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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(4): 513-522, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with adenoviral-vectored COVID-19 vaccination. It presents similarly to spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Twelve cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after vaccination with the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) have previously been described. OBJECTIVE: To describe surveillance data and reporting rates of all reported TTS cases after COVID-19 vaccination in the United States. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: United States. PATIENTS: Case patients receiving a COVID-19 vaccine from 14 December 2020 through 31 August 2021 with thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (excluding isolated ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. If thrombosis was only in an extremity vein or pulmonary embolism, a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies or functional heparin-induced thrombocytopenia platelet test result was required. MEASUREMENTS: Reporting rates (cases per million vaccine doses) and descriptive epidemiology. RESULTS: A total of 57 TTS cases were confirmed after vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S (n = 54) or a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based COVID-19 vaccine (n = 3). Reporting rates for TTS were 3.83 per million vaccine doses (Ad26.COV2.S) and 0.00855 per million vaccine doses (mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines). The median age of patients with TTS after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination was 44.5 years (range, 18 to 70 years), and 69% of patients were women. Of the TTS cases after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination, 2 occurred in men older than 50 years and 1 in a woman aged 50 to 59 years. All cases after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination involved hospitalization, including 36 (67%) with intensive care unit admission. Outcomes of hospitalizations after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination included death (15%), discharge to postacute care (17%), and discharge home (68%). LIMITATIONS: Underreporting and incomplete case follow-up. CONCLUSION: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome is a rare but serious adverse event associated with Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. The different demographic characteristics of the 3 cases reported after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines and the much lower reporting rate suggest that these cases represent a background rate. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
2.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 239-243, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673687

ABSTRACT

Monitoring COVID-19 vaccination coverage among nursing home residents and staff is important to ensure high coverage rates and guide patient-safety policies. With the termination of the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program, another source of facility-based vaccination data is needed. We compared numbers of COVID-19 vaccinations administered to nursing home residents and staff reported by pharmacies participating in the temporary federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program with the numbers of COVID-19 vaccinations reported by nursing homes participating in new COVID-19 vaccination modules of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Pearson correlation coefficients comparing the number vaccinated between the 2 approaches were 0.89, 0.96, and 0.97 for residents and 0.74, 0.90, and 0.90 for staff, in the weeks ending January 3, 10, and 17, 2021, respectively. Based on subsequent NHSN reporting, vaccination coverage with ≥1 vaccine dose reached 73.7% for residents and 47.6% for staff the week ending January 31 and increased incrementally through July 2021. Continued monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination coverage is important as new nursing home residents are admitted, new staff are hired, and additional doses of vaccine are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Humans , Mandatory Reporting , Public Health Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 74-82, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trends in prescribing for nursing home (NH) residents, which may have been influenced by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have not been characterized. METHODS: Long-term care pharmacy data from 1944 US NHs were used to evaluate trends in prescribing of antibiotics and drugs that were investigated for COVID-19 treatment, including hydroxychloroquine, famotidine, and dexamethasone. To account for seasonal variability in antibiotic prescribing and decreased NH occupancy during the pandemic, monthly prevalence of residents with a prescription dispensed per 1000 residents serviced was calculated from January to October and compared as relative percent change from 2019 to 2020. RESULTS: In April 2020, prescribing was significantly higher in NHs for drugs investigated for COVID-19 treatment than 2019; including hydroxychloroquine (+563%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.87, 7.48) and azithromycin (+150%, 95% CI: 2.37, 2.63). Ceftriaxone prescribing also increased (+43%, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.54). Prescribing of dexamethasone was 36% lower in April (95% CI: .55, .73) and 303% higher in July (95% CI: 3.66, 4.45). Although azithromycin and ceftriaxone prescribing increased, total antibiotic prescribing among residents was lower from May (-5%, 95% CI: .94, .97) through October (-4%, 95% CI: .94, .97) in 2020 compared to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, large numbers of residents were prescribed drugs investigated for COVID-19 treatment, and an increase in prescribing of antibiotics commonly used for respiratory infections was observed. Prescribing of these drugs may increase the risk of adverse events, without providing clear benefits. Surveillance of NH prescribing practices is critical to evaluate concordance with guideline-recommended therapy and improve resident safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e652-e660, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to describe trends in US outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from January through May 2020 and compare with trends in previous years (2017-2019). METHODS: We used data from the IQVIA Total Patient Tracker to estimate the monthly number of patients dispensed antibiotic prescriptions from retail pharmacies from January 2017 through May 2020. We averaged estimates from 2017 through 2019 and defined expected seasonal change as the average percent change from January to May 2017-2019. We calculated percentage point and volume changes in the number of patients dispensed antibiotics from January to May 2020 exceeding expected seasonal changes. We also calculated average percent change in number of patients dispensed antibiotics per month in 2017-2019 versus 2020. Data were analyzed overall and by agent, class, patient age, state, and prescriber specialty. RESULTS: From January to May 2020, the number of patients dispensed antibiotic prescriptions decreased from 20.3 to 9.9 million, exceeding seasonally expected decreases by 33 percentage points and 6.6 million patients. The largest changes in 2017-2019 versus 2020 were observed in April (-39%) and May (-42%). The number of patients dispensed azithromycin increased from February to March 2020 then decreased. Overall, beyond-expected decreases were greatest among children (≤19 years) and agents used for respiratory infections, dentistry, and surgical prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: From January 2020 to May 2020, the number of outpatients with antibiotic prescriptions decreased substantially more than would be expected because of seasonal trends alone, possibly related to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and associated mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Drug Prescriptions , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Prescriptions , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 74-82, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trends in prescribing for nursing home (NH) residents, which may have been influenced by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have not been characterized. METHODS: Long-term care pharmacy data from 1944 US NHs were used to evaluate trends in prescribing of antibiotics and drugs that were investigated for COVID-19 treatment, including hydroxychloroquine, famotidine, and dexamethasone. To account for seasonal variability in antibiotic prescribing and decreased NH occupancy during the pandemic, monthly prevalence of residents with a prescription dispensed per 1000 residents serviced was calculated from January to October and compared as relative percent change from 2019 to 2020. RESULTS: In April 2020, prescribing was significantly higher in NHs for drugs investigated for COVID-19 treatment than 2019; including hydroxychloroquine (+563%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.87, 7.48) and azithromycin (+150%, 95% CI: 2.37, 2.63). Ceftriaxone prescribing also increased (+43%, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.54). Prescribing of dexamethasone was 36% lower in April (95% CI: .55, .73) and 303% higher in July (95% CI: 3.66, 4.45). Although azithromycin and ceftriaxone prescribing increased, total antibiotic prescribing among residents was lower from May (-5%, 95% CI: .94, .97) through October (-4%, 95% CI: .94, .97) in 2020 compared to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, large numbers of residents were prescribed drugs investigated for COVID-19 treatment, and an increase in prescribing of antibiotics commonly used for respiratory infections was observed. Prescribing of these drugs may increase the risk of adverse events, without providing clear benefits. Surveillance of NH prescribing practices is critical to evaluate concordance with guideline-recommended therapy and improve resident safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa528, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960576

ABSTRACT

Using a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalization surveillance network, we found that 42.5% of hospitalized COVID-19 cases with available data from March 1-June 30, 2020, received ≥1 COVID-19 investigational treatment. Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir were used frequently; however, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use declined over time, while use of remdesivir increased.

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