brazil , Developing Countries , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Uruguay , World Health Organization , Zambia
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 41-47, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314692

ABSTRACT

A long-held assumption has been that nearly all malaria deaths in high-transmission areas are of children younger than 5 years and pregnant women. Most global malaria mortality estimates incorporate this assumption in their calculations. In 2010, the Indian Million Death Study, which assigns cause of death by verbal autopsy (VA), challenged the reigning perception, producing a U-shaped mortality age curve, with rates rising after age 45 years in areas of India with substantial malaria transmission. Similar patterns are seen in Africa in the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) network, also relying on VA. Whether these results are accurate or are misidentified deaths can be resolved by improving the evidence for assigning causes for adult acute infectious deaths in high malaria transmission areas. The options for doing so include improving the accuracy of VA and adding postmortem biological evidence, steps we believe should be initiated without delay.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/mortality , Models, Statistical , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Aged , Asia/epidemiology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis
9.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(1): 19-29, 2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the costs and mortality reductions of a package of essential health interventions for urban populations in Bangladesh and India. METHODS: We used population data from the countries' censuses and United Nations Population Division. For causes of mortality in India, we used the Indian Million Death Study. We obtained cost estimates of each intervention from the third edition of Disease control priorities. For estimating the mortality reductions expected with the package, we used the Disease control priorities model. We calculated the benefit-cost ratio for investing in the package, using an analysis based on the Copenhagen Consensus method. FINDINGS: Per urban inhabitant, total costs for the package would be 75.1 United States dollars (US$) in Bangladesh and US$ 105.0 in India. Of this, prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases account for US$ 36.5 in Bangladesh and U$ 51.7 in India. The incremental cost per urban inhabitant for all interventions would be US$ 50 in Bangladesh and US$ 75 in India. In 2030, the averted deaths among people younger than 70 years would constitute 30.5% (1027/3362) and 21.2% (828/3913) of the estimated baseline deaths in Bangladesh and India, respectively. The health benefits of investing in the package would return US$ 1.2 per dollar spent in Bangladesh and US$ 1.8 per dollar spent in India. CONCLUSION: Investing in the package of essential health interventions, which address health-care needs of the growing urban population in Bangladesh and India, seems beneficial and could help the countries to achieve their 2030 sustainable development goals.


Subject(s)
Mortality/trends , Urban Health Services/organization & administration , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Services Needs and Demand/economics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Maternal-Child Health Services/economics , Models, Economic , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Health Services/economics
10.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 116, 2019 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsies with physician assignment of cause of death (COD) are commonly used in settings where medical certification of deaths is uncommon. It remains unanswered if automated algorithms can replace physician assignment. METHODS: We randomized verbal autopsy interviews for deaths in 117 villages in rural India to either physician or automated COD assignment. Twenty-four trained lay (non-medical) surveyors applied the allocated method using a laptop-based electronic system. Two of 25 physicians were allocated randomly to independently code the deaths in the physician assignment arm. Six algorithms (Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC), King-Lu, InSilicoVA, InSilicoVA-NT, InterVA-4, and SmartVA) coded each death in the automated arm. The primary outcome was concordance with the COD distribution in the standard physician-assigned arm. Four thousand six hundred fifty-one (4651) deaths were allocated to physician (standard), and 4723 to automated arms. RESULTS: The two arms were nearly identical in demographics and key symptom patterns. The average concordances of automated algorithms with the standard were 62%, 56%, and 59% for adult, child, and neonatal deaths, respectively. Automated algorithms showed inconsistent results, even for causes that are relatively easy to identify such as road traffic injuries. Automated algorithms underestimated the number of cancer and suicide deaths in adults and overestimated other injuries in adults and children. Across all ages, average weighted concordance with the standard was 62% (range 79-45%) with the best to worst ranking automated algorithms being InterVA-4, InSilicoVA-NT, InSilicoVA, SmartVA, NBC, and King-Lu. Individual-level sensitivity for causes of adult deaths in the automated arm was low between the algorithms but high between two independent physicians in the physician arm. CONCLUSIONS: While desirable, automated algorithms require further development and rigorous evaluation. Lay reporting of deaths paired with physician COD assignment of verbal autopsies, despite some limitations, remains a practicable method to document the patterns of mortality reliably for unattended deaths. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02810366. Submitted on 11 April 2016.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , Data Collection/methods , Physicians/standards , Adult , Child , Death , Female , Humans , India , Male
11.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(6): e281-e290, 2019 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Firearm mortality is a leading, and largely avoidable, cause of death in the USA, Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia. We aimed to assess the changes over time and demographic determinants of firearm deaths in these four countries between 1990 and 2015. METHODS: In this comparative analysis of firearm mortality, we examined national vital statistics data from 1990-2015 from four publicly available data repositories in the USA, Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia. We extracted medically-certified deaths and underlying population denominators to calculate the age-specific and sex-specific firearm deaths and the risk of firearm mortality at the national and subnational level, by education for all four countries, and by race or ethnicity for the USA and Brazil. Analyses were stratified by intent (homicide, suicide, unintentional, or undetermined). We quantified avoidable mortality for each country using the lowest number of subnational age-specific and period-specific death rates. FINDINGS: Between 1990 and 2015, 106·3 million medically-certified deaths were recorded, including 2 472 000 firearm deaths, of which 851 000 occurred in the USA, 272 000 in Mexico, 855 000 in Brazil, and 494 000 in Colombia. Homicides accounted for most of the firearm deaths in Mexico (225 000 [82·7%]), Colombia (463 000 [93·8%]), and Brazil (766 000 [89·5%]). Suicide accounted for more than half of all firearm deaths in the USA (479 000 [56·3%]). In each country, firearm mortality was highest among men aged 15-34 years, accounting for up to half of the total risk of death in that age group. During the study period, firearm mortality risks increased in Mexico and Brazil but decreased in the USA and Colombia, with marked national and subnational geographical variation. Young men with low educational attainment were at increased risk of firearm homicide in all four countries, and in the USA and Brazil, black and brown men, respectively, were at the highest risk. The risk of firearm homicide was 14 times higher in black men in the USA aged 25-34 years with low educational attainment than comparably-educated white men (1·52% [99% CI 1·50-1·54] vs 0·11% [0·10-0·12]), and up to four times higher than in comparably-educated men in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. In the USA, the risk of firearm homicide was more than 30 times higher in black men with post-secondary education than comparably educated white men. If countries could achieve the same firearm mortality rates nationally as in their lowest-burden states, 1 777 800 firearm deaths at all ages and in both sexes could be avoided, including 1 028 000 deaths in men aged 15-34 years. INTERPRETATION: Firearm mortality in the USA, Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia is highest among young adult men, and is strongly associated with race and ethnicity, and low education levels. Reductions in firearm deaths would improve life expectancy, particularly for black men in the USA, and would reduce racial and educational disparities in mortality. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the University of Toronto Connaught Global Challenge.


Subject(s)
Firearms/statistics & numerical data , Homicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Gunshot/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Homicide/ethnology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Spatial Analysis , Suicide/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/ethnology , Young Adult
12.
13.
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD008152, 2018 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 8-aminoquinoline (8AQ) drugs act on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, which transmit malaria from infected people to mosquitoes. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a single dose of 0.25 mg/kg primaquine (PQ) be added to malaria treatment schedules in low-transmission areas or those with artemisinin resistance. This replaced the previous recommendation of 0.75 mg/kg, aiming to reduce haemolysis risk in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, common in people living in malarious areas. Whether this approach, and at this dose, is effective in reducing transmission is not clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of single dose or short-course PQ (or an alternative 8AQ) alongside treatment for people with P. falciparum malaria. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICRTP) portal using 'malaria*', 'falciparum', 'primaquine', '8-aminoquinoline', and eight 8AQ drug names as search terms. We checked reference lists of included trials, and contacted researchers and organizations. Date of last search: 21 July 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs in children or adults, adding PQ (or alternative 8AQ) as a single dose or short course alongside treatment for P. falciparum malaria. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors screened abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and extracted data. We sought evidence on transmission (community incidence), infectiousness (people infectious and mosquitoes infected), and potential infectiousness (gametocyte measures assessed by microscopy or polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). We grouped trials into artemisinin and non-artemisinin treatments, and stratified by PQ dose (low, 0.2 to 0.25 mg/kg; moderate, 0.4 to 0.5 mg/kg; high, 0.75 mg/kg). We used GRADE, and absolute effects of infectiousness using trial control groups. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 RCTs and one quasi-RCT, comprising 43 arms. Fourteen trials evaluated artemisinin treatments (23 arms), nine trials evaluated non-artemisinin treatments (13 arms), and two trials included both artemisinin and non-artemisinin arms (three and two arms, respectively). Two trial arms used bulaquine. Seven PQ arms used low dose (six with artemisinin), 11 arms used moderate dose (seven with artemisinin), and the remaining arms used high dose. Fifteen trials tested for G6PD status: 11 excluded participants with G6PD deficiency, one included only those with G6PD deficiency, and three included all, irrespective of status. The remaining 10 trials either did not test or did not report on testing.No cluster trials evaluating community effects on malaria transmission met the inclusion criteria.With artemisinin treatmentLow dose PQInfectiousness (participants infectious to mosquitoes) was reduced (day 3 or 4: RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.88, 3 trials, 105 participants; day 8: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.58, 4 trials, 243 participants; low certainty evidence). This translates to a reduction in percentage of people infectious on day 3 or 4 from 14% to 2%, and, for day 8, from 4% to 1%; the waning infectiousness in the control group by day 8 making the absolute effect smaller by day 8. For gametocytes detected by PCR, there was little or no effect of PQ at day 3 or 4 (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.21; 3 trials, 414 participants; moderate certainty evidence); with reduction at day 8 (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.65; 4 trials, 532 participants; high certainty evidence). Severe haemolysis was infrequent, with or without PQ, in these groups with few G6PD-deficient individuals (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.39; 4 trials, 752 participants, moderate certainty evidence).Moderate dose PQInfectiousness was reduced (day 3 or 4: RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.94; 3 trials, 109 participants; day 8 RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.57; 4 trials, 246 participants; low certainty evidence). Illustrative risk estimates for moderate dose were the same as low dose. The pattern and level of certainty of evidence with gametocytes detected by PCR was the same as low dose, and severe haemolysis was infrequent in both groups.High dose PQInfectiousness was reduced (day 4: RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.68, 1 trial, 101 participants; day 8: RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.41, 2 trials, 181 participants, low certainty evidence). The effects on gametocyte prevalence showed a similar pattern to moderate and low dose PQ. Trials did not systematically report evidence of haemolysis.With non-artemisinin treatmentTrials with non-artemisinin treatment have been conducted only for moderate and high dose PQ. With high dose, infectiousness appeared markedly reduced on day 5 (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.62; 30 participants, very low certainty evidence), with similar reductions at day 8. For both moderate dose (two trials with 221 people) and high dose (two trials with 30 people), reduction in gametocytes (detected by microscopy) showed similar patterns as for artemisinin treatments, with little or no effect at day 4 or 5, and larger effects by day 8. No trials with non-artemisinin partner drugs systematically sought evidence of severe haemolysis.Two trials comparing bulaquine with PQ suggest bulaquine may have larger effects on gametocytes by microscopy on day 8 (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.66; 2 trials, 112 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: A single low dose of PQ (0.25 mg/kg) added to artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria reduces infectiousness of people to mosquitoes at day 3-4 and day 8, and appears as effective as higher doses. The absolute effect is greater at day 3 or 4, and smaller at day 8, in part because of the lower infectiousness in the control group. There was no evidence of increased haemolysis at 0.25 mg/kg, but few G6PD-deficient individuals were included in the trials. The effect on infectiousness precedes the effect of PQ on gametocyte prevalence. We do not know whether single dose PQ could reduce malaria transmission at community level.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Primaquine/administration & dosage , Adult , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Child , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Mefloquine/administration & dosage , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Primaquine/analogs & derivatives , Pyrimethamine/administration & dosage , Quinine/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sulfadoxine/administration & dosage , Time Factors
15.
Lancet ; 391(10125): 1108-1120, 2018 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179954

ABSTRACT

The World Bank is publishing nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition (DCP3) between 2015 and 2018. Volume 9, Improving Health and Reducing Poverty, summarises the main messages from all the volumes and contains cross-cutting analyses. This Review draws on all nine volumes to convey conclusions. The analysis in DCP3 is built around 21 essential packages that were developed in the nine volumes. Each essential package addresses the concerns of a major professional community (eg, child health or surgery) and contains a mix of intersectoral policies and health-sector interventions. 71 intersectoral prevention policies were identified in total, 29 of which are priorities for early introduction. Interventions within the health sector were grouped onto five platforms (population based, community level, health centre, first-level hospital, and referral hospital). DCP3 defines a model concept of essential universal health coverage (EUHC) with 218 interventions that provides a starting point for country-specific analysis of priorities. Assuming steady-state implementation by 2030, EUHC in lower-middle-income countries would reduce premature deaths by an estimated 4·2 million per year. Estimated total costs prove substantial: about 9·1% of (current) gross national income (GNI) in low-income countries and 5·2% of GNI in lower-middle-income countries. Financing provision of continuing intervention against chronic conditions accounts for about half of estimated incremental costs. For lower-middle-income countries, the mortality reduction from implementing the EUHC can only reach about half the mortality reduction in non-communicable diseases called for by the Sustainable Development Goals. Full achievement will require increased investment or sustained intersectoral action, and actions by finance ministries to tax smoking and polluting emissions and to reduce or eliminate (often large) subsidies on fossil fuels appear of central importance. DCP3 is intended to be a model starting point for analyses at the country level, but country-specific cost structures, epidemiological needs, and national priorities will generally lead to definitions of EUHC that differ from country to country and from the model in this Review. DCP3 is particularly relevant as achievement of EUHC relies increasingly on greater domestic finance, with global developmental assistance in health focusing more on global public goods. In addition to assessing effects on mortality, DCP3 looked at outcomes of EUHC not encompassed by the disability-adjusted life-year metric and related cost-effectiveness analyses. The other objectives included financial protection (potentially better provided upstream by keeping people out of the hospital rather than downstream by paying their hospital bills for them), stillbirths averted, palliative care, contraception, and child physical and intellectual growth. The first 1000 days after conception are highly important for child development, but the next 7000 days are likewise important and often neglected.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Global Health , Health Priorities , Universal Health Insurance , Humans
16.
Malar J ; 16(1): 346, 2017 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28830424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haemolysis risk with single dose or short course primaquine was evaluated in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient people. METHODS: Major electronic databases (to August 2016) were searched for single or short course 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQ) in (1) randomized comparisons against placebo in G6PD deficient people; and (2) observational comparisons in G6PD deficient compared to replete people. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk-of-bias, and extracted data. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials and four controlled observational cohorts were included. In G6PD deficient individuals, high-dose (0.75 mg/kg) PQ resulted in lower average haemoglobin levels at 7 days (mean difference [MD] -1.45 g/dl, 95% CI -2.17 to -0.74, 2 trials) and larger percentage fall from baseline to day 7 (MD -10.31%, 95% CI -17.69 to -2.92, 3 trials) compared to placebo. In G6PD deficient compared to replete people, average haemoglobin was lower at 7 days (MD -1.19 g/dl, 95% CI -1.94 to -0.44, 2 trials) and haemoglobin change from baseline to day 7 was greater (MD -9.10%, 95% CI -12.55 to -5.65, 5 trials). One small trial evaluated mid-range PQ dose (0.4-0.5 mg/kg) in G6PD deficient people, with no difference detected in average haemoglobin at day 7 compared to placebo. In one cohort comparing G6PD deficient and replete people there was a greater fall with G6PD deficiency (MD -4.99%, 95% CI -9.96 to -0.02). For low-dose PQ (0.1-0.25 mg/kg) in G6PD deficient people, haemoglobin change from baseline was similar to the placebo group (MD 1.72%, 95% CI -1.89 to 5.34, 2 trials). Comparing low dose PQ in G6PD deficient with replete people, the average haemoglobin was lower in the G6PD deficient group at 7 days (-0.57 g (95% CI -0.97 to -0.17, 1 trial)); although change from baseline was similar (MD -1.45%, 95% CI -5.69 to 2.78, 3 trials). CONCLUSIONS: Falls in average haemoglobin are less marked with the 0.1 to 0.25 mg/kg PQ than with the 0.75 mg/kg dose, and severe haemolytic events are not common. However, data were limited and the evidence GRADE was low or very low certainty.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/etiology , Hemolysis/drug effects , Primaquine/adverse effects , Aminoquinolines/adverse effects , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment
17.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0182951, 2017.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness rankings of health interventions are useful inputs for national healthcare planning and budgeting. Previous comprehensive rankings for low- and middle- income countries were undertaken in 2005 and 2006, accompanying the development of strategies for the Millennium Development Goals. We update the rankings using studies published since 2000, as strategies are being considered for the Sustainable Development Goals. METHODS: Expert systematic searches of the literature were undertaken for a broad range of health interventions. Cost-effectiveness results using Disability Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) as the health outcome were standardized to 2012 US dollars. RESULTS: 149 individual studies of 93 interventions qualified for inclusion. Interventions for Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health accounted for 37% of interventions, and major infectious diseases (AIDS, TB, malaria and neglected tropical diseases) for 24%, consistent with the priorities of the Millennium Development Goals. More than half of the interventions considered cost less than $200 per DALY and hence can be considered for inclusion in Universal Health Care packages even in low-income countries. DISCUSSION: Important changes have occurred in rankings since 2006. Priorities have changed as a result of new technologies, new methods for changing behavior, and significant price changes for some vaccines and drugs. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require LMICs to study a broader range of health interventions, particularly in adult health. Some interventions are no longer studied, in some cases because they have become usual care, in other cases because they are no longer relevant. Updating cost-effectiveness rankings on a regular basis is potentially a valuable exercise.


Subject(s)
Child Health Services , Communicable Diseases , Developing Countries , Disabled Persons , Maternal Health Services , Adult , Child , Child Health Services/economics , Communicable Diseases/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , Humans , Income , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Health Services/economics , Poverty , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 1(2): e000116, 2016.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588948
19.
Lancet ; 387(10033): 2133-2144, 2016 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26578033

ABSTRACT

Investments in cancer control--prevention, detection, diagnosis, surgery, other treatment, and palliative care--are increasingly needed in low-income and particularly in middle-income countries, where most of the world's cancer deaths occur without treatment or palliation. To help countries expand locally appropriate services, Cancer (the third volume of nine in Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition) developed an essential package of potentially cost-effective measures for countries to consider and adapt. Interventions included in the package are: prevention of tobacco-related cancer and virus-related liver and cervical cancers; diagnosis and treatment of early breast cancer, cervical cancer, and selected childhood cancers; and widespread availability of palliative care, including opioids. These interventions would cost an additional US$20 billion per year worldwide, constituting 3% of total public spending on health in low-income and middle-income countries. With implementation of an appropriately tailored package, most countries could substantially reduce suffering and premature death from cancer before 2030, with even greater improvements in later decades.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/economics , Global Health/economics , Neoplasms/economics , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Income , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy
20.
Trends Microbiol ; 23(9): 524-6, 2015 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26338444

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance, similar to climate change, is a shared global problem, but unlike climate change, national and local action produces direct localized benefits in addition to improving the global situation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Climate Change , Global Health , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans
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