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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been shown to reduce mortality and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been suggested that serum cytokines levels are markers of disease severity in ARDS, although there is only limited evidence of a relationship between the longitudinal cytokine profile and clinical outcomes in patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS treated with GC. METHODS: We conducted a single-center observational study to investigate serial plasma cytokine levels in 17 patients supported with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in order to compare the response in five patients who progressed to IMV versus 12 patients who continued with NIV alone. All patients received methylprednisolone 80 mg/day continuous infusion until clinical improvement. RESULTS: The study groups were comparable at baseline. All patients survived. Although IL-6 was higher in the NIV group at baseline, several cytokines were significantly higher in the IMV group on day 7 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, G-CSF, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α) and 14 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, G-CSF, MIP-1α, RANTES). No significant differences were observed between groups on day 28. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in the IMV group had higher inflammation levels at intubation than the NIV group, which may indicate a higher resistance to glucocorticoids. Higher GC doses or a longer treatment duration in these patients might have allowed for a better control of inflammation and a better outcome. Further studies are required to define the prognostic value of cytokine patterns, in terms of both GC treatment tailoring and timely initiation of IMV.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 170: 10-16, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients with cancer who recover from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience COVID-19 sequelae in the early post-infection phase, which negatively affect their continuity of care and oncological outcome. The long-term prevalence and clinical impact of the post-COVID-19 syndrome in patients with cancer are largely unknown. METHODS: In this study, we describe the time course of COVID-19 sequelae in patients with non-advanced cancers enrolled in the OnCovid registry. RESULTS: Overall, 186 patients were included, with a median observation period of 9.9 months (95%CI:8,8-11.3) post-COVID-19 resolution. After a median interval of 2.3 months post-COVID-19 (interquartile range: 1.4-3.7), 31 patients (16.6%) reported ≥1 sequelae, including respiratory complications (14, 7.6%), fatigue (13, 7.1%), neuro-cognitive sequelae (7, 3.8%). The vast majority of the patients were not vaccinated prior to COVID-19. COVID-19-related sequelae persisted in 9.8% and 8% of patients 6 and 12 months after COVID-19 resolution. Persistence of sequelae at first oncological follow-up was associated with history of complicated COVID-19 (45.2% vs 24.8%, p = 0.0223), irrespective of oncological features at COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study confirms for the first time that, in a largely unvaccinated population, post-COVID-19 syndrome can affect a significant proportion of patients with non-advanced cancer who recovered from the acute illness. COVID-19 sequelae may persist up to 12 months in some patients, highlighting the need for dedicated prevention and supportive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Progression , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Registries
3.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(11):2951, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857696

ABSTRACT

Background. Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been shown to reduce mortality and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been suggested that serum cytokines levels are markers of disease severity in ARDS, although there is only limited evidence of a relationship between the longitudinal cytokine profile and clinical outcomes in patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS treated with GC. Methods. We conducted a single-center observational study to investigate serial plasma cytokine levels in 17 patients supported with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in order to compare the response in five patients who progressed to IMV versus 12 patients who continued with NIV alone. All patients received methylprednisolone 80 mg/day continuous infusion until clinical improvement. Results. The study groups were comparable at baseline. All patients survived. Although IL-6 was higher in the NIV group at baseline, several cytokines were significantly higher in the IMV group on day 7 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, G-CSF, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α) and 14 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, G-CSF, MIP-1α, RANTES). No significant differences were observed between groups on day 28. Conclusions. Patients in the IMV group had higher inflammation levels at intubation than the NIV group, which may indicate a higher resistance to glucocorticoids. Higher GC doses or a longer treatment duration in these patients might have allowed for a better control of inflammation and a better outcome. Further studies are required to define the prognostic value of cytokine patterns, in terms of both GC treatment tailoring and timely initiation of IMV.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732024

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 exerted a strong impact on the Italian healthcare systems, which in turn resulted in a reduction in the citizens' trust towards healthcare authorities. Moreover, the focused attention on the typical COVID-19 symptoms (fever, cough) has also impacted the social representation of health priorities, potentially reducing the perceived importance and severity of other symptoms. This study aimed to determine the association of general-practitioner (GP) contact with various symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in Cremona, an Italian city at the very epicentre of the pandemic. Between April and June 2020, an anonymous survey was completed by 2161 respondents. Logistic-regression analyses were used to examine the associations of GP contact with sociodemographic characteristics and the presence of symptoms. Of the 2161 respondents (43.5% female, 75.0% aged less than 55 years), 959 (44.4%) reported experiencing various symptoms and 33.3% contacted a GP. GP contact was significantly associated with poor appetite (OR, 2.42; 95% CI 1.63 to 3.62; p < 0.001), taste dysfunctions (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.34; p < 0.001) and sleepiness during the day (OR 4.15; 95% CI 2.13 to 8.09; p = 0.002). None of the gastrointestinal symptoms resulted in significantly increasing the likelihood of contacting a GP. This study offers a unique observation of citizens' attitudes and behaviours in early symptom communication/detection during the initial peak of the Italian COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Participation , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(1): 114-122, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530068

ABSTRACT

Importance: Whether the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with cancer have improved in terms of disease management and capacity is yet to be defined. Objective: To test whether severity and mortality from COVID-19 among patients with cancer have improved during the course of the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: OnCovid is a European registry that collects data on consecutive patients with solid or hematologic cancer and COVID-19. This multicenter case series study included real-world data from 35 institutions across 6 countries (UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany). This update included patients diagnosed between February 27, 2020, and February, 14, 2021. Inclusion criteria were confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of solid or hematologic cancer. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths were differentiated at 14 days and 3 months as the 2 landmark end points. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared by stratifying patients across 5 phases (February to March 2020, April to June 2020, July to September 2020, October to December 2020, and January to February 2021) and across 2 major outbreaks (February to June 2020 and July 2020 to February 2021). Results: At data cutoff, 2795 consecutive patients were included, with 2634 patients eligible for analysis (median [IQR] age, 68 [18-77] years ; 52.8% men). Eligible patients demonstrated significant time-dependent improvement in 14-day case-fatality rate (CFR) with estimates of 29.8% (95% CI, 0.26-0.33) for February to March 2020; 20.3% (95% CI, 0.17-0.23) for April to June 2020; 12.5% (95% CI, 0.06-22.90) for July to September 2020; 17.2% (95% CI, 0.15-0.21) for October to December 2020; and 14.5% (95% CI, 0.09-0.21) for January to February 2021 (all P < .001) across the predefined phases. Compared with the second major outbreak, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak were more likely to be 65 years or older (974 of 1626 [60.3%] vs 564 of 1008 [56.1%]; P = .03), have at least 2 comorbidities (793 of 1626 [48.8%] vs 427 of 1008 [42.4%]; P = .001), and have advanced tumors (708 of 1626 [46.4%] vs 536 of 1008 [56.1%]; P < .001). Complications of COVID-19 were more likely to be seen (738 of 1626 [45.4%] vs 342 of 1008 [33.9%]; P < .001) and require hospitalization (969 of 1626 [59.8%] vs 418 of 1008 [42.1%]; P < .001) and anti-COVID-19 therapy (1004 of 1626 [61.7%] vs 501 of 1008 [49.7%]; P < .001) during the first major outbreak. The 14-day CFRs for the first and second major outbreaks were 25.6% (95% CI, 0.23-0.28) vs 16.2% (95% CI, 0.13-0.19; P < .001), respectively. After adjusting for country, sex, age, comorbidities, tumor stage and status, anti-COVID-19 and anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 complications, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak had an increased risk of death at 14 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.47-2.32) and 3 months (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51) compared with those diagnosed in the second outbreak. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this registry-based study suggest that mortality in patients with cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 has improved in Europe; this improvement may be associated with earlier diagnosis, improved management, and dynamic changes in community transmission over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211053416, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are at higher risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality than the rest of the population. Breast cancer patients seem to have better prognosis when infected by SARS-CoV-2 than other cancer patients. METHODS: We report a subanalysis of the OnCovid study providing more detailed information in the breast cancer population. RESULTS: We included 495 breast cancer patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mean age was 62.6 years; 31.5% presented more than one comorbidity. The most frequent breast cancer subtype was luminal-like (n = 245, 49.5%) and 177 (35.8%) had metastatic disease. A total of 332 (67.1%) patients were receiving active treatment, with radical intent in 232 (47.6%) of them. Hospitalization rate was 58.2% and all-cause mortality rate was 20.3%. One hundred twenty-nine (26.1%) patients developed one COVID-19 complication, being acute respiratory failure the most common (n = 74, 15.0%). In the multivariable analysis, age older than 70 years, presence of COVID-19 complications, and metastatic disease were factors correlated with worse outcomes, while ongoing anticancer therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis appeared to be a protective factor. No particular oncological treatment was related to higher risk of complications. In the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 73 (18.3%) patients had some kind of modification on their oncologic treatment. At the first oncological reassessment (median time: 46.9 days ± 36.7), 255 (51.6%) patients reported to be fully recovered from the infection. There were 39 patients (7.9%) with long-term SARS-CoV-2-related complications. CONCLUSION: In the context of COVID-19, our data confirm that breast cancer patients appear to have lower complications and mortality rate than expected in other cancer populations. Most breast cancer patients can be safely treated for their neoplasm during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Oncological treatment has no impact on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 complications, and, especially in the curative setting, the treatment should be modified as little as possible.

7.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1669-1680, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 in patients with cancer is not yet known. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and their impact on the survival of patients with cancer. We also aimed to describe patterns of resumption and modifications of systemic anti-cancer therapy following recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: OnCovid is an active European registry study enrolling consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with a history of solid or haematological malignancy and who had a diagnosis of RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this retrospective study, patients were enrolled from 35 institutions across Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, and entered into the registry at the point of data lock (March 1, 2021), were eligible for analysis. The present analysis was focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent clinical reassessment at each participating institution. We documented prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and described factors associated with their development and their association with post-COVID-19 survival, which was defined as the interval from post-COVID-19 reassessment to the patients' death or last follow-up. We also evaluated resumption of systemic anti-cancer therapy in patients treated within 4 weeks of COVID-19 diagnosis. The OnCovid study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974. FINDINGS: 2795 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, were entered into the study by the time of the data lock on March 1, 2021. After the exclusion of ineligible patients, the final study population consisted of 2634 patients. 1557 COVID-19 survivors underwent a formal clinical reassessment after a median of 22·1 months (IQR 8·4-57·8) from cancer diagnosis and 44 days (28-329) from COVID-19 diagnosis. 234 (15·0%) patients reported COVID-19 sequelae, including respiratory symptoms (116 [49·6%]) and residual fatigue (96 [41·0%]). Sequelae were more common in men (vs women; p=0·041), patients aged 65 years or older (vs other age groups; p=0·048), patients with two or more comorbidities (vs one or none; p=0·0006), and patients with a history of smoking (vs no smoking history; p=0·0004). Sequelae were associated with hospitalisation for COVID-19 (p<0·0001), complicated COVID-19 (p<0·0001), and COVID-19 therapy (p=0·0002). With a median post-COVID-19 follow-up of 128 days (95% CI 113-148), COVID-19 sequelae were associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1·80 [95% CI 1·18-2·75]) after adjusting for time to post-COVID-19 reassessment, sex, age, comorbidity burden, tumour characteristics, anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 severity. Among 466 patients on systemic anti-cancer therapy, 70 (15·0%) permanently discontinued therapy, and 178 (38·2%) resumed treatment with a dose or regimen adjustment. Permanent treatment discontinuations were independently associated with an increased risk of death (HR 3·53 [95% CI 1·45-8·59]), but dose or regimen adjustments were not (0·84 [0·35-2·02]). INTERPRETATION: Sequelae post-COVID-19 affect up to 15% of patients with cancer and adversely affect survival and oncological outcomes after recovery. Adjustments to systemic anti-cancer therapy can be safely pursued in treatment-eligible patients. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Belgium , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , France , Germany , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain , United Kingdom
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 150: 190-202, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite high contagiousness and rapid spread, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to heterogeneous outcomes across affected nations. Within Europe (EU), the United Kingdom (UK) is the most severely affected country, with a death toll in excess of 100,000 as of January 2021. We aimed to compare the national impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the risk of death in UK patients with cancer versus those in continental EU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the OnCovid study database, a European registry of patients with cancer consecutively diagnosed with COVID-19 in 27 centres from 27th February to 10th September 2020. We analysed case fatality rates and risk of death at 30 days and 6 months stratified by region of origin (UK versus EU). We compared patient characteristics at baseline including oncological and COVID-19-specific therapy across UK and EU cohorts and evaluated the association of these factors with the risk of adverse outcomes in multivariable Cox regression models. FINDINGS: Compared with EU (n = 924), UK patients (n = 468) were characterised by higher case fatality rates (40.38% versus 26.5%, p < 0.0001) and higher risk of death at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.36-1.99]) and 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis (47.64% versus 33.33%; p < 0.0001; HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.33-1.88]). UK patients were more often men, were of older age and have more comorbidities than EU counterparts (p < 0.01). Receipt of anticancer therapy was lower in UK than in EU patients (p < 0.001). Despite equal proportions of complicated COVID-19, rates of intensive care admission and use of mechanical ventilation, UK patients with cancer were less likely to receive anti-COVID-19 therapies including corticosteroids, antivirals and interleukin-6 antagonists (p < 0.0001). Multivariable analyses adjusted for imbalanced prognostic factors confirmed the UK cohort to be characterised by worse risk of death at 30 days and 6 months, independent of the patient's age, gender, tumour stage and status; number of comorbidities; COVID-19 severity and receipt of anticancer and anti-COVID-19 therapy. Rates of permanent cessation of anticancer therapy after COVID-19 were similar in the UK and EU cohorts. INTERPRETATION: UK patients with cancer have been more severely impacted by the unfolding of the COVID-19 pandemic despite societal risk mitigation factors and rapid deferral of anticancer therapy. The increased frailty of UK patients with cancer highlights high-risk groups that should be prioritised for anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Continued evaluation of long-term outcomes is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The systemic inflammatory response is a pathogenic mechanism shared by cancer progression and COVID-19. We investigated systemic inflammation as a driver of severity and mortality from COVID-19, evaluating the prognostic role of commonly used inflammatory indices in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with cancer accrued to the OnCovid study. METHODS: In a multicenter cohort of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with cancer in Europe, we evaluated dynamic changes in neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR); platelet:lymphocyte ratio (PLR); Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), renamed the OnCovid Inflammatory Score (OIS); modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS); and Prognostic Index (PI) in relation to oncological and COVID-19 infection features, testing their prognostic potential in independent training (n=529) and validation (n=542) sets. RESULTS: We evaluated 1071 eligible patients, of which 625 (58.3%) were men, and 420 were patients with malignancy in advanced stage (39.2%), most commonly genitourinary (n=216, 20.2%). 844 (78.8%) had ≥1 comorbidity and 754 (70.4%) had ≥1 COVID-19 complication. NLR, OIS, and mGPS worsened at COVID-19 diagnosis compared with pre-COVID-19 measurement (p<0.01), recovering in survivors to pre-COVID-19 levels. Patients in poorer risk categories for each index except the PLR exhibited higher mortality rates (p<0.001) and shorter median overall survival in the training and validation sets (p<0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed the OIS to be most independently predictive of survival (validation set HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.20, p=0.001; adjusted concordance index score 0.611). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation is a validated prognostic domain in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with cancer and can be used as a bedside predictor of adverse outcome. Lymphocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia as computed by the OIS are independently predictive of severe COVID-19, supporting their use for risk stratification. Reversal of the COVID-19-induced proinflammatory state is a putative therapeutic strategy in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prognosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136460

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients may be at high risk of infection and poor outcomes related to SARS-CoV-2. Analyzing their prognosis, examining the effects of baseline characteristics and systemic anti-cancer active therapy (SACT) are critical to their management through the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. The AIOM-L CORONA was a multicenter, observational, ambispective, cohort study, with the intended participation of 26 centers in the Lombardy region (Italy). A total of 231 cases were included between March and September 2020. The median age was 68 years; 151 patients (62.2%) were receiving SACT, mostly chemotherapy. During a median follow-up of 138 days (range 12-218), 93 events occurred. Age ≥60 years, metastatic dissemination, dyspnea, desaturation, and interstitial pneumonia were all independent mortality predictors. Overall SACT had a neutral effect (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.83, 95%Confidence Interval [95%CI] 0.32-2.15); however, metastatic patients receiving SACT were less likely to die as compared to untreated counterparts, after adjusting for other confounding variables (OR 0.23, 95%CI 0.11-0.51, p < 0.001). Among cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, those with metastases were most at risk of death, especially in the absence of SACT. During the ongoing pandemic, these vulnerable patients should avoid exposure to SARS-CoV-2, while treatment adjustments and prioritizing vaccination are being considered according to international recommendations.

11.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 162-172, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060222

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected healthcare systems globally, leading to reorganization of medical activities. We performed an international survey aimed to investigate the medium- and long-term impact on oncology units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 82-item survey was distributed from June 17 to July 14, 2020 among medical oncologists worldwide. RESULTS: One hundred nine medical oncologists from 18 countries in Europe (n = 93), United States (n = 5), and Latin America (n = 11) answered the survey. A systematic tracing of COVID-19-positive patients was continued in the postacute phase by 77.1% of the centers; 64.2% of the respondents participated in a local registry and 56% in international or national registries of infected patients. Treatment adaptations were introduced, and surgery was the most affected modality being delayed or canceled in more than 10% of patients in 34% of the centers, whereas early cessation of palliative treatment was reported in 32.1% of the centers; 64.2% of respondents reported paying attention to avoid undertreatments. The use of telemedicine has been largely increased. Similarly, virtual tools are increasingly used particularly for medical education and international or national or multidisciplinary meetings. 60.6% of the participants reduced clinical activity, and 28.4% compensated by increasing their research activity. Significant reduction of clinical trial activities is expected in 37% of centers this year. The well-being of healthcare staff would not recover by the end of the year according to 18% of the participants. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 outbreak has had a major impact on oncologic activity, which will persist in the future, irrespective of geographical areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/trends , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Adult , Clinical Trials as Topic , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Geography , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Internet , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Registries , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine , United States/epidemiology
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 433-440, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Canakinumab is an IL-1ß antibody that neutralises the activity of IL-1ß. This study examined the efficacy and safety of canakinumab in patients with moderate COVID-19-related pneumonia. DESIGN: This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in duration of hospitalisation with adequate oxygen status. Forty-eight patients with moderate COVID-19-related pneumonia were asked to participate in the prospective case-control study: 33 patients (cases) signed informed consent and received canakinumab (Cohort 1) and 15 patients (Controls) refused to receive the experimental drug and received institutional standard of care (Cohort 2). RESULTS: Hospital discharge within 21 days was seen in 63% of patients in Cohort 1 vs. 0% in Cohort 2 (median 14 vs. 26 days, respectively; p < 0.001). There was significant clinical improvement in ventilation regimes following administration of canakinumab compared with Cohort 2 (Stuart-Maxwell test for paired data, p < 0.001). Patients treated with canakinumab experienced a significant increase in PaO2:FiO2 (p < 0.001) and reduction in lung damage by CT (p = 0.01), along with significant decreases in immune/inflammation markers that were not observed in Cohort 2. Only mild side-effects were seen in patients treated with canakinumab; survival at 60 days was 90.0% (95% CI 71.9-96.7) in patients treated with canakinumab and 73.3% (95% CI 43.6-89.1) for Cohort 2. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with canakinumab in patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia rapidly restored normal oxygen status, decreased the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and was associated with earlier hospital discharge and favourable prognosis versus standard of care.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
13.
ESMO Open ; 5(4)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 appeared in late 2019, causing a pandemic spread. This led to a reorganisation of oncology care in order to reduce the risk of spreading infection between patients and healthcare staff. Here we analysed measures taken in major oncological units in Europe and the USA. METHODS: A 46-item survey was sent by email to representatives of 30 oncological centres in 12 of the most affected countries. The survey inquired about preventive measures established to reduce virus spread, patient education and processes employed for risk reduction in each oncological unit. RESULTS: Investigators from 21 centres in 10 countries answered the survey between 10 April and 6 May 2020. A triage for patients with cancer before hospital or clinic visits was conducted by 90.5% of centres before consultations, 95.2% before day care admissions and in 100% of the cases before overnight hospitalisation by means of phone calls, interactive online platforms, swab test and/or chest CT scan. Permission for caregivers to attend clinic visits was limited in many centres, with some exceptions (ie, for non-autonomous patients, in the case of a new diagnosis, when bad news was expected and for terminally ill patients). With a variable delay period, the use of personal protective equipment was unanimously mandatory, and in many centres, only targeted clinical and instrumental examinations were performed. Telemedicine was implemented in 76.2% of the centres. Separated pathways for COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative patients were organised, with separate inpatient units and day care areas. Self-isolation was required for COVID-19-positive or symptomatic staff, while return to work policies required a negative swab test in 76.2% of the centres. CONCLUSION: Many pragmatic measures have been quickly implemented to deal with the health emergency linked to COVID-19, although the relative efficacy of each intervention should be further analysed in large observational studies.


Subject(s)
Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cancer Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Disinfection , Europe/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage , United States/epidemiology , Visitors to Patients
14.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690968

ABSTRACT

The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic significantly impacted on oncology practice across the globe. There is uncertainty as to the contribution of patients' demographics and oncological features on severity and mortality from Covid-19 and little guidance as to the role of anti-cancer and anti-Covid-19 therapy in this population. In a multi-center study of 890 cancer patients with confirmed Covid-19 we demonstrated a worsening gradient of mortality from breast cancer to haematological malignancies and showed that male gender, older age, and number of co-morbidities identifies a subset of patients with significantly worse mortality rates from Covid-19. Provision of chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy did not worsen mortality. Exposure to antimalarials was associated with improved mortality rates independent of baseline prognostic factors. This study highlights the clinical utility of demographic factors for individualized risk-stratification of patients and support further research into emerging anti-Covid-19 therapeutics in SARS-Cov-2 infected cancer patients.

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