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1.
Weekly Epidemiological Record ; 95(23/24):257-264, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-865212

ABSTRACT

This article describes progress in achieving the goals of OpenWHO to transform, translate and transfer technical guidance for the COVID-19 emergency - the first pandemic since the platform was launched An analysis of the role of OpenWHO resources within the Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19, the number and use of translated resources and the platform reach by channel was used to determine the impact of OpenWHO's learning response to the COVID-19 emergency and make recommendations to further improve the platform's contribution to global health in a pandemic Current experience in using the OpenWHO platform for WHO's training response to the pandemic has proven that the platform is sufficiently robust to manage massive increases in traffic and that the basic infrastructure and model can be accessed in low bandwidth settings Translation into usable formats and languages has also ensured global dissemination and reach The recognition that public health training is a global public good has made it possible to offer the courses for free, ensuring greater equity of access to information to protect health and save lives

2.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-6, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-834065

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease (COVID 19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) With many countries implementing lockdown the surgical activities in the division of otolaryngology across the world has been affected with many hospital confining themselves to only emergency or essential surgeries The aim of this work is to report and discuss the in the surgical activity of the otolaryngology unit of the St John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore (India) during the pandemic We performed acute and subacute emergencies which include diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors of the head and neck, management of airway emergencies in adults and children, drainage of abscesses of the head and neck, Foreign body removal, emergency nasal debridement and surgeries for the unsafe ear With the pandemic the surgical activities in otolaryngology changed drastically and with strict protocol and triaging put in place the risk for Health care workers was avoided and services to patients delivered

3.
4.
JMIR Pediatr Parent ; 3(1):e20712, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-618712

ABSTRACT

Background: As young adults living with perinatal HIV (PHIV) or perinatal HIV exposure but uninfected (PHEU) grow older and manage the challenges and competing demands of young adulthood, new approaches are needed to facilitate their retention in longitudinal research and clinical care beyond in-person clinic visits Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in the United States in January 2020 and has underscored this need;studies are adapting to remote communication with and data collection from participants However, there are limited data on communication preferences among young adults who are living with PHIV or PHEU Objective: The objectives of this qualitative study were to describe participants’ perceptions and use of social media and technology in their personal lives and in the context of participating in longitudinal pediatric HIV research and to describe the implications of the use of technology and social media for communication and retention purposes within a longitudinal pediatric study about HIV Methods: We conducted 6 focus group discussions with 31 young adults living with PHIV and 13 in-depth interviews with 6 young adults living with PHIV and 7 living with PHEU We asked about their preferences for the use of social media and digital technology in the Adolescent Master Protocol, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of youth affected by HIV Results: Participants’ willingness to use social media platforms, telephone calls, SMS text messages, and video calls within the context of HIV research varied due to fears of HIV stigma and inadvertent disclosure However, trusting relationships with clinical staff positively impacted their willingness to use these platforms Conclusions: Our findings offer insight into how pediatric studies and clinics can communicate with participants as they age, even as new technologies and social media platforms emerge and replace old ones For optimal retention, pediatric clinical staff should consider communication approaches offering flexible and tailored options for young adults participating in HIV research

6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8):12985, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-743522
7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 823-826, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706939

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence supports the use of an early, short course of glucocorticoids in patients with COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation or oxygen support. As the number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases continues to increase, the number of pregnant women with the disease is very likely to increase as well. Because pregnant women are at increased risk for hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation support, obstetricians will be facing the dilemma of initiating maternal corticosteroid therapy while weighing its potential adverse effects on the fetus (or neonate if the patient is postpartum and breastfeeding). Our objective is to summarize the current evidence supporting steroid therapy in the management of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and COVID-19 and to elaborate on key modifications for the pregnant patient.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care/methods , Glucocorticoids , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Fetal Organ Maturity/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/classification , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment
8.
Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 11(2):7602-7608, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-659591

ABSTRACT

In the last Fifty years, several distinct coronaviruses have emerged which causes a diverse variety of human and veterinary ailments Apparently in 2019 during the month of December in Wuhan, China a new strand of coronavirus which was formerly named as "2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)" and now is addressed as SARS-CoV2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus -2) The disease caused by SARS-CoV2 called Covid-19;it is a new public disaster, transmitted from one human to another through various body fluids predominantly through contaminated droplets Covid-19 is forbearing in most people;it can advance to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multiorgan dysfunction in some (usually the elders and those with comorbidities) COVID-19 was called a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020 One concern would be how capable the health care systems of the world are to respond to an epidemic of this magnitude In different regions, rapid identification, and control of the virus at the entry points is crucial throughout in order to prevent widespread population transmission Based on current published evidence, a summary of various curbing measures with prevention and tenacity of SARS-Cov2 is provided in this review article Through this review we also provide information about the clinical trials for vaccines and treatment filed by different pharma companies which is one of the most awaited and dominant research in current scenarios around the globe Copyright © 2020 Annamacharya College of Pharmacy All rights reserved

9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-22, 2020 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during 2 nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 with regard to the possibility of airborne transmission. DESIGN: Contact investigations with active case finding were used to assess the pattern of spread from 2 COVID-19 index patients. SETTING: A community hospital and university medical center in the United States, in February and March, 2020, early in the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS: Two index patients and 421 exposed health care workers. METHODS: Exposed staff were identified by analyzing the EMR and conducting active case finding in combination with structured interviews. Staff were tested for COVID-19 by obtaining oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens, with RT-PCR testing to detect SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Two separate index patients were admitted in February and March 2020, without initial suspicion for COVID-19 and without contact or droplet precautions in place; both patients underwent several aerosol generating procedures in this context. A total of 421 health care workers were exposed in total, and the results of the case contact investigations identified 8 secondary infections in health care workers. In all 8 cases, the staff had close contact with the index patients without sufficient personal protective equipment. Importantly, despite multiple aerosol generating procedures, there was no evidence of airborne transmission. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that, at least in a healthcare setting, a majority of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission.

10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272:304-305, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-624810

ABSTRACT

This poster presents the COVID-19 online learning response by the World Health Organization's (WHO) OpenWHO learning platform for health emergencies Platform use shifted during the pandemic from being the highest in the WHO African and Eastern Mediterranean regions to the American and European regions The largest traffic channels were search engines, social media and WHO websites

11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272:284-287, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-621775

ABSTRACT

From 26 January - 21 April 2020, 9 online courses for COVID-19 were published on OpenWHO org The courses are available in 18 different languages, totalling 53 learning resources and more than 1 5 million course enrolments This paper analyses key trends in the growth of enrolments in these resources The number of enrolments increased significantly between 26 January and 21 April, with distinct spikes in growth preceded by important global milestones in the timeline of the outbreak The surge in users demonstrates that the platform is serving as a source of digitized learning for COVID-19, helping meet the broad demand for outbreak-related information

14.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20144436

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require invasive mechanical ventilation frequently meet the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) diagnostic criteria. Hospitals based in the United States have been incorporating prone positioning (PP) into the COVID-19-related ARDS treatment plan at a higher rate than normal. Here, we describe 11 patients admitted to a single inpatient rehabilitation hospital who were subsequently diagnosed with acquired focal/multifocal peripheral nerve injury (PNI) in association with the use of PP for COVID-19-related ARDS. The reason for the high rate of PNI associated with PP in COVID-19 ARDS is likely multifactorial, but may include an underlying state of hyperinflammation and hypercoagulability already linked to other the neurological sequelae of COVID-19. Physicians must be aware of this elevated susceptibility to PNI in severe COVID-19 and refined standard PP protocols in order to reduce the risk.

16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 12880, 2020 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380219
17.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 837-844, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245782

ABSTRACT

Hypertensive disorders are the most common medical complications of pregnancy and a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death. The detection of elevated blood pressure during pregnancy is one of the cardinal aspects of optimal antenatal care. With the outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the risk for person-to-person spread of the virus, there is a desire to minimize unnecessary visits to health care facilities. Women should be classified as low risk or high risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and adjustments can be accordingly made in the frequency of maternal and fetal surveillance. During this pandemic, all pregnant women should be encouraged to obtain a sphygmomanometer. Patients monitored for hypertension as an outpatient should receive written instructions on the important signs and symptoms of disease progression and provided contact information to report the development of any concern for change in status. As the clinical management of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia is the same, assessment of urinary protein is unnecessary in the management once a diagnosis of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is made. Pregnant women with suspected hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and signs and symptoms associated with the severe end of the disease spectrum (e.g., headaches, visual symptoms, epigastric pain, and pulmonary edema) should have an evaluation including complete blood count, serum creatinine level, and liver transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). Further, if there is any evidence of disease progression or if acute severe hypertension develops, prompt hospitalization is suggested. Current guidelines from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) for management of preeclampsia with severe features suggest delivery after 34 0/7 weeks of gestation. With the outbreak of COVID-19, however, adjustments to this algorithm should be considered including delivery by 30 0/7 weeks of gestation in the setting of preeclampsia with severe features. KEY POINTS: · Outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) warrants fewer office visits.. · Women should be classified for hypertension risk in pregnancy.. · Earlier delivery suggested with COVID-19 and hypertensive disorder..


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Infection Control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Prenatal Care , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/therapy , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Risk Management/organization & administration , Time Factors
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(1): 26-28, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-115913

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease that started in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread all across the world. With limited ability to contain the virus and relatively high transmissibility and case fatality rates, governmental institutions and pharmaceutical companies are racing to find therapeutics and vaccines that target this novel coronavirus. However, once again, pregnant and breastfeeding women are excluded from participating in clinical trials during this pandemic. This "protection by exclusion" of pregnant women from drug development and clinical therapeutic trials, even during epidemics and pandemics, is not unprecedented. Moreover, it is both misguided and not justifiable and may have excluded them from potentially beneficial interventions. This is another missed opportunity to obtain pregnancy-specific safety and efficacy data, because therapeutics developed for men and nonpregnant women may not be generalizable to pregnant women. Therefore, we recommend and urge the scientific community and professional societies that, without clear justification for exclusion, pregnant women should be given the opportunity to be included in clinical trials for COVID-19 based on the concepts of justice, equity, autonomy, and informed consent.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Ethics, Research , Pandemics , Patient Selection/ethics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
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