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1.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 60(5): 569-583, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157031

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV, Veklury®) is a once-daily, nucleoside ribonucleic acid polymerase inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication. Remdesivir has been granted approvals in several countries for use in adults and children hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Inside the cell, remdesivir undergoes metabolic activation to form the intracellular active triphosphate metabolite, GS-443902 (detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells), and ultimately, the renally eliminated plasma metabolite GS-441524. This review discusses the pre-clinical pharmacology of RDV, clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics/concentration-QT analysis, rationale for dose selection for treatment of patients with COVID-19, and drug-drug interaction potential based on available in vitro and clinical data in healthy volunteers. Following single-dose intravenous administration over 2 h of an RDV solution formulation across the dose range of 3-225 mg in healthy participants, RDV and its metabolites (GS-704277and GS-441524) exhibit linear pharmacokinetics. Following multiple doses of RDV 150 mg once daily for 7 or 14 days, major metabolite GS-441524 accumulates approximately 1.9-fold in plasma. Based on pharmacokinetic bridging from animal data and available human data in healthy volunteers, the RDV clinical dose regimen of a 200-mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 100-mg maintenance doses for 4 or 9 days was selected for further evaluation of pharmacokinetics and safety. Results showed high intracellular concentrations of GS-443902 suggestive of efficient conversion from RDV into the triphosphate form, and further supporting this clinical dosing regimen for the treatment of COVID-19. Mathematical drug-drug interaction liability predictions, based on in vitro and phase I data, suggest RDV has low potential for drug-drug interactions, as the impact of inducers or inhibitors on RDV disposition is minimized by the parenteral route of administration and extensive extraction. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, RDV is not predicted to be a clinically significant inhibitor of drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters in patients infected with COVID-19 at therapeutic RDV doses.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Furans/metabolism , Half-Life , Humans , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Pyrroles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazines/metabolism
2.
Anal Biochem ; 617: 114118, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064675

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is a phosphoramidate prodrug designed to have activity against a broad spectrum of viruses. Following IV administration, RDV is rapidly distributed into cells and tissues and simultaneously metabolized into GS-441524 and GS-704277 in plasma. LC-MS/MS methods were validated for determination of the 3 analytes in human plasma that involved two key aspects to guarantee their precision, accuracy and robustness. First, instability issues of the analytes were overcome by diluted formic acid (FA) treatment of the plasma samples. Secondly, a separate injection for each analyte was performed with different ESI modes and organic gradients to achieve sensitivity and minimize carryover. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 µm) with a run time of 3.4 min. The calibration ranges were 4-4000, 2-2000, and 2-2000 ng/mL, respectively for RDV, GS-441524 and GS-704277. The intraday and interday precision (%CV) across validation runs at 3 QC levels for all 3 analytes was less than 6.6%, and the accuracy was within ±11.5%. The long-term storage stability in FA-treated plasma was established to be 392, 392 and 257 days at -70 °C, respectively for RDV, GS-441524 and GS-704277. The validated method was successfully applied in COVID-19 related clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Furans/blood , Pyrroles/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Triazines/blood , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Alanine/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection
3.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 109(4): 1116-1124, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049589

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome, has been reported in children. This report summarizes development of a remdesivir physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that accurately describes observed adult remdesivir and metabolites exposure and predicts pediatric remdesivir and metabolites exposure. The adult PBPK model was applied to predict pediatric remdesivir and metabolites steady-state exposures using the Pediatric Population Model in SimCYP and incorporated the relevant physiologic and mechanistic information. Model development was based on adult phase I exposure data in healthy volunteers who were administered a 200-mg loading dose of remdesivir intravenous (IV) over 0.5 hours on Day 1, then 100-mg daily maintenance doses of IV over 0.5 hours starting on Day 2 and continuing through Days 5 or 10. Simulations indicated that use of the adult therapeutic remdesivir dosage regimen (200-mg loading dose on Day 1 then 100-mg daily maintenance dose starting on Day 2) in pediatric patients ≥ 40 kg and a weight-based remdesivir dosage regimen (5-mg/kg loading dose on Day 1 then 2.5-mg/kg daily maintenance dose starting on Day 2) in pediatric patients weighing 2.5 to < 40 kg is predicted to maintain therapeutic exposures of remdesivir and its metabolites. The comprehensive PBPK model described in this report supported remdesivir dosing in planned pediatric clinical studies and dosing in the emergency use authorization and pediatric compassionate use programs that were initiated to support remdesivir as a treatment option during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , Body Weight , Child , Child, Preschool , Computer Simulation , Drug Dosage Calculations , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(5): 896-906, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615068

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV), a single diastereomeric monophosphoramidate prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has potent in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RDV received the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s emergency use authorization in the United States and approval in Japan for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This report describes two phase I studies that evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics (PKs) of single escalating and multiple i.v. doses of RDV (solution or lyophilized formulation) in healthy subjects. Lyophilized formulation was evaluated for potential future use in clinical trials due to its storage stability in resource-limited settings. All adverse events were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Overall, RDV exhibited a linear profile following single-dose i.v. administration over 2 hours of RDV solution formulation across the dose range of 3-225 mg. Both lyophilized and solution formulations provided comparable PK parameters. High intracellular concentrations of the active triphosphate (~ 220-fold to 370-fold higher than the in vitro half-maximal effective concentration against SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate) were achieved following infusion of 75 mg or 150 mg lyophilized formulation over 30 minutes or 2 hours. Following multiple-doses of RDV 150 mg once daily for 7 or 14 days, RDV exhibited a PK profile similar to single-dose administration. Metabolite GS-441524 accumulated ~ 1.9-fold after daily dosing. Overall, RDV exhibited favorable safety and PK profiles that supported once-daily dosing.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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