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Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S805-S806, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564154


Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicits antibodies (Abs) that bind several viral proteins such as the spike entry protein and the abundant nucleocapsid (N) protein. We examined convalescent sera collected through 6 months (~24wks) post-SARS-CoV-2 infection in children to evaluate changes in neutralization potency and N-binding. Methods Outpatient, hospitalized, and community recruited volunteers < 18 years with COVID-19 were enrolled in a longitudinal study at Seattle Children’s Hospital. Analysis includes symptomatic and asymptomatic children with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who provided blood samples at approximately 4wks (range: 2-18wks, IQR:4-8wks) and 24 wks (range: 23-35wks, IQR:25-27wks) after diagnosis. We measured neutralizing Ab using an in-house pseudoneutralization assay and anti-N binding Ab using the Abbott Architect assay. Results Of 32 children enrolled between April 2020 and January 2021, 27 had no underlying immunocompromised state and 25 of these 27 children had symptomatic disease. Ten of 27 had a > 2-fold decrease neutralization titers between 4 and 24wks (most were < 10-fold);12 had < 2-fold change;and 5 had neutralization titers that increased > 2-fold over time (Fig. 1A). All but one of these 27 children had detectable neutralizing activity at 24wks. Anti-N Abs were assessed for 25 children at 4wks and 17 children at 24wks (data pending for 14 samples);all children with paired samples had a > 1.75-fold Abbott index reduction at 24wks, and 5 children had no detectable anti-N Abs by 24wks (Fig. 2A). An additional 5 children with symptomatic disease had complicating immunosuppression or multiple blood transfusions;2 had decreasing neutralizing titers, 2 increased, and 1 had no change (Fig. 1B). Anti-N Abs were undetectable for one child by 24wks (data pending for 4 samples) (Fig. 2B). No participants received COVID-19 vaccine. Figure 1. Pseusoneutralization titers in children over time. Figure 2. Nucleocapsid-binding antibody titers in children over time. Conclusion We show neutralizing Abs wane to a small degree over 24wks post-SARS-CoV-2 infection and remain detectable in most children. In contrast, anti-N Abs decreased, becoming undetectable in some children by 24wks. These findings add to understanding of the natural history of SARS-CoV-2 immunity in children. * This study was supported by CDC BAA75D301-20-R-67897 Disclosures Jesse Bloom, PhD, Flagship Labs 77 (Consultant)Moderna (Consultant) Janet A. Englund, MD, AstraZeneca (Consultant, Grant/Research Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Consultant)Pfizer (Research Grant or Support)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant)Teva Pharmaceuticals (Consultant)

Sci Transl Med ; 13(600)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262380


The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with mutations in key antibody epitopes has raised concerns that antigenic evolution could erode adaptive immunity elicited by prior infection or vaccination. The susceptibility of immunity to viral evolution is shaped in part by the breadth of epitopes targeted by antibodies elicited by vaccination or natural infection. To investigate how human antibody responses to vaccines are influenced by viral mutations, we used deep mutational scanning to compare the specificity of polyclonal antibodies elicited by either two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine or natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. The neutralizing activity of vaccine-elicited antibodies was more targeted to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein compared to antibodies elicited by natural infection. However, within the RBD, binding of vaccine-elicited antibodies was more broadly distributed across epitopes compared to infection-elicited antibodies. This greater binding breadth means that single RBD mutations have less impact on neutralization by vaccine sera compared to convalescent sera. Therefore, antibody immunity acquired by natural infection or different modes of vaccination may have a differing susceptibility to erosion by SARS-CoV-2 evolution.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA, Messenger , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750632


An effective vaccine is essential for controlling the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we describe an influenza virus-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. We incorporated a membrane-anchored form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) in place of the neuraminidase (NA) coding sequence in an influenza virus also possessing a mutation that reduces the affinity of hemagglutinin for its sialic acid receptor. The resulting ΔNA(RBD)-Flu virus can be generated by reverse genetics and grown to high titers in cell culture. A single-dose intranasal inoculation of mice with ΔNA(RBD)-Flu elicits serum neutralizing antibody titers against SAR-CoV-2 comparable to those observed in humans following natural infection (~1:200). Furthermore, ΔNA(RBD)-Flu itself causes no apparent disease in mice. It might be possible to produce a vaccine similar to ΔNA(RBD)-Flu at scale by leveraging existing platforms for the production of influenza vaccines.

Coronavirus Infections , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chlamydia trachomatis , Fertility , Humans , Mice , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virion