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2.
Am J Perinatol ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900721

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy is associated with increased odds of perinatal complications and viral transmission to the infant. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of women who delivered at Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (April 6, 2020-February 28, 2021) was performed using data extracted from electronic health records (EHRs). During this time polymerize chain reaction (PCR)-based tests for SARS-CoV-2 was universally offered to all pregnant women at labor and delivery admission, as well as earlier in the pregnancy, if they were displaying symptoms consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection or a possible exposure to the virus. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was used to estimate the strength of associations between positive test results and adverse perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: Of 35,123 women with a singleton pregnancy, 2,203 (6%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection with 596 (27%) testing positive during the first or second trimester and 1,607 (73%) during the third trimester. Women testing positive were younger than those who tested negative (29.7 [5.4] vs. 31.1 [5.3] years; mean [standard deviation (SD)]; p < .001). The SARS-CoV-2 infection tended to increase the odds of an abnormal fetal heart rate pattern (aOR: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1.21; p = 0.058), spontaneous preterm birth (aOR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.58; p = 0.024), congenital anomalies (aOR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.50; p = 0.008), and maternal intensive care unit admission at delivery (aOR: 7.44; 95% CI: 4.06, 13.62; p < 0.001) but not preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.33; p = 0.080). Eighteen (0.8%) neonates of mothers who tested positive also had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test after 24 hours of birth, but all were asymptomatic during the neonatal period. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the odds of some adverse perinatal outcomes. The likelihood of vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus was low (0.3%), suggesting that pregnancy complications resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection pose more risk to the baby than transplacental viral transmission. KEY POINTS: · SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with increased odds of adverse perinatal outcomes.. · The odds of specific adverse outcomes were greater when a mother was infected earlier in pregnancy.. · The proportion of vertical transmission from mother to fetus was 0.3%.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(1): 26-30, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606176

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are recommended during pregnancy to prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes; however, vaccination coverage among pregnant women has been low (1). Concerns among pregnant women regarding vaccine safety are a persistent barrier to vaccine acceptance during pregnancy. Previous studies of maternal COVID-19 vaccination and birth outcomes have been limited by small sample size (2) or lack of an unvaccinated comparison group (3). In this retrospective cohort study of live births from eight Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) health care organizations, risks for preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at birth (birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age) after COVID-19 vaccination (receipt of ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses) during pregnancy were evaluated. Risks for preterm and SGA at birth among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women were compared, accounting for time-dependent vaccine exposures and propensity to be vaccinated. Single-gestation pregnancies with estimated start or last menstrual period during May 17-October 24, 2020, were eligible for inclusion. Among 46,079 pregnant women with live births and gestational age available, 10,064 (21.8%) received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses during pregnancy and during December 15, 2020-July 22, 2021; nearly all (9,892; 98.3%) were vaccinated during the second or third trimester. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.82-1.01). Among 40,627 live births with birthweight available, COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was not associated with SGA at birth (aHR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.87-1.03). Results consistently showed no increased risk when stratified by mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose, or by second or third trimester vaccination, compared with risk among unvaccinated pregnant women. Because of the small number of first-trimester exposures, aHRs for first-trimester vaccination could not be calculated. These data add to the evidence supporting the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. To reduce the risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness, CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccination for women who are pregnant, recently pregnant (including those who are lactating), who are trying to become pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future (4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 895-899, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278794

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are critical for ending the COVID-19 pandemic; however, current data about vaccination coverage and safety in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19 compared with nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth (1-4). Pregnant women are eligible for and can receive any of the three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States via Emergency Use Authorization.* Data from Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), a collaboration between CDC and multiple integrated health systems, were analyzed to assess receipt of ≥1 dose (first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines or a single dose of the Janssen [Johnson & Johnson] vaccine) of any COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, receipt of first dose of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccine (initiation), or completion of a 1- or 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. During December 14, 2020-May 8, 2021, a total of 135,968 pregnant women were identified, 22,197 (16.3%) of whom had received ≥1 dose of a vaccine during pregnancy. Among these 135,968 women, 7,154 (5.3%) had initiated and 15,043 (11.1%) had completed vaccination during pregnancy. Receipt of ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy was highest among women aged 35-49 years (22.7%) and lowest among those aged 18-24 years (5.5%), and higher among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (24.7%) and non-Hispanic White (White) women (19.7%) than among Hispanic (11.9%) and non-Hispanic Black (Black) women (6.0%). Vaccination coverage increased among all racial and ethnic groups over the analytic period, likely because of increased eligibility for vaccination† and increased availability of vaccine over time. These findings indicate the need for improved outreach to and engagement with pregnant women, especially those from racial and ethnic minority groups who might be at higher risk for severe health outcomes because of COVID-19 (4). In addition, providing accurate and timely information about COVID-19 vaccination to health care providers, pregnant women, and women of reproductive age can improve vaccine confidence and coverage by ensuring optimal shared clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(11): 1110-1114, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a need for data regarding the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnant women. After implementing universal screening for COVID-19 in women admitted for delivery, we sought to describe the characteristics of COVID-19 in this large cohort of women. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study of women admitted to labor and delivery units in Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) hospitals between April 6 and May 11, 2020 who were universally offered testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 3,963). Hospital inpatient and outpatient physician encounter, and laboratory records were used to ascertain universal testing levels, test results, and medical and obstetrical histories. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was estimated from the number of women who tested positive during labor per 100 women delivered. RESULTS: Of women delivered during the study period, 3,923 (99.0%) underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. A total of 17 (0.43%; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.63%) women tested positive, and none of them were symptomatic on admission. There was no difference in terms of characteristics between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative tested women. One woman developed a headache attributed to COVID-19 3 days postpartum. No neonates had a positive test at 24 hours of life. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that in pregnant women admitted for delivery between April 6 and May 11, 2020 in this large integrated health care system in Southern California, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 test positive was very low and all patients were asymptomatic on admission. KEY POINTS: · The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large diverse cohort of term pregnant women was 0.43%.. · 99% of women accepted SARS-CoV-2 screening on admission to labor and delivery.. · All women with positive test results were asymptomatic at the time of testing..


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Delivery, Obstetric , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , California/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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