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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of the SARS Cov 2 infection among vaccine naive population in a rural district of South India post-second surge. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the five villages of a randomly chosen sub-district in the Bangalore rural district. We did house to house surveys and recruited 831 vaccine naive adults in July 2021. We tested samples for the presence of antibodies (including IgG & IgM) to SARS CoV-2 using the Roche Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 -S assay that quantifies antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. RESULTS: We estimated an overall prevalence of 62.7% (95% CI: 59.3-66.0) and an age-and gender-adjusted seroprevalence of 44.9% (95% CI: 42.5-47.4). When adjusted for test performance, the seroprevalence was 74.64% (95% CI: 70.66-78.47). The case-to-undetected-infected ratio (CIR) was 1: 8.65 (95% CI 1:8.1-1:9.1), and the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR) was 16.27 per 100,00 infections as of 13 July 2021. A history of at least one symptom suggestive of COVID-19 or a positive COVID-19 test of self or a family member in the past were significantly associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION: We report a high seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection despite the advantages of low population density and well-ventilated landscapes in rural areas. CIR and IFR were higher than the previous serosurvey conducted in the same population during the first surge. The thought of achieving herd immunity comes with relief. However, it's vital to put efforts into building population health and rural health infrastructure to avert future health catastrophes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/immunology , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4599, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931433

ABSTRACT

Dehydration of the upper airways increases risks of respiratory diseases from COVID-19 to asthma and COPD. We find in human volunteer studies involving 464 human subjects in Germany, the US, and India that respiratory droplet generation increases by up to 4 orders of magnitude in dehydration-associated states of advanced age (n = 357), elevated BMI-age (n = 148), strenuous exercise (n = 20) and SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 87), and falls with hydration of the nose, larynx and trachea by calcium-rich hypertonic salts. We also find in a protocol of exercise-induced airway dehydration that hydration of the airways by calcium-rich salts increases oxygenation relative to a non-treatment control (P < 0.05). In a random control study of COVID-19 positive subjects (n = 40), thrice-a-day delivery of the calcium-rich hypertonic salts (active) suppressed respiratory droplet generation by 51% ± 11% and increased oxygen saturation over three days of treatment by 48.08% ± 9.61% (P < 0.001), while no changes were observed in the nasal-saline control group. Self-reported symptoms significantly declined in the active group and did not decline in the control group. Hydration of the upper airways appears promising as a non-drug approach for reducing risks of respiratory diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Larynx , Exercise , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327500

ABSTRACT

Purpose Compared to nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs, non-invasive saliva samples have enormous potential for scalability and routine population screening of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we are investigating the efficacy of saliva samples relative to nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs for use as a direct source for the RT-PCR based SARS-CoV-2 detection. Methods Paired nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs and saliva samples were collected from suspected positive SARS-CoV-2 patients and tested using RT-PCR. Generalised linear models were used to investigate factors that explain result agreement. Further, we used simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of saliva-based screening in restricting the spread of infection in a large campus such as an educational institution. Results We observed 75.4% overall result agreement. Prospective positive samples stored for three or more days showed a drastic reduction in the probability of result agreement. We observed 83% result agreement and 74.5% test sensitivity in samples processed and tested within two days of collection. Our simulations suggest that a test with 75% sensitivity, but high daily capacity can be very effective in limiting the size of infection clusters in a workspace. Guided by these results, we successfully implemented a saliva-based screening in the Bangalore Life Sciences Cluster (BLiSC) campus. Conclusion These results suggest that saliva may be a viable sample source for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance if samples are processed immediately. We strongly recommend the implementation of saliva-based screening strategies for large workplaces and in schools, as well as for population-level screening and routine surveillance as we learn to live with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

4.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(1): 141-143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509879

ABSTRACT

We conducted a serial cross-sectional study and used blood bank donors serosurvey and the ICMR serosurvey reports for comparison. Seroprevalence was 0% among HCWs (n-211) and blood bank donors (n-210) during the first phase while ICMR serosurvey reported 0.5% among general population in the district at the same time. In phase 2, we estimated a seroprevalence of 9.2% as compared to 18.8% among general population. Seroprevalence among HCWs was comparable to that of the general population during both phases. We postulate that good infection control policies and practice can provide safe working environment without additional risk to HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249247, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 in a rural district of South India, six months after the index case. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 509 adults aged more than 18 years. From all the four subdistricts, two grampanchayats (administrative cluster of 5-8 villages) were randomly selected followed by one village through convenience. The participants were invited for the study to the community-based study kiosk set up in all the eight villages through village health committees. We collected socio-demographic characteristics and symptoms using a mobile application-based questionnaire, and we tested samples for the presence of IgG antibodies for SARS CoV-2 using an electro chemiluminescent immunoassay. We calculated age-gender adjusted and test performance adjusted seroprevalence. RESULTS: The age-and gender-adjusted seroprevalence was 8.5% (95% CI 6.9%- 10.8%). The unadjusted seroprevalence among participants with hypertension and diabetes was 16.3% (95% CI:9.2-25.8) and 10.7% (95% CI: 5.5-18.3) respectively. When we adjusted for the test performance, the seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% CI 4.02-8.17). The study estimated 7 (95% CI 1:4.5-1:9) undetected infected individuals for every RT-PCR confirmed case. Infection Fatality Rate (IFR) was calculated as 12.38 per 10000 infections as on 22 October 2020. History of self-reported symptoms and education were significantly associated with positive status (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of the rural population in a district of south India remains susceptible to COVID-19. A higher proportion of susceptible, relatively higher IFR and a poor tertiary healthcare network stress the importance of sustaining the public health measures and promoting early access to the vaccine are crucial to preserving the health of this population. Low population density, good housing, adequate ventilation, limited urbanisation combined with public, private and local health leadership are critical components of curbing future respiratory pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e39, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081712

ABSTRACT

People living in urban slums or informal settlements are among the most vulnerable communities, highly susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and vulnerable to the consequences of the measures taken to control the spread of the virus. Fear and stigma related to infection, mistrust between officials and the population, the often-asymptomatic nature of the disease is likely to lead to under-reporting. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection in a large slum in South India 3 months after the index case and recruited 499 adults (age >18 years). The majority (74.3%) were females and about one-third of the population reported comorbidities. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibody for COVID-19 was 57.9% (95% CI 53.4-62.3). Age, education, occupation and the presence of reported comorbidities were not associated with seroprevalence (P-value >0.05). Case-to-undetected-infections ratio was 1:195 and infection fatality rate was calculated as 2.94 per 10 000 infections. We estimated seroprevalence of COVID-19 was very high in our study population. The focus in this slum should shift from infection prevention to managing the indirect consequences of the pandemic. We recommend seroprevalence studies in such settings before vaccination to identify the vulnerability of COVID-19 infection to optimise the use of insufficient resources. It is a wake-up call to societies and nations, to dedicate paramount attention to slums into recovery and beyond - to build, restore and maintain health equity for the 'Health and wellbeing of all'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e042171, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the initial dilemmas, mental stress, adaptive measures implemented and how the healthcare team collectively coped while providing healthcare services in a large slum in India, during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Community Health Division, Bangalore Baptist Hospital, Bangalore. STUDY DESIGN: We used mixed methods research with a quantitative (QUAN) paradigm nested in the primary qualitative (QUAL) design. QUAL methods included ethnography research methods, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. PARTICIPANTS: A healthcare team of doctors, nurses, paramedical and support staff. Out of 87 staff, 42 participated in the QUAL methods and 64 participated in the QUAN survey. RESULTS: Being cognizant of the extreme vulnerability of the slums, the health team struggled with conflicting thoughts of self-preservation and their moral obligation to the marginalised section of society. Majority (75%) of the staff experienced fear at some point in time. Distracting themselves with hobbies (20.3%) and spending more time with family (39.1%) were cited as a means of emotional regulation by the participants in the QUAN survey. In the QUAL interviews, fear of death, the guilt of disease transmission to their loved ones, anxiety about probable violence and stigma in the slums and exhaustion emerged as the major themes causing stress among healthcare professionals. With positive cognitive reappraisal, the health team collectively designed and implemented adaptive interventions to ensure continuity of care. They dealt with the new demands by positive reframing, peer support, distancing, information seeking, response efficacy, self-efficacy, existential goal pursuit, value adherence and religious coping. CONCLUSION: The novel threat of the COVID-19 pandemic threw insurmountable challenges potentiating disastrous consequences; slums becoming a threat to themselves, threat to the health providers and a threat for all. Perhaps, a lesson we could learn from this pandemic is to incorporate 'slum health' within universal healthcare.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Urban Population , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
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