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Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S262, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746680

ABSTRACT

Background. Biomarkers to predict the severity of lung damage due to COVID-19 are urgently needed to inform management and treatment decisions. Our objective was to investigate the predictive value of host proteins for worsening respiratory failure in one of the by COVID-19 most affected and diverse patient populations in the US. Methods. We performed a prospective single-center cross-sectional study of 34 adult patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York, for respiratory symptoms due to PCR-confirmed COVID-19. Exclusion criteria were age < 21, history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and/or underlying severe chronic lung diseases requiring home O2 and/or high dose steroids. We stratified and compared patients by whether they developed worsening respiratory failure, necessitating transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) during their hospital stay. Using a custom Luminex Assay, we measured hospital admission serum concentrations of 8 host proteins, representing respiratory-associated epithelial (RAGE, SP-D, CC16), endothelial (Ang-2, vWF), and immune pathways (S100A12, ICAM-1, VCAM-1). Results. Except for race and WHO COVID-19 scores, demographics, co-morbidities, symptoms, and symptom duration were not statistically significantly different between patients requiring transfer to the ICU (n=15) and non-ICU patients (n=19). Higher log-transformed levels for 5/8 proteins (S100A12, ICAM-1, Ang-2, RAGE, SP-D) showed significant or marginally significant increased cause-specific hazard for ICU transfer (n=15). Estimated cumulative incidence functions further showed a significantly or near significantly increased risk for ICU transfer for patients with above the median values of S100A12 or ICAM-1 (p=0.013), Ang-2 (p=0.056) or RAGE (p=0.077), respectively (Figure 1). Host proteins predicting need for ICU transfer did not correlate strongly with other clinical laboratory markers for COVID-19 severity (CRP, LDH, D-Dimer, Fibrinogen, Ferritin). Comparison of estimated cumulative incidence at 7 days post admission for host protein markers above and below median levels for (A) S10012 (median 96,675 pg/ml);(B) ICAM-1 (median (1,192,277 pg/ml);(C) Ang-2 (median 3463 pg/ml);(D) RAGE (median 6356 pg/ml);and (E) SP-D (median 11,832 pg/ml). Conclusion. These results suggest that host proteins have additional predictive value for the severity of COVID-19-associated lung damage at time of presentation to the hospital.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S551-S552, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746352

ABSTRACT

Background. The incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has been rising in the US since 2016, and in New York State since 2019. New York City has also seen an increase of HAV infection among high risk populations. We present a case of acute HAV infection in an inpatient psychiatry unit which has its own unique isolation and management challenges. Methods. A patient was admitted on 3/21/21 from a group home. He developed abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting on 4/15, with elevated liver function tests (LFT). He was transferred to Medicine on 4/17 and HAV IgM and IgG resulted positive on 4/18. Visitation to the unit has been halted for over a year, and no outside food has been allowed. The patient has not been observed to have any sexual exposure to others. Investigation. Exposure window: 15 days prior to start of symptoms. Patients in the unit were screened for symptoms, tested for HAV IgM/IgG, LFTs. Discharged patients were contacted and referred straight for vaccination (difficult to have multiple visits). Staff members with contact to the unit were screened, via email and phone calls. If no previous vaccination and there was presence of exposure or symptoms, staff were referred to Occupational Health Services (OHS). Other Measures: The unit was terminally cleaned and daily enhanced cleaning with bleach ensued. Daily assessment of patients and staff for symptoms. Admissions were held for 2 days until all the patients were tested and given vaccine. Further admissions were screened for HAV. Results. 32 inpatients screened. One patient was positive for HAV IgM, but was asymptomatic with normal LFTs. On investigation, patient had acute hepatitis in February 2021. Patients with no immunity were vaccinated. Two immunocompromised patients were also given HAV immunoglobulin. On chart review, 6 out of 29 discharged patients had evidence of immunity. 133 staff were screened and 54 referred to OHS (see table). Conclusion. As evident with numerous COVID outbreaks in inpatient Psychiatry units, communicable diseases are difficult to control. Patients are in an interactive communal setting and participate in group sessions. For better care and safety of patients and staff, our unit will screen and offer HAV vaccine to new admissions.

3.
Occupational medicine (Oxford, England) ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601986

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a significant impact on hospitals, including the occupational health departments in charge of handling healthcare worker (HCW) staffing during high rates of exposure and infection of HCWs. HCWs who were exposed to a patient or community member infected with SARS-CoV-2 were required to isolate from work for a minimum of 14 days from the date of exposure. Aims This study was aimed to assess the relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection following different types of workplace and community exposures. Methods We analyzed the details of workplace and community exposures of HCWs to SARS-CoV-2 at Montefiore Medical Center in New York between 22 June 2020 and 22 November 2020. Results Of 562 HCW SARS-CoV-2 exposures analyzed, 218 were from the community and 345 were from the workplace. Twenty-nine per cent of community exposures resulted in infection, which was significantly greater than workplace exposure infection (2%). Household community exposures resulted in a larger frequency of infection than non-household community exposures. Of the seven infections after workplace exposures, five had qualifying exposures to a co-worker and two were exposed to an infected patient during a non-aerosolized procedure. Conclusions HCW exposure to SARS-CoV-2 continues to present staffing challenges to healthcare systems. Even with deviations from standard personal protective equipment protocol, workplace exposures resulted in low frequencies of infection. In our study, the primary source of HCW infection was exposure in the community. Our findings support investing in efforts to educate around continued masking and social distancing in the community in addition to interventions targeted at addressing vaccine hesitancy.

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