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1.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2823-2827, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 is a concerning issue among in-center hemodialysis (HD) patients. To prevent COVID-19 diffusion in our HD facility, weekly rapid nasal antigen test screening was performed for all asymptomatic patients on chronic HD. This study aimed to assess the performance of weekly rapid antigen test in detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic patients receiving HD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted in HD patients who underwent rapid antigen test screening from December 2021 to March 2022. The diagnosis of COVID-19 with rapid antigen test was always confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: During the observational period, 1,748 rapid antigen tests were performed in 220 HD patients. Mean age was 68.4±14.6 years. Fifteen (8.5%) patients resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using rapid antigen tests. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed in 14 (93.3%) patients by RT-PCR. During the same period, 12 (5.4%) symptomatic patients, regularly screened with weekly rapid antigen test, resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection using RT-PCR. Overall, weekly rapid antigen test screening identified 14 out of 26 (53.8%) COVID-19 cases and showed a positive predictive value of 93%. CONCLUSION: Weekly antigen test screening of asymptomatic patients on chronic HD detected around half of the COVID-19 cases in our population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing , Renal Dialysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Int J Nephrol ; 2022: 4678717, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029562

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients receiving in-center hemodialysis are extremely vulnerable to COVID-19. It is unclear if routine screening of asymptomatic hemodialysis patients is an effective strategy to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks within the dialysis unit. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of in-center hemodialysis patients who underwent bimonthly COVID-19 rapid antigen test screening from February 15th to December 26th, 2021. Nasal rapid antigen testing was performed in all asymptomatic patients. All rapid antigen-positive tests were confirmed by RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab. Besides universal rapid antigen screening, RT-PCR testing was conducted in all symptomatic patients and contacts of COVID-19 subjects. Results: Overall, 4079 rapid antigen tests were performed in 277 hemodialysis patients on chronic hemodialysis with a mean age of 68.4 ± 14.6 years. Thirty-eight (0.9%) rapid antigen tests resulted positive. Only five (13.8%) positive-rapid antigen tests were also positive by RT-PCR testing. During the same period, 219 patients regularly screened by rapid antigen tests bimonthly underwent 442 RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swabs for clinical reasons. RT-PCR testing yielded a positive result in 13 (5.9%) patients. The time elapsed between PCR and the negative-rapid antigen test was 7.7 ± 4.6 days (range 1.8-13.9 days). At the end of the follow-up, 6.4% of the population on in-center hemodialysis contracted COVID-19, and routine rapid antigen tests detected only 5 out of 18 (27.7%) COVID-19 cases. No outbreaks of COVID-19 were identified within the dialysis unit. Conclusion: Bimonthly rapid antigen screening led to the early diagnosis of COVID-19 in less than one-third of cases. The short incubation period of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants makes bimonthly test screening inadequate for an early diagnosis of COVID-19. More frequent tests are probably necessary to improve the utility of COVID-19 nasal rapid antigen test in patients on hemodialysis.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(6): 706-713, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in immunocompetent critically ill patients is common and relates to a worsening outcome. In this large observational study, we evaluated the incidence and the risk factors associated with CMV reactivation and its effects on mortality in a large cohort of patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to three ICUs from February 2020 to July 2021 were included. The patients were screened at ICU admission and once or twice per week for quantitative CMV-DNAemia in the blood. The risk factors associated with CMV blood reactivation and its association with mortality were estimated by adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: CMV blood reactivation was observed in 88 patients (20.4%) of the 431 patients studied. Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score (HR 1031, 95% CI 1010-1053, p = 0.006), platelet count (HR 0.0996, 95% CI 0.993-0.999, p = 0.004), invasive mechanical ventilation (HR 2611, 95% CI 1223-5571, p = 0.013) and secondary bacterial infection (HR 5041; 95% CI 2852-8911, p < 0.0001) during ICU stay were related to CMV reactivation. Hospital mortality was higher in patients with (67.0%) than in patients without (24.5%) CMV reactivation but the adjusted analysis did not confirm this association (HR 1141, 95% CI 0.757-1721, p = 0.528). CONCLUSION: The severity of illness and the occurrence of secondary bacterial infections were associated with an increased risk of CMV blood reactivation, which, however, does not seem to influence the outcome of COVID-19 ICU patients independently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Critical Illness , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex 1 co-infections in patients with COVID-19 are considered relatively uncommon; some reports on re-activations in patients in intensive-care units were published. The aim of the study was to analyze herpetic re-activations and their clinical manifestations in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, performing HSV-1 PCR on plasma twice a week. METHODS: we conducted a prospective, observational, single-center study involving 70 consecutive patients with severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia tested for HSV-1 hospitalized at Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Modena. RESULTS: of these 70 patients, 21 (30.0%) showed detectable viremia and 13 (62%) had clinically relevant manifestations of HSV-1 infection corresponding to 15 events (4 pneumonia, 5 herpes labialis, 3 gingivostomatitis, one encephalitis and two hepatitis). HSV-1 positive patients were more frequently treated with steroids than HSV-1 negative patients (76.2% vs. 49.0%, p = 0.036) and more often underwent mechanical ventilation (IMV) (57.1% vs. 22.4%, p = 0.005). In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, steroid treatment, IMV, and higher LDH were significantly associated with an increased risk of HSV1 re-activation (odds ratio 3.33, 4.61, and 16.9, respectively). The association with the use of steroids was even stronger after controlling for previous use of both tocilizumab and IMV (OR = 5.13, 95% CI:1.36-19.32, p = 0.016). The effect size was larger when restricting to participants who were treated with high doses of steroids while there was no evidence to support an association with the use of tocilizumab Conclusions: our study shows a high incidence of HSV-1 re-activation both virologically and clinically in patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia, especially in those treated with steroids.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab283, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324646

ABSTRACT

We compared 90-90-90 targets in 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with the targets across the period 2017-2019 in people with HIV. We observed a significant loss in the 90-90-90 objectives in 2020 when compared with 2017-2019 that might be attributable to the COVID-19 crisis.

6.
Pediatrics ; 146(6)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742565

ABSTRACT

There are increasing concerns regarding coronavirus disease, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Approaches to breastfeeding and the management of neonates born to pauci-symptomatic mothers with coronavirus disease vary worldwide, although some scientific societies across Europe and the United States have emphasized the benefits of breastfeeding, even with expressed breast milk. Because SARS-CoV-2 has been, thus far, only exceptionally detected in breast milk, the risk of disease transmission has remained hypothetical.We herein report the case of a healthy preterm newborn who was inadvertently fed SARS-CoV-2-positive breast milk. Two different samples, collected with and without strict hygiene precautions, were both confirmed to be SARS-CoV-2 positive. However, the newborn was not infected, supporting the protective role of breast milk. Furthermore, in this report, we highlight the difficulties in the practical management of a neonate whose breastfeeding mother was confirmed as positive for SARS-CoV-2 after delivery.


Subject(s)
Breast Milk Expression , COVID-19/diagnosis , Milk, Human/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tissue Donors
7.
Platelets ; 31(8): 1085-1089, 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733448

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency with many clinical facets, and new knowledge about its pathogenetic mechanisms is deemed necessary; among these, there are certainly coagulation disorders. In the history of medicine, autopsies and tissue sampling have played a fundamental role in order to understand the pathogenesis of emerging diseases, including infectious ones; compared to the past, histopathology can be now expanded by innovative techniques and modern technologies. For the first time in worldwide literature, we provide a detailed postmortem and biopsy report on the marked increase, up to 1 order of magnitude, of naked megakaryocyte nuclei in the bone marrow and lungs from serious COVID-19 patients. Most likely related to high interleukin-6 serum levels stimulating megakaryocytopoiesis, this phenomenon concurs to explain well the pulmonary abnormal immunothrombosis in these critically ill patients, all without molecular or electron microscopy signs of megakaryocyte infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Bone Marrow/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Bone Marrow/immunology , Bone Marrow/virology , COVID-19 , Cell Nucleus/immunology , Cell Nucleus/pathology , Cell Nucleus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Male , Megakaryocytes/immunology , Megakaryocytes/pathology , Megakaryocytes/virology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombopoiesis/immunology , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(1): e252-e255, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729104

ABSTRACT

We report two fatal cases of acute liver failure secondary to herpes simplex virus 1 infection in COVID-19 patients, following tocilizumab and corticosteroid therapy. Screening for and prompt recognition of herpes simplex virus 1 reactivation in these patients, undergoing immunomodulatory treatment, may have potentially relevant clinical consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Simplex , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Liver Failure, Acute , Humans , Immunomodulation , SARS-CoV-2
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