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Viruses ; 15(2)2023 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230305


BACKGROUND: The duration of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody detectability up to 12 months was examined in individuals after either single convalescence or convalescence and vaccination. Moreover, variables that might influence an anti-RBD/S1 antibody decline and the existence of a post-COVID-syndrome (PCS) were addressed. METHODS: Forty-nine SARS-CoV-2-qRT-PCR-confirmed participants completed a 12-month examination of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody levels and PCS-associated long-term sequelae. Overall, 324 samples were collected. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was isolated and quantified from EDTA-plasma. As cfDNA is released into the bloodstream from dying cells, it might provide information on organ damage in the late recovery of COIVD-19. Therefore, we evaluated cfDNA concentrations as a biomarker for a PCS. In the context of antibody dynamics, a random forest-based logistic regression with antibody decline as the target was performed and internally validated. RESULTS: The mean percentage dynamic related to the maximum measured value was 96 (±38)% for anti-RBD/S1 antibodies and 30 (±26)% for anti-N antibodies. Anti-RBD/S1 antibodies decreased in 37%, whereas anti-SARS-CoV-2-anti-N antibodies decreased in 86% of the subjects. Clinical anti-RBD/S1 antibody decline prediction models, including vascular and other diseases, were cross-validated (highest AUC 0.74). Long-term follow-up revealed no significant reduction in PCS prevalence but an increase in cognitive impairment, with no indication for cfDNA as a marker for a PCS. CONCLUSION: Long-term anti-RBD/S1-antibody positivity was confirmed, and clinical parameters associated with declining titers were presented. A fulminant decrease in anti-SARS-CoV-2-anti-N antibodies was observed (mean change to maximum value 30 (±26)%). Anti-RBD/S1 antibody titers of SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects boosted with a vaccine exceeded the maximum values measured after single infection by 235 ± 382-fold, with no influence on preexisting PCS. PCS long-term prevalence was 38.6%, with an increase in cognitive impairment compromising the quality of life. Quantified cfDNA measured in the early post-COVID-19 phase might not be an effective marker for PCS identification.

COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Convalescence , COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Humoral , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/etiology
Ann Hematol ; 101(8): 1825-1834, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858973


COVID-19 in patients with hematological diseases is associated with a high mortality. Moreover, preventive vaccination demonstrated reduced efficacy and the knowledge on influencing factors is limited. In this single-center study, antibody levels of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured ≥ 2 weeks after 2nd COVID-19 vaccination with a concentration ≥ 0.8 U/mL considered positive. Between July and October 2021, in a total of 373 patients (median age 64 years, 44% women) with myeloid neoplasms (n = 214, 57%), lymphoid neoplasms (n = 124, n = 33%), and other diseases (n = 35, 10%), vaccination was performed with BNT162b2 (BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), ChADOx1 (AstraZeneca), or a combination. A total of 229 patients (61%) were on active therapy within 3 months prior vaccination and 144 patients (39%) were previously treated or treatment naïve. Vaccination-related antibody response was negative in 56/373 patients (15%): in 39/124 patients with lymphoid neoplasms, 13/214 with myeloid neoplasms, and 4/35 with other diseases. Active treatment per se was not correlated with negative response. However, rituximab and BTK inhibitor treatment were correlated significantly with a negative vaccination response, whereas younger age and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease were associated with positive response. In addition, 5 of 6 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and negative vaccination response were on active treatment with ruxolitinib. In conclusion, a remarkable percentage of patients with hematological diseases had no response after 2nd COVID-19 vaccination. Multivariable analysis revealed important factors associated with response to vaccination. The results may serve as a guide for better protection and surveillance in this vulnerable patient cohort.

Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Treatment Failure , Vaccination
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(12): 2121-2130, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732982


Objectives Assessment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection prevalence and immunity is cornerstones in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic. For pandemic control, reliable assays for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are required. This pilot external quality assessment (EQA) scheme aimed to independently assess the participants' clinical performance of anti-SARS-CoV-2 testing, to identify shortcomings in clinical practice and to evaluate the suitability of the scheme format. Methods The EQA scheme consisted of eight serum samples with variable reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 intended for the analysis of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, and IgM antibodies. Laboratories reported: (1) results for each sample and the respective method, (2) raw data from replicate testing of each sample. Results The 16 selected pilot EQA participants reported 294 interpreted results and 796 raw data results from replicate testing. The overall error rate for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, and IgM tests was 2.7, 6.9, and 16.7%, respectively. While the overall diagnostic specificity was rated as very high, sensitivity rates between 67 and 98% indicate considerable quality differences between the manufacturers, especially for IgA and IgM. Conclusions Even the results reported by the small number of participants indicate a very heterogeneous landscape of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological testing. Differences of available tests and the individual performance of laboratories result in a success rate of 57.1% with one laboratory succeeding for all three antibody-classes. These results are an incentive for laboratories to participate in upcoming open EQA schemes that are needed to achieve a harmonization of test results and to improve serological testing.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Serologic Tests , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Pilot Projects , Quality Control , SARS-CoV-2