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Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5498, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428814


Rapid identification of host genes essential for virus replication may expedite the generation of therapeutic interventions. Genetic screens are often performed in transformed cell lines that poorly represent viral target cells in vivo, leading to discoveries that may not be translated to the clinic. Intestinal organoids are increasingly used to model human disease and are amenable to genetic engineering. To discern which host factors are reliable anti-coronavirus therapeutic targets, we generate mutant clonal IOs for 19 host genes previously implicated in coronavirus biology. We verify ACE2 and DPP4 as entry receptors for SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV respectively. SARS-CoV-2 replication in IOs does not require the endosomal Cathepsin B/L proteases, but specifically depends on the cell surface protease TMPRSS2. Other TMPRSS family members were not essential. The newly emerging coronavirus variant B.1.1.7, as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV similarly depended on TMPRSS2. These findings underscore the relevance of non-transformed human models for coronavirus research, identify TMPRSS2 as an attractive pan-coronavirus therapeutic target, and demonstrate that an organoid knockout biobank is a valuable tool to investigate the biology of current and future emerging coronaviruses.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Biological Specimen Banks , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Organoids/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Virus Replication
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 412-418, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125251


Many pathogenic viruses that affect man display species specificity, limiting the use of animal models. Studying viral biology and identifying potential treatments therefore benefits from the development of in vitro cell systems that closely mimic human physiology. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, rapid scientific insights are of the utmost importance to limit its impact on public health and society. Organoids are emerging as versatile tools to progress the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology and to aid in the quest for novel treatments.

COVID-19/virology , Organoids/virology , Animals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity