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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(5): ofad205, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326544

ABSTRACT

We performed a secondary analysis of the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial (ACTT-2) randomized controlled trial and found that baricitinib was associated with a 50% reduction in secondary infections after controlling for baseline and postrandomization patient characteristics. This finding provides a novel mechanism of benefit for baricitinib and supports the safety profile of this immunomodulator for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 standard of care (SOC) evolved rapidly during 2020 and 2021, but its cumulative effect over time is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether recovery and mortality improved as SOC evolved, using data from ACTT (Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial). DESIGN: ACTT is a series of phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that evaluated COVID-19 therapeutics from February 2020 through May 2021. ACTT-1 compared remdesivir plus SOC to placebo plus SOC, and in ACTT-2 and ACTT-3, remdesivir plus SOC was the control group. This post hoc analysis compared recovery and mortality between these comparable sequential cohorts of patients who received remdesivir plus SOC, adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score weighting. The analysis was repeated for participants in ACTT-3 and ACTT-4 who received remdesivir plus dexamethasone plus SOC. Trends in SOC that could explain outcome improvements were analyzed. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04280705 [ACTT-1], NCT04401579 [ACTT-2], NCT04492475 [ACTT-3], and NCT04640168 [ACTT-4]). SETTING: 94 hospitals in 10 countries (86% U.S. participants). PARTICIPANTS: Adults hospitalized with COVID-19. INTERVENTION: SOC. MEASUREMENTS: 28-day mortality and recovery. RESULTS: Although outcomes were better in ACTT-2 than in ACTT-1, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were close to 1 (HR for recovery, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.17]; HR for mortality, 0.90 [CI, 0.56 to 1.40]). Comparable patients were less likely to be intubated in ACTT-2 than in ACTT-1 (odds ratio, 0.75 [CI, 0.53 to 0.97]), and hydroxychloroquine use decreased. Outcomes improved from ACTT-2 to ACTT-3 (HR for recovery, 1.43 [CI, 1.24 to 1.64]; HR for mortality, 0.45 [CI, 0.21 to 0.97]). Potential explanatory factors (SOC trends, case surges, and variant trends) were similar between ACTT-2 and ACTT-3, except for increased dexamethasone use (11% to 77%). Outcomes were similar in ACTT-3 and ACTT-4. Antibiotic use decreased gradually across all stages. LIMITATION: Unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSION: Changes in patient composition explained improved outcomes from ACTT-1 to ACTT-2 but not from ACTT-2 to ACTT-3, suggesting improved SOC. These results support excluding nonconcurrent controls from analysis of platform trials in rapidly changing therapeutic areas. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(6): 1225-1239, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499280

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease that varies in severity from mild to severe/fatal. Several risk factors for severe disease have been identified, notably age, male sex, and pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Several advancements in clinical care have been achieved over the past year, including the use of corticosteroids (e.g., corticosteroids) and other immune-modulatory treatments that have now become standard of care for patients with acute severe COVID-19. While the understanding of the mechanisms that underlie increased disease severity with age has improved over the past few months, it remains incomplete. Furthermore, the molecular impact of corticosteroid treatment on host response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been investigated. In this study, a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of Ab, soluble immune mediators, and transcriptional responses in young (65 ≤ years) and aged (≥ 65 years) diabetic males with obesity hospitalized with acute severe COVID-19 was conducted. Additionally, the transcriptional profiles in samples obtained before and after corticosteroids became standard of care were compared. The analysis indicates that severe COVID-19 is characterized by robust Ab responses, heightened systemic inflammation, increased expression of genes related to inflammatory and pro-apoptotic processes, and reduced expression of those important for adaptive immunity regardless of age. In contrast, COVID-19 patients receiving steroids did not show high levels of systemic immune mediators and lacked transcriptional indicators of heightened inflammatory and apoptotic responses. Overall, these data suggest that inflammation and cell death are key drivers of severe COVID-19 pathogenesis in the absence of corticosteroid therapy.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/immunology
4.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0474, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313893

ABSTRACT

We sought to validate prognostic scores in coronavirus disease 2019 including National Early Warning Score, Modified Early Warning Score, and age-based modifications, and define their performance characteristics. DESIGN: We analyzed prospectively collected data from the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial. National Early Warning Score was collected daily during the trial, Modified Early Warning Score was calculated, and age applied to both scores. We assessed prognostic value for the end points of recovery, mechanical ventilation, and death for score at enrollment, average, and slope of score over the first 48 hours. SETTING: A multisite international inpatient trial. PATIENTS: A total of 1,062 adult nonpregnant inpatients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 1 randomized participants to receive remdesivir or placebo. The prognostic value of predictive scores was evaluated in both groups separately to assess for differential performance in the setting of remdesivir treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: For mortality, baseline National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score were weakly to moderately prognostic (c-index, 0.60-0.68), and improved with addition of age (c-index, 0.66-0.74). For recovery, baseline National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score demonstrated somewhat better prognostic ability (c-index, 0.65-0.69); however, National Early Warning Score+age and Modified Early Warning Score+age further improved performance (c-index, 0.68-0.71). For deterioration, baseline National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score were weakly to moderately prognostic (c-index, 0.59-0.69) and improved with addition of age (c-index, 0.63-0.70). All prognostic performance improvements due to addition of age were significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 1 cohort, National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score demonstrated moderate prognostic performance in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019, with improvement in predictive ability for National Early Warning Score+age and Modified Early Warning Score+age. Area under receiver operating curve for National Early Warning Score and Modified Early Warning Score improved in patients receiving remdesivir versus placebo early in the pandemic for recovery and mortality. Although these scores are simple and readily obtainable in myriad settings, in our data set, they were insufficiently predictive to completely replace clinical judgment in coronavirus disease 2019 and may serve best as an adjunct to triage, disposition, and resourcing decisions.

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