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Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081884


Inflammation plays a crucial role in worsening coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Calprotectin is a pro-inflammatory molecule produced by monocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes. The aim of the study was to evaluate both the prognostic role of circulating calprotectin levels and neutrophil count toward fatal outcome in COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively collected and analyzed data on 195 COVID-19 adult patients, 156 hospitalized in the infectious disease unit and 39 in the intensive care unit (ICU). Calprotectin levels and neutrophil counts measured at the first hospitalization day were higher in the patients with a fatal outcome than in surviving ones. The association of high calprotectin levels and neutrophil count to patient death remain significant by logistic regression, independent of patient age. ROC curves analysis for calprotectin levels and neutrophil count revealed a good discriminatory power toward survival (area under the curve of 0.759 and 0.843, respectively) and identified the best cut-off (1.66 mg/L and 16.39 × 103/µL, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed the prognostic role of high calprotectin levels and neutrophil count in death prediction. In conclusion, this study highlights that calprotectin levels together with neutrophil count should be considered as biomarkers of mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 15: 499-514, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887051


Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a multisystemic, rare, inherited, progressive and adult-onset disease, affecting the sensorimotor nerves, heart, autonomic function and other organs. The actual scenario of pharmaceutical approaches for ATTRv amyloidosis includes five main groups: TTR stabilizers, TTR mRNA silencers, TTR fibril disruptors, inhibitor of TTR fibril seeding and gene therapy. Patisiran is a small, double-stranded interfering RNA encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle, able to penetrate into hepatocytes, where it selectively targets TTR mRNA, reducing TTR production. We report and discuss 9 cases of different patients with ATTRv amyloidosis successfully managed with patisiran in the real clinical practice. Literature data, as well as the above presented case reports, show that this drug is effective and safe in improving both neurological and cardiovascular symptoms of ATTRv amyloidosis, and to maintain a good QoL, independently form the stage of the disease and the involved mutation. Recent studies correlated improved functional and biochemical outcomes with a regression of amyloid burden, especially at the cardiac level. Today, patisiran can be considered a valid therapeutic option for the management of patients with ATTRv amyloidosis and polyneuropathy and cardiovascular symptoms.

Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067744


Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a large family of RNA viruses that can infect different living species, posing a global threat to human health. CoVs can evade the immune response, replicate within the host, and cause a rapid immune compromise culminating in severe acute respiratory syndrome. In humans, the immune system functions are influenced by physical activity, nutrition, and the absence of respiratory or cardiovascular diseases. This review provides an in-depth study between the interactions of the immune system and coronaviruses in the host to defend against CoVs disease.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diet , Exercise , Immune System , Respiratory Tract Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology