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1.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 35(3): 290-296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791580

ABSTRACT

Background: Abnormalities in aminotransferases are frequently observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but their clinical impact is poorly characterized. Methods: A total of 1046 patients hospitalized to the non-intensive care unit ward with documented COVID-19 were included retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics on admission and during hospital stay, including the presence of liver injury (LI), defined as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >200 IU/L, were recorded. Results: On admission, 363 (34.7%) and 269 (25.7%) patients had abnormal AST and ALT values (i.e., >40 IU/L), respectively, while during hospitalization 53 (5%) patients fulfilled the criteria for LI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, AST (odds ratio [OR] 1.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.016-1.029; P<0.001), and ferritin (OR 1.01, 95%CI 1.001-1.02; P<0.001) were the baseline factors independently associated with the development of LI during hospital stay. One hundred twenty-three (11.7%) patients died during hospitalization. The independent variables associated with mortality were: age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.043, 95%CI 1.029-1.056; P<0.001), ferritin (HR 1.1, 95%CI 1.05-1.2; P<0.001), platelets (HR 0.996, 95%CI 0.994-0.999; P=0.003), and administration of remdesivir (HR 0.50, 95%CI 0.30-0.85; P=0.009). The patients with abnormal baseline AST (i.e., >40 IU/L), compared to those with normal AST values, had worse outcomes (log rank test: 8.8, P=0.003). Conclusions: Elevated aminotransferases are commonly seen in COVID-19 patients. They possibly reflect disease severity and may be associated with in-hospital mortality.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 850472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775706

ABSTRACT

Increased expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) in peripheral blood, has been previously reported in viral infections, as well as in autoimmune disorders, in association with reduced leukocyte and platelet counts. Though cytopenias are common in patients with COVID-19 disease and predict severe outcomes, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the current study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of hematological abnormalities in the setting of active COVID-19 infection and to explore whether they associate with disease outcomes and activation of type I IFN pathway. One-hundred-twenty-three consecutive SARS-CoV2 infected patients were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded for all study participants. In 114 patients, total RNA was extracted from whole peripheral blood and subjected to real time PCR. The relative expression of three interferon stimulated genes (ISGs; IFIT1, MX-1, and IFI44) was determined and a type I IFN score reflecting peripheral type I IFN activity was calculated. The rates of anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were 28.5, 14.6, and 24.4%, respectively. Among leukocytopenias, eosinopenia, and lymphopenia were the most prominent abnormalities being found in 56.9 and 43.1%, respectively. Of interest, patients with either eosinopenia and/or thrombocytopenia but no other hematological abnormalities displayed significantly increased peripheral type I IFN scores compared to their counterparts with normal/high eosinophil and platelet counts. While eosinopenia along with lymphopenia were found to be associated with increased risk for intubation and severe/critical disease, such an association was not detected between other hematological abnormalities or increased type I IFN scores. In conclusion, hematological abnormalities are commonly detected among patients with COVID-19 infection in association with severe disease outcomes and activation of the type I IFN pathway.

3.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(7):1810, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762282

ABSTRACT

We aimed to search for laboratory predictors of critical COVID-19 in consecutive adults admitted in an academic center between 16 September 2020–20 December 2021. Patients were uniformly treated with low-molecular-weight heparin, and dexamethasone plus remdesivir when SpO2 < 94%. Among consecutive unvaccinated patients without underlying medical conditions (n = 241, 49 year-old median, 71% males), 22 (9.1%) developed critical disease and 2 died (0.8%). White-blood-cell counts, neutrophils, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, LDH and γ-GT at admission were each univariably associated with critical disease. ROC-defined cutoffs revealed that CRP > 61.8 mg/L, fibrinogen > 616.5 mg/dL and LDH > 380.5 U/L were each associated with critical disease development, independently of age, sex and days from symptom-onset. A score combining higher-than-cutoff CRP (0/2), LDH (0/1) and fibrinogen (0/1) predicted critical disease (AUC: 0.873, 95% CI: 0.820–0.926). This score performed well in an unselected patient cohort (n = 1228, 100% unvaccinated) predominantly infected by the alpha variant (AUC: 0.718, 95% CI: 0.683–0.753), as well as in a mixed cohort (n = 527, 65% unvaccinated) predominantly infected by the delta variant (AUC: 0.708, 95% CI: 0.656–0.760). Therefore, we propose that a combination of standard biomarkers of acute inflammatory response, cell death and hypercoagulability reflects the severity of COVID-19 per se independently of comorbidities, age and sex, being of value for risk stratification in unselected patients.

4.
World J Crit Care Med ; 10(5): 278-289, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been reported that elderly patients are particularly at risk of developing severe illness and exhibiting increased mortality. While many studies on hospitalized elderly patients with COVID-19 have been published, limited information is available on the characteristics and clinical outcomes of those elderly patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). AIM: To review the available evidence of the clinical data of elderly patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19. METHODS: We searched for published articles available in English literature to identify those studies conducted in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19, either exclusively designed for the elderly or for the whole ICU population with COVID-19, provided that analyses according to the patients' age had been conducted. RESULTS: Only one study exclusively focusing on critically ill elderly patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 was found. Eighteen additional studies involving 17011 ICU patients and providing information for elderly patients as a subset of the whole study population have also been included in the present review article. Among the whole patient population, included in these studies, 8310 patients were older than 65 years of age and 2630 patients were older than 70 years. Clinical manifestations were similar for all patients; however, compared to younger ones, they suffered from more comorbidities and showed a varied, albeit high mortality. CONCLUSION: In summary, at present, although elderly patients constitute a considerable proportion of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU due to severe COVID-19, studies providing specific information are limited. The evidence so far suggests that advanced age and comorbidities are associated with worse clinical outcome. Future studies exclusively designed for this vulnerable group are needed.

5.
In Vivo ; 35(1): 641-648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Eosinophils are blood cells responsible for response against parasites and allergens. Eosinophil to lymphocyte ratio (ELR) is a biomarker for inflammatory conditions. Our aim was to evaluate the role of eosinophils and ELR in COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 96 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. They were classified into moderate to severe cases and critical cases. Eosinophils and ELR were determined in both groups, in patients that died or survived and were correlated to duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant decrease in eosinophils and ELR between patients that died and patients that survived (p<0.05), and in mean values of the two biomarkers (p<0.05 for eosinophils and p<0.05 for ELR) between patients hospitalized for more or less than 15 days among those with moderate to severe disease. CONCLUSION: Lower eosinophil counts and ERL could probably predict worse outcome in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Eosinophils , Lymphocytes , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
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