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1.
PLoS medicine ; 20(1):e1004159, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196863

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003979.]. Copyright: © 2023 Hensley et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163027

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has contributed greatly to providing protection against severe disease, thereby reducing hospital admissions and deaths. Several studies have reported reduction in vaccine effectiveness over time against the Omicron sub-lineages. However, the willingness to receive regular booster doses in the general population is declining. To determine the need for repeated booster vaccinations in healthy individuals and to aid policymakers in future public health interventions for COVID-19, we aim to gain insight into the immunogenicity of the additional bivalent booster vaccination in a representative sample of the healthy Dutch population. The SWITCH ON study was initiated to investigate three main topics: i) immunogenicity of bivalent vaccines after priming with adenovirus- or mRNA-based vaccines, ii) immunological recall responses and reactivity with relevant variants after booster vaccination, and iii) the necessity of booster vaccinations for the healthy population in the future.Clinical trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT05471440.

4.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1016, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063533

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Torque tenovirus (TTV), a highly prevalent virus which is not known to cause pathology in humans, is currently being investigated as a marker of immunosuppression. In this study we investigated if the TTV load measured prior to COVID-19 vaccination can predict the serological response to the COVID-19 vaccine, measured 28 days after the second vaccination dose. Method(s): The humoral response to the mRNA 1273 vaccine (Moderna) was assessed in Lung transplant recipients (LTR) who received a transplant between 4 and 237 months prior, by measuring Spike-specific IgG levels at 28 days after the second vaccination. Antibody concentrations of >10 BAU/ml were considered reactive. TTV loads were determined by PCR and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate serological responses to TTV load. Patient characteristics, including reasons for transplantation, antirejection treatment, age and time since transplantation, were recorded to assess associations between these factors and vaccination response or TTV levels. Result(s): 103 LTR were included of which 41 (40%) showed some response (>10 BAU/ml) to the vaccine at 28 days after the second vaccination. 61 (60%) were non-responders. TTV loads at baseline varied between negative and 10E9 copies/ ml. The TTV loads were found to correlate with IgG levels and the with the percentage of responders 28 days after the second vaccination (=<0.001). TTV loads also correlated strongly with the time since transplantation. High TTV levels occurred predominantly in patients who were shorter after transplantation (p=0.0001). Conclusion(s): This study shows an association between pre-vaccination TTV load and humoral response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, which correlate with the time after transplantation. We recommend that TTV load measurements are included in further vaccination efficacy studies in immunocompromised cohorts. If the TTV load is indeed a predictor of vaccine response, this could be used as a potential guidance for optimizing vaccination response.

5.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):637, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063479

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality is high among kidney patients. Several studies recently suggested low humoral and cellular immune responses after two doses of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in these patients. Interleukin (IL)-21 is key in orchestrating an effective immune response against viral infections, is mainly produced by activated CD4+ T-cells and stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity. However, T-cell function may be impaired in kidney patients and this may explain the poor response to vaccination. Currently, there is limited data available on the vaccine-induced IL-21 memory T-cell response in these patients. We studied the induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific IL-21 memory T-cell response after mRNA- 1273 vaccination in 3 groups of kidney patients. Method(s): 113 participants were randomly selected from a prospective controlled multicenter cohort study, including 38 controls, 19 chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages G4/5 (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2), 20 dialysis and 36 kidney transplant patients. All participants received 2 doses of mRNA-1273. To assess the vaccineinduced IL-21 memory T-cell response, we performed an IL-21 ELISpot (per 3.105 PBMCs) in these participants at baseline and 28 days after the second vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 S1-specific IgG antibody levels were already measured in the context of the multicenter cohort study. Result(s): Kidney transplant recipients had a significantly lower number of SARSCoV- 2-specific IL-21 producing memory T-cells when compared to controls (median of 46 versus 146, P<0.001). Participants with CKD G4/5 or on dialysis also had reduced SARS-CoV-2-specific IL-21 producing memory T-cells compared to controls (median of 128 [19-658] and 124 [7-654] versus 146 [10-635], p=0.43 and p=0.45, respectively), but the difference was less pronounced. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the number of SARS-CoV-2-specific IL-21 producing memory T-cells and SARS-CoV-2 S1-specific IgG antibody levels for all groups (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.2, p=0.028). Conclusion(s): Kidney transplant recipients have an impaired antibody response after two doses of mRNA-1273 (Moderna), which correlates with poor SARS-CoV- 2-specific T-cell reactivity. These findings suggest that poor IL-21 memory T-cell response might hamper protection against COVID-19.

9.
Annals of Oncology ; 32:S1337, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1446386

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cancer have an increased risk of complications from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Vaccination is recommended, but the impact of chemotherapy and immunotherapy on immunogenicity and safety is still unclear. Methods: This prospective multicenter non-inferiority trial comprises four cohorts: individuals without cancer (A) and patients with solid tumors who were treated with immunotherapy (B), chemotherapy (C) or chemo-immunotherapy (D). Participants received two mRNA-1273 vaccinations 28 days apart. The primary endpoint was SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1-specific IgG serum antibody response, defined as >10 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml 28 days after the second vaccination. We also assessed the virus neutralizing capacity of these antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific interferon-gamma T cell response, and adverse events. Results: Of the 791 participants enrolled, 743 were evaluable for the primary endpoint in cohort A (n=240), B (n=131), C (n=229) and D (n=143). A SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody response was found in 100%, 99.3%, 97.4%, and 100% of the participants in cohorts A, B, C, and D, respectively. To discriminate between suboptimal and adequate responders, we defined a cut-off level at 300 BAU/ml, based on neutralizing capacity. The antibody response was considered adequate after the first vaccination in 66.0%, 37.1%, 32.5%, and 33.3% of the participants in cohorts A, B, C, and D, respectively. This raised 28 days after the second vaccination to respectively 99.6%, 93.1%, 83.8%, and 88.8% in cohorts A, B, C, and D. Spike-specific T cell responses were detected in 46.7% of suboptimal and non-responders. No new safety signals were observed. Conclusions: mRNA-1273 vaccination is safe in the patient populations studied. For each cohort, the proportion of patients with a SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody response after two vaccinations is non-inferior compared to individuals without cancer. However, a significant minority lacks an adequate response. Most patients have an antibody concentration increase after the second vaccination. Therefore, an additional booster may turn inadequate into adequate responders. Clinical trial identification: NCT04715438. Legal entity responsible for the study: University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Funding: ZonMw, The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development. Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627186, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094168

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 outbreak, non-evidence based guidelines were published to advise clinicians on the adjustment of oncological treatment during this pandemic. As immune checkpoint inhibitors directly affect the immune system, concerns have arisen about the safety of immunotherapy during this pandemic. However, data on the immune response in oncology patients treated with immunotherapy are still lacking. Here, we present the adaptive immune response in a SARS-CoV-2 infected patient who was treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced renal cell cancer. To evaluate the immune response in this patient, the number of T cells and their major subsets were measured according to expression of markers for co-signalling, maturation, and chemotaxis at baseline, during therapy, and during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, plasma samples were analyzed for IgM and IgG antibodies and the ability of these antibodies to neutralise SARS-CoV-2. Despite several risk factors for an impaired immune response to SARS-CoV-2, both T- and B-cell responses were observed. Moreover, after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, a sufficient cellular and humoral immune response was achieved in this SARS-CoV-2 infected patient. These findings warrant renewed discussion on withholding of immune checkpoint inhibitors during an ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis , Immunotherapy/methods , Ipilimumab/therapeutic use , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nivolumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
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