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Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20171371

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has declared SARS-CoV-2 virus outbreak a world-wide pandemic. Individuals infected by the virus exhibited different degrees of symptoms, the basis of which remains largely unclear. Currently, though convalescent individuals have been shown with both cellular and humoral immune responses, there is very limited understanding on the immune responses, especially adaptive immune responses, in patients with severe COVID-19. Here, we examined 10 blood samples from COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The majority of them (70%) mounted SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity with production of neutralizing antibodies. However, compared to healthy controls, the percentages and absolute numbers of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells were significantly reduced, accompanied with decreased IFN{gamma} expression in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood from severe patients. Most notably, we failed in detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific IFN{gamma} production by peripheral blood lymphocytes from these patients. Our work thus indicates that COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms are associated with defective cellular immunity, which not only provides insights on understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19, but also has implications in developing an effective vaccine to SARS-CoV-2.

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