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1.
An Interdisciplinary Approach in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era ; CHAP: 77-87,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2093023

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has changed the lives of everyone for the worse in the world we live in. Even after two years, every part of the world is still being affected by economic downturns because of unemployment, downfalls in many businesses, and the closure of people in their homes. It has not only affected human health but also has an impact on the global economy that leads to job losses, business disruptions and makes us look back on one of the worst times ever for people on earth. Nearly all industries are declining sharply in their businesses, and the impact of this pandemic is so great that it predicts worse times to come. The present chapter has focused on the various industries which are most affected by the COVID-19 that has led to job losses and the downfall of the global economy. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

2.
An Interdisciplinary Approach in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era ; CHAP: 1-16,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2092867

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus, otherwise known as COVID-19, a pandemic. Originating from Wuhan in Hubei province, China in December 2019, the pandemic has spread to more than 200 countries across the globe. The number of people infected globally by the disease has risen to more than 2.2 million, and over 154,219 people have died as a result of this disease as of April 18, 2020. Although China, the epicentre of the pandemic, has in recent weeks recorded only a few new cases of the disease and very few deaths, The number of cases and deaths has continued to upsurge in mostly developed nations such as the United States of America (USA), Spain, Italy, France, and Germany. There is, however, speculation that developing countries, many of which have continued to record lower cases of the disease, will likely see a rise in the near future. In this chapter, we apply machine learning models for the assessment of the trend and spread of the virus in Ethiopia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and India. The analysis showed a similar trend in the rise of the epidemic in these countries and an increase in the number of cases forecast for the near future in all four countries. We evaluated the social, cultural, and economic impacts of this pandemic on these countries and how the disease is impacting the mental well-being of the masses. Finally, we analysed how government response policies have affected the spread of the pandemic and the contributions of social media to the dissemination of vital information to facilitate the containment of the global spread of the virus. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

3.
An Interdisciplinary Approach in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era ; CHAP: 63-76,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2092815

ABSTRACT

According to reports, the 2019 Corona-virus infection COVID-19 caused significant damage to world-wide demographic wellbeing. In South Africa, a new level severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCov- 2) variant, B.1.1.529, was found awhile back, resulting in a substantial increase in COVID-19 patients. Then On November 24, 2021, the World Health Organization outlined B.1.1.529, also known as omicron, as a variant under inspection. The Omicron variability must have been proclaimed as a variation of worry. This variant includes a huge number of modifications, particularly 15 inside the spike's receptorbinding region (RBD). The Omicron variant seems to be likewise similar to the preceding VOC Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants, generating issues regarding virus infectiousness, pathogenicity, and immunity resistance. In this paper, the identification and features of the Omicron variant were discussed, contrasting the spiking alterations inside the five VOCs and discussing prospective avoidance and mitigation measures. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

4.
An Interdisciplinary Approach in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era ; CHAP: 183-196,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2092805

ABSTRACT

The world is likely to experience a major health crisis in 21st century history. The corona virus (COVID-19) has put all nations on its knees and shut down various sectors and industries, including education. Teachers, students, and other education stakeholders are currently embroiled in controversy over what will happen to the education system if a majority of governments around the world are given the power to divide society as part of a 'new norm.' It is for this reason that educational institutions are developing an online platform as an effective platform for teaching reading and ensuring that students continue to pursue their studies of various social boundaries but this has impact on the mental stress of students. Our present study tries to understand how online learning has an impact on the mental state of students as according to their different demographic profiles. The sample of 150 students of different education level have been taken. The study found that there is no impact of gender, area, age, and education level except Education year on mental stress of the students, ANOVA & t-test is used for the analysis through SPSS software. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

5.
EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing ; : 1-13, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075203

ABSTRACT

An ongoing pandemic SS-RNA viral infection initiated from the Chinese province has threatened people throughout the globe. Coronavirus or COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV as a contagious infection is spreading day-by-day threatening the livelihood of people. The main objective of this paper is to find out solutions for the detection of this contagious viral infection at the earliest. Computer-based artificial intelligence can be used to monitor and detect the symptoms of coronavirus. For detection of coronavirus infection, computers or smartphones can be embedded with biosensors that will perceive the information and will convert the information into digital data. In this paper, a study on the coronavirus is done and an IoT-based framework is proposed to detect the coronavirus using IoT-based sensors. The proposed approach will be able to detect the pandemic in its early stages, and better options for prevention and cure will be discussed. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

6.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S118, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006409

ABSTRACT

Aim and objective: To determine the incidence of air leak in patients who are on non-invasive ventilation in a COVID ICU at a tertiary hospital. Materials and methods: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a mode of providing ventilatory support without using an invasive airway. It has become increasingly popular in managing respiratory failures in recent times. The success of NIV is multifactorial. Among these, using an appropriate interface and ensuring patient co-operation is important as air leak at the interface is a major and a common cause of NIV failure. Through this audit, we aim to look at the incidence of air-leak among patients on NIV and assess if the incidence of air-leak can be reduced via the use of checklist. The audit included patients on non-invasive ventilation and excluded patients on NIV who had air leak from any source other than the interface also patients with facial anomalies were excluded. We monitored patients on NIV in a COVID ICU twice a day for a period of 1 week and recorded the percentage of air leak as calculated by the ventilator (Hamilton G5). For the purpose of this audit, we categorised air leak into mild (10%-< 30%), moderate (30%-<50%), and severe (≥50%). Following the first cycle of the audit, we tabulated the data and discussed the results with the respiratory therapist. A checklist was formulated which included hourly observations to ensure adequate mask seal and minimize air leak along with ensuring adequate sedation. Subsequently, we conducted two post-intervention cycles of the audit to check the efficiency of the checklist in reducing air leak in patients on NIV. Results: The first cycle of the audit showed that 27.45% of patients had severe air leak and 50.98% of patients had mild to moderate air leak on NIV. In addition, it was noted only 21.57% of patients had correct positioning of the mask with a permissible air leak of <10%. Therefore, we implemented the intervention checklist for the respiratory therapist to ensure minimal air leak and subsequently repeated the audit. Following which the percentage of severe air leak in patients on NIV dropped from 27.45% to 5.09%. The percentage of patients with permissible air leak marginally improved from 21.57% to 27.12%. A third cycle of the audit was done to ensure consistent results following the intervention and it did demonstrate consistent results similar to the second cycle of the audit with a percentage of patients with severe air leak being only 5.88% in comparison to 27.45% in the first cycle. Moreover, the percentage of patients with moderate air leak also dropped to 5.88% in comparison to 24.51% from the first audit and 22.03% from the second audit. Conclusion: A simple checklist based on hourly observations helped to improve ventilation in patients on NIV by decreasing the percentage of severe and moderate air leak and the method proved to be sustainable.

7.
Neuroepidemiology ; 56(SUPPL 1):43, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812821

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Auckland Regional Community Stroke Studies (ARCOS) are population-based studies conducted in Auckland, New Zealand in adults (<15 yrs). In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic disrupted the health system and potentially affected the presentation and care of stroke patients. We aimed to utilise this opportunity to study the impact of the pandemic on stroke incidence, and hospitalisation during this extended phase of the ARCOS V study. Methods: Between 1st March and 31st August 2020, stroke cases were identified through multiple case ascertainment methods, including public hospitals and emergency departments;CT/MRI records;hospital discharge registers;private hospitals, rest homes, and community health services. During this time, the Auckland (population 1,257,690) was in various phases of lockdown, including Level 4 during which everything except essential services was shut down. Completion of case ascertainment from the death registry is currently underway, hence preliminary findings are presented. Results: Of the 1198 registered stroke cases, 50.8% were women, 29.4% were aged between 15-64 years 84.1% were first-ever strokes. The age standardised attack rate of stroke in the 6-month period was 72 [95% CI 72 to 80] per 100,000 and the incidence of first ever stroke was 64 [95% CI 60 to 68] per 100,000. The majority (81%) presented to hospital via ambulance, and 96.1% received brain imaging within 24 hours of admission. While the majority sought attention within minutes or hours of symptom onset, 22% delayed seeking attention by a day or more. Conclusions: Robust and well-established online data collection protocols allowed the continuation of the ARCOS V study during the peak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The number of people presenting to hospital with stroke was close to expected levels. However, a significant number of people delayed seeking medical attention. Learnings from this study will be important to plan for stroke services during future pandemics.

9.
Current Medical Issues ; 19(4):292-299, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1593544

ABSTRACT

Triage is practiced in hospitals around the world and has proved its worth in identifying and prioritizing sick patients for emergency resuscitation, especially in resource-limited settings. Both formal and informal systems are utilized in different health centers to differentiate between patients with varying severity of illness. The Christian Medical College, Vellore Triage System (CMCTS) developed at our emergency department (ED) in 1997 is a four-category system that makes this differentiation based on presenting symptoms, signs, and predefined physiological parameters. In our ED, triaging is performed by a triage team composed of both nursing personnel and emergency physicians. During the COVID-19 pandemic, our triaging system was modified to segregate potential COVID and non-COVID patients into different zones for containment and for safety of healthcare workers.

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