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1.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296904

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a frequent manifestation of COVID-19 in hospitalized children. Methods The study involved 80 hospitals in the SARS-CoV-2 Spanish Pediatric National Cohort. Participants were children <18 years, hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We compared the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP with CAP due to other viral etiologies from 2012 to 2019. Results In total, 151 children with SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP and 138 with other viral CAP included. Main clinical features of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP were cough 117/151(77%), fever 115/151(76%) and dyspnea 63/151(46%);22/151(15%) patients were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and 5/151(3%) patients died. Lymphopenia was found in 63/147(43%) patients. Chest X-ray revealed condensation (64/151[42%]) and other infiltrates (87/151[58%]). Compared with CAP from other viral pathogens, COVID-19 patients were older (8 vs.1 year;odds ratio [OR] 1.42 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.23;1.42]), with lower CRP levels (23 vs.48 mg/L;OR 1 [95%CI 0.99;1]), less wheezing (17 vs.53%;OR 0.18 [95%CI 0.11;0.31]) and greater need of mechanical ventilation, MV (7 vs.0.7%, OR 10.8 [95%CI 1.3;85). Patients with non-SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP had a greater need for oxygen therapy (77 vs.44%, OR 0.24 [95%CI 0.14;0.40]). There were no differences in the use of CPAP or HVF or PICU admission between groups. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP in children presents differently to other virus-associated CAP: children are older and rarely have wheezing or high CRP levels;they need less oxygen but more CPAP or MV. However, several features overlap, and differentiating the etiology may be difficult. The overall prognosis is good.

2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(7): 2099-2106, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092067

ABSTRACT

Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1 to June 26, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died.Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good. What is Known: • Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a common cause of consultation at the emergency department, and young infants have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections (SBI). • The emergence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to young infants with FWS in the emergency department. management of those children is a challenge because information about bacterial coinfection and prognosis is scarce. What is New: • SARS-CoV-2 infection should be ruled out in young infants (< 90 days of age) with FWS in areas with community transmission. • Bacterial coinfection rarely coexists in those infants. • Inflammatory markers were not increased in children without bacterial coinfection. • Outcome is good in most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , RNA, Viral
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