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Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism ; 78:46, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012322


Introduction: COVID-19 has seriously affected the quality of life of children due to the restrictions imposed to control the pandemia. Objectives: To analyse healthy lifestyle levels during the course of the pandemic in the city of Madrid in 20 schools with a representative sample of children aged 8 to 12. Methods: Body composition was measured by BIA (TANITA DC-240MA, Japan). Diet quality, physical activity (PA), sleep measurements, and emotional well-being were measured by validated questionnaires (KIDMED Index, PAU-7S, BEARS9/SHSA8 and KIDSCREEN-10, respectively). Data were collected twice, 1 year apart, winter 2020/21 and winter 2021/22. Results: Excess weight according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) affected 32% (22.4% overweight and 9.6% obese) of children in 2021 and 35.3% (19.1% overweight and 16.2% obese) in 2022. Compliance with WHO PA recommendations for moderate/vigorous PA were 32.8% in 2021 and 31.6% in 2022. Children fulfilling recommendations for screen use were 36.2% and 31.4% during the week, for 2021 and 2022, respectively;however, screen use was higher at weekends (71.8% vs 67.7%, respectively) in 2022 than in 2021. While in 2021, 72% of school children met the recommended hours of sleep, there was a slight decrease (70.5%) in 2022. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreased between 2021 and 2022 periods both in those at medium and low adherence profile (48.2% vs 43.9% and 8.9% vs 5.7%, respectively). Emotional well-being and quality of life were within reference values over the two years, although 49% reported feeling sad in 2021 compared to 52% in 2022. Conclusions: A tendency to worsening was observed in all analysed parameters except for weekly screen use. Urgent public health measures are needed to reduce the impact of the pandemic on children's health.

Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism ; 78:55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012235


Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown measures were applied worldwide. Objectives: a) To analyze shopping and cooking behavior before and during confinement in Spain. b) To examine changes according to 3 age-ranges: young adults (YA:18–35y), adults (AD:36–55y) and older adults (OA:56–83y). Methods: A cross-sectional online "Corona-Cooking-Survey" (CCS) was performed in Spain during the strictest days of lockdown, from April 17th to June 25th, 2020. CCS tool was designed by FOOMS research group of the University of Antwerp, Gent University and KU Leuven, and was translated into Spanish language and nationally distributed, using Qualtrics® software Version-XM (Provo, UT, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Statistics software version 25 (IBMCorp., Armonk, NY, USA). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. All participants accepted an informed consent. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee at the University of Antwerp, Belgium (Ref No: SHW_19_44). Results: A total of 679 (18-83y;YA: n=187(27.5%), AD: n=360(53.01%) and OA: n=132(19.44%)) volunteers fulfilled the CCS-Spain version. Significant increases were found in items such as: planning meals ahead of time, making a list before shopping, thinking about healthy choices, using healthy ingredients to cook and trying a new recipe (all p<0.001). No significant differences were observed for cooking with leftover food in the YA and OA groups (all p>0.05). YA group manifested an increased eggs' supply during the confinement (p<0.001). Similarly, OA group, an increased supply of eggs, milk and dairy (p<0.001);meanwhile, AD group, a supply of significantly less non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages (p<0.001). Conclusions: Sustainable shopping and cooking habits improved during the confinement of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Spanish sample. In young adults no changes regarding shopping for healthy food were observed while in older adults there were no changes regarding cooking with healthy food and ingredients.

Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism ; 78:53, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012132


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought major changes in children's lifestyle and nutrition. In this sense, children have resulted as the most vulnerable group. Objectives: To analyze the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a representative sample of children during the COVID-19 pandemic in the City of Madrid. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 20 schools of Madrid which completed evaluations during COVID19 pandemic between November 2021 and February 2022. The Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) was performed to measure the adherence to MD. Low, medium, and high adherence groups were established. Results: Participants were 471 children (48.4% girls;mean age 9.36±1.19 years). Our results showed that mean KIDMED score was 7.51±2.14 and 7.21±2.46 in girls and boys, respectively. Furthermore, low, medium and high adherence to MD was 3.9%, 42.5% and 53.5% in girls, respectively vs. 7.4%, 45.3% and 47.3% in boys, respectively. Regarding breakfast, 89.2% consumed dairy products, 69.4% ate cereals and 35.2% consumed industrial pastries. Furthermore, 22% consumed fast food weekly and 19.7% had sweets >1/day. The percentage of children who ate fruits and vegetables was 81.1% and 70.3%, respectively;while those having them >1/day decreased until 66.0% and 39.3%, respectively. More than 70% ate legumes >1/week and fish regularly, and the intake of pasta or rice ≥5/week and nuts 2-3/week was lower than 50%. Conclusions: Our results suggest that adherence to MD is high during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in girls;however, consumption of fast food could be reduced. The acquisition of healthy habits during childhood is essential for adulthood and to prevent chronic diseases.

Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism ; 78:28, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011432


Introduction: State of alarm was declared in Spain from March 14th to June 21st, 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic, forcing population to home confinement. "Corona Cooking Survey" (CCS) is an international project led by the University of Antwerp involving 38 countries worldwide. Objectives: To know the variations in the frequency of consumption of some foods in Spanish adult population during the COVID-19 lockdown according to their family composition. Methods: A Cross-sectional study of 679 Spanish adults aged 18-83 years (75.9% women) completed the CCS from April 20th to June 16th, 2020. A survey designed by FOOMS research group of the University of Antwerp, Gent University and KU Leuven, was translated into Spanish and distributed electronically to a convenience sample. Only questions about food frequency consumption were considered for analysis. Data were adjusted by family composition, according to the presence (CH: n=259, 38.1%) or absence (NCH: n=420, 61.9%) of children at home. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Statistics software v. 25 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results: Fruits, vegetables, dairy, and non-sugared beverages, were the most frequently consumed (≥ 5-6 times/week), followed by white bread, pasta and grains (≥ 2-4 times/week). Both groups increased legumes/pulses, sweet snacks (both p <0.001), and salty snacks (NCH p <0.05;CH p <0.01) intake, while consumption of processed foods (p <0.001) decreased during the lockdown. Consumption of vegetables and unprocessed vegetarian alternatives decreased in NCH (both p <0.05), while CH increased plantbased drinks (p <0.01), dairy products and alcoholic beverages (both p <0.05). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 lockdown, presence of children at home influenced the frequency of vegetables, dairy, vegetarian alternatives, plant-based and alcoholic drinks consumption, but not the general trend of increasing legumes and decreasing processed foods intake.