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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We studied humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult IEI patients. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study 505 IEI patients (common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), combined immunodeficiency (CID), phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, like CVID and CID, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of CVID patients. The presence of non-infectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in CVID patients were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with CID and CVID. Lowest response was detected in XLA and in CVID patients with non-infectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision-making for additional vaccinations.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332282

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH, without prior COVID-19, compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response and reactogenicity. Between February-September 2021, 1154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60], 86% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53], 29% male) were included. 884 PLWH received BNT162b2, 100 mRNA-1273, 150 ChAdOx1-S, and 20 Ad26.COV2.S. 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 98% virally suppressed, and the median CD4+T-cell count was 710 cells/µL [IQR 520-913]. 247 controls received mRNA-1273, 94 BNT162b2, 26 ChAdOx1-S and 73 Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean concentration was 1418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95%CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV-status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95%CI 0.508-0.725). In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+T-cell counts 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95%CI 1.876-4.314) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95%CI 1.961-4.394), whilst a viral load >50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95%CI 0.286-0.720). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+, and CD8+T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild without vaccine-related SAE. Conclusion After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH. To reach and maintain the same serological responses and vaccine efficacy as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 845887, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775679

ABSTRACT

Novel safe, immunogenic, and effective vaccines are needed to control the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we describe the safety, robust immunogenicity, and potent efficacy elicited in rhesus macaques by a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing a full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein (MVA-S). MVA-S vaccination was well tolerated and induced S and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-binding IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and several variants of concern. S-specific IFNγ, but not IL-4, -producing cells were also elicited. After SARS-CoV-2 challenge, vaccinated animals showed a significant strong reduction of virus loads in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and decreased levels in throat and nasal mucosa. Remarkably, MVA-S also protected macaques from fever and infection-induced cytokine storm. Computed tomography and histological examination of the lungs showed reduced lung pathology in MVA-S-vaccinated animals. These findings favor the use of MVA-S as a potential vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccinia virus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccinia virus/genetics
4.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331736

ABSTRACT

Background: The i mmune response to COVID-19 vaccination is inferior in kidney transplant recipients (KTR), and to a lesser extent in patients on dialysis or with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the immune response 6 months after mRNA-1273 vaccination in kidney patients and compared this to controls. Methods: 152 participants with CKD stages G4/5 (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73m 2 ), 145 participants on dialysis, 267 KTR, and 181 controls were included. SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1-specific IgG antibodies were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex-immunoassay, neutralizing antibodies to ancestral, Delta and Omicron (BA.1) variants by plaque reduction, and T-cell responses by IFN-γ release assay. Findings: At 6 months after vaccination S1-specific antibodies were detected in 100% of controls, 98.7% of CKD G4/5 patients, 95.1% of dialysis patients, and 56.6% of KTR. These figures were comparable to the response rates at 28 days, but antibody levels waned significantly. Neutralization of the ancestral and Delta variant was detected in most participants, whereas neutralization of Omicron was mostly absent. S-specific T-cell responses were detected 6 months in 75.0% of controls, 69.4% of CKD G4/5 patients, 52.6% of dialysis patients, and 12.9% of KTR. T-cell responses at 6 months were significantly lower than responses at 28 days. Interpretation: Although seropositivity rates at 6 months were comparable to that at 28 days after vaccination, significantly decreased antibody levels and T-cell responses were observed. The combination of low antibody levels, reduced T-cell responses, and absent neutralization of the newly-emerging variants indicates the need for additional boosts or alternative vaccination strategies in KTR.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330302

ABSTRACT

The Omicron BA.1 (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant is characterized by a high number of mutations in the viral genome, associated with immune-escape and increased viral spread. It remains unclear whether milder COVID-19 disease progression observed after infection with Omicron BA.1 in humans is due to reduced pathogenicity of the virus or due to pre-existing immunity from vaccination or previous infection. Here, we inoculated hamsters with Omicron BA.1 to evaluate pathogenicity and kinetics of viral shedding, compared to Delta (B.1.617.2) and to animals re-challenged with Omicron BA.1 after previous SARS-CoV-2 614G infection. Omicron BA.1 infected animals showed reduced clinical signs, pathological changes, and viral shedding, compared to Delta-infected animals, but still showed gross- and histopathological evidence of pneumonia. Pre-existing immunity reduced viral shedding and protected against pneumonia. Our data indicate that the observed decrease of disease severity is in part due to intrinsic properties of the Omicron BA.1 variant.

6.
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1739750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND : Serological responses to COVID-19 vaccination are diminished in recipients of solid organ transplants, especially in lung transplant recipients (LTR), probably as result of immunosuppressive treatment. There is currently no marker of immunosuppression that can be used to predict the COVID-19 vaccination response. Here, we study whether torque tenovirus (TTV), a highly prevalent virus can be used as an indicator of immunosuppression. METHODS : The humoral response to the mRNA 1273 vaccine was assessed in 103 LTR, who received a transplant between 4 and 237 months prior to vaccination, by measuring Spike (S)-specific IgG levels at baseline, 28 days after first, and 28 days after the second vaccination. TTV loads were determined by RT-PCR and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate serological responses to TTV load. RESULTS : Humoral responses to COVID-19 vaccination were observed in 41/103 (40%) LTR at 28 days after the second vaccination. 62/103 (60%) were non-responders. Lower TTV loads at baseline (significantly) correlated with higher S-specific antibodies and a higher percentage of responders. Lower TTV loads also strongly correlated with longer time since transplantation, indicating that participants with lower TTV loads were longer after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS : This study shows a better humoral response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in subjects with a lower TTV load pre-vaccination. In addition, TTV load correlates with the time after transplantation. Further studies on the use of TTV load in vaccination efficacy studies in immunocompromised cohorts should provide leads for the potential use of this marker for optimizing vaccination response.

7.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740445

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have a higher risk of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and associated mortality than the general population. Owing to this increased risk, patients with cancer have been prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination globally, for both primary and booster vaccinations. However, given that these patients were not included in the pivotal clinical trials, considerable uncertainty remains regarding vaccine efficacy, and the extent of humoral and cellular immune responses in these patients, as well as the risks of vaccine-related adverse events. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge generated in studies conducted since COVID-19 vaccines first became available. We also highlight critical points that might affect vaccine efficacy in patients with cancer in the future.

8.
Vaccine ; 40(15): 2251-2257, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 vaccine roll-out ongoing in many countries globally, monitoring of breakthrough infections is of great importance. Antibodies persist in the blood after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Since COVID-19 vaccines induce immune response to the Spike protein of the virus, which is the main serosurveillance target to date, alternative targets should be explored to distinguish infection from vaccination. METHODS: Multiplex immunoassay data from 1,513 SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR-tested individuals (352 positive and 1,161 negative) without COVID-19 vaccination history were used to determine the accuracy of Nucleoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in detecting past SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also described Spike S1 and Nucleoprotein-specific IgG responses in 230 COVID-19 vaccinated individuals (Pfizer/BioNTech). RESULTS: The sensitivity of Nucleoprotein seropositivity was 85% (95% confidence interval: 80-90%) for mild COVID-19 in the first two months following symptom onset. Sensitivity was lower in asymptomatic individuals (67%, 50-81%). Participants who had experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection up to 11 months preceding vaccination, as assessed by Spike S1 seropositivity or RT-qPCR, produced 2.7-fold higher median levels of IgG to Spike S1 ≥ 14 days after the first dose as compared to those unexposed to SARS-CoV-2 at ≥ 7 days after the second dose (p = 0.011). Nucleoprotein-specific IgG concentrations were not affected by vaccination in infection-naïve participants. CONCLUSIONS: Serological responses to Nucleoprotein may prove helpful in identifying SARS-CoV-2 infections after vaccination. Furthermore, it can help interpret IgG to Spike S1 after COVID-19 vaccination as particularly high responses shortly after vaccination could be explained by prior exposure history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nucleoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
9.
Euro Surveill ; 27(8)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714940

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assays are more sensitive than rapid antigen detection assays (RDT) and can detect viral RNA even after an individual is no longer infectious. RDT can reduce the time to test and the results might better correlate with infectiousness.AimWe assessed the ability of five RDT to identify infectious COVID-19 cases and systematically recorded the turnaround time of RT-PCR testing.MethodsSensitivity of RDT was determined using a serially diluted SARS-CoV-2 stock with known viral RNA concentration. The probability of detecting infectious virus at a given viral load was calculated using logistic regression of viral RNA concentration and matched culture results of 78 specimens from randomly selected non-hospitalised cases. The probability of each RDT to detect infectious cases was calculated as the sum of the projected probabilities for viral isolation success for every viral RNA load found at the time of diagnosis in 1,739 confirmed non-hospitalised COVID-19 cases.ResultsThe distribution of quantification cycle values and estimated RNA loads for patients reporting to drive-through testing was skewed to high RNA loads. With the most sensitive RDT (Abbott and SD Biosensor), 97.30% (range: 88.65-99.77) of infectious individuals would be detected. This decreased to 92.73% (range: 60.30-99.77) for Coris BioConcept and GenBody, and 75.53% (range: 17.55-99.77) for RapiGEN. Only 32.9% of RT-PCR results were available on the same day as specimen collection.ConclusionThe most sensitive RDT detected infectious COVID-19 cases with high sensitivity and may considerably improve containment through more rapid isolation and contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329413

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants may impact vaccine efficacy significantly 1 . The Omicron variant termed BA.2, which differs genetically substantially from BA.1, is currently replacing BA.1 in several countries, but its antigenic characteristics have not yet been assessed 2,3 . Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize antigenic differences between SARS-CoV-2 variants using hamster sera obtained after primary infection. Whereas early variants are antigenically similar, clustering relatively close to each other in antigenic space, Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 have evolved as two distinct antigenic outliers. Our data show that BA.1 and BA.2 both escape (vaccine-induced) antibody responses as a result of different antigenic characteristics. Close monitoring of the antigenic changes of SARS-CoV-2 using antigenic cartography can be helpful in the selection of future vaccine strains.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1271-1274, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706426

ABSTRACT

Twenty-five B-cell-depleted patients (24 following anti-CD19/20 therapy) diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 had been symptomatic for a median of 26 days but remained antibody negative. All were treated with convalescent plasma with high neutralizing antibody titers. Twenty-one (84%) recovered, indicating the potential therapeutic effects of this therapy in this particular population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319564

ABSTRACT

Purpose:  To study the effect of Interferon-α auto-antibodies (IFN-α Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. Methods: : Sera from cases of COVID-19 and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-αAbs by ELISA and bioassay. IFN-α Abslevels were compared between critically, severely and moderately ill groups in both acute and convalescent stages. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine whether IFN-α Abs levels change after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: : Critically ill COVID-19 caseshad significantly higher IFN-α Abs detection rate and levels compared tonon-COVID-19 controls.Neutralizing IFN-α Abs levels were found in 1 out of 118plasma donors.Plasma from 2 positive donors was administered to 5 patients, with no subsequent elevation of IFN-α Abs levels in the recipients. Neutralizing levels of IFN-α Abswere associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. Conclusions: : IFN-α Abs can be detected by ELISA in critical, severe, moderate and mild COVID-19 cases in both the acute and convalescent stages of disease. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. Levels of IFN-α Abs inCOVID-19 convalescent plasma donorsare likely too low to be clinically relevant to the recipients.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314838

ABSTRACT

A new phase of the COVID-19 pandemic has started as SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging globally, raising concerns for increased transmissibility. Early 2021 the B.1.1.7 (or Alpha) variant, became the dominant variant globally and epidemiological data suggests this variant spreads faster than its ancestors. However, this does not prove that a variant is intrinsically phenotypically different, let alone more transmissible or fit. Therefore, rapid phenotyping of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern is urgently needed. We found that airway, intestinal and alveolar organoids infected with the B.1.1.7 variant produced higher levels of infectious virus late in infection compared to its 614G-containing ancestor. The B.1.1.7 variant also had a clear fitness advantage in human airway organoids. In alveolar organoids, the B.1.1.7 variant induced lower levels of innate immunity. These findings suggest that the B.1.1.7 variant is phenotypically different from its ancestor and may explain why this clade has spread rapidly across the globe.Funding Information: This work was supported by Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (10150062010008;B.L.H.), PPP allowance (LSHM19136;B.L.H.). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 874735. Declaration of Interests: H.C. is inventor on patents held by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences that cover organoid technology. H.C.’s full disclosure is given at https://www.uu.nl/staff/JCClevers. All other authors have nothing to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: The Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus MC Rotterdam granted permission for this study (METC 2012-512). The study was approved by the UMC Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands) ethical committee and was in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and according to Dutch law. This study is compliant with all relevant ethical regulations regarding research involving human participants.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311075

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma could be an inexpensive and widely available treatment for COVID-19 patients but reports on effectiveness are inconclusive. We collected convalescent plasma from donors with high titers of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies effectively blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. In a randomized clinical trial of 86 COVID-19 patients, no overall clinical benefit of 300 mL convalescent plasma was found in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the Netherlands. Using a comprehensive translational approach, we unraveled the virological and immunological responses following plasma treatment which helps to understand which COVID-19 patients may benefit from this therapy and should be the focus of future studies. Convalescent plasma treatment in this patient group did not improve survival, had no effect on the clinical course of disease, nor did plasma enhance viral clearance in the respiratory tract, influence anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody development or serum proinflammatory cytokines levels. The vast majority of patients already had potent neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at hospital admission and at comparable titers as the carefully selected plasma donors. Together, these data indicate that the variable effectivity observed in trials on convalescent plasma for COVID-19 may be explained by the timing of treatment and varying levels of preexisting anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity in patients. It also substantiates that convalescent plasma should be studied as early as possible in the disease course or at least preceding the start of an autologous humoral response. Trial registration : Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04342182

15.
Sci Immunol ; 7(69): eabo2202, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673343

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant is spreading rapidly, even in vaccinated individuals, raising concerns about immune escape. Here, we studied neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses targeting SARS-CoV-2 D614G [wild type (WT)] and the Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants of concern in a cohort of 60 health care workers after immunization with ChAdOx-1 S, Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273, or BNT162b2. High binding antibody levels against WT SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) were detected 28 days after vaccination with both mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2), which substantially decreased after 6 months. In contrast, antibody levels were lower after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination but did not wane. Neutralization assays showed consistent cross-neutralization of the Beta and Delta variants, but neutralization of Omicron was significantly lower or absent. BNT162b2 booster vaccination after either two mRNA-1273 immunizations or Ad26.COV2 priming partially restored neutralization of the Omicron variant, but responses were still up to 17-fold decreased compared with WT. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected up to 6 months after all vaccination regimens, with more consistent detection of specific CD4+ than CD8+ T cells. No significant differences were detected between WT- and variant-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses, including Omicron, indicating minimal escape at the T cell level. This study shows that vaccinated individuals retain T cell immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, potentially balancing the lack of neutralizing antibodies in preventing or limiting severe COVID-19. Booster vaccinations are needed to further restore Omicron cross-neutralization by antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(2): 232-239, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669888

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the effect of interferon-α2 auto-antibodies (IFN-α2 Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α2 Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. METHODS: Sera from healthy controls, cases of COVID-19, and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-α2 Abs by ELISA and a pseudo virus-based neutralization assay. The effects of disease severity, sex, and age on the risk of having neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs were determined. Longitudinal analyses were performed to determine association between IFN-α2 Abs and survival and viral load and whether serum IFN-α2 Abs appeared after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: IFN-α2 neutralizing sera were found only in COVID-19 patients, with proportions increasing with disease severity and age. In the acute stage of COVID-19, all sera from patients with ELISA-detected IFN-α2 Abs (13/164, 7.9%) neutralized levels of IFN-α2 exceeding physiological concentrations found in human plasma and this was associated with delayed viral clearance. Convalescent plasma donors that were anti-IFN-α2 ELISA positive (3/118, 2.5%) did not neutralize the same levels of IFN-α2. Neutralizing serum IFN-α2 Abs were associated with delayed viral clearance from the respiratory tract. CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2 Abs were detected by ELISA and neutralization assay in COVID-19 patients, but not in ICU patients with other respiratory illnesses. The presence of neutralizing IFN-α2 Abs in critically ill COVID-19 is associated with delayed viral clearance. IFN-α2 Abs in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors were not neutralizing in the conditions tested.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
N Engl J Med ; 386(10): 951-963, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, which was approved as a single-shot immunization regimen, has been shown to be effective against severe coronavirus disease 2019. However, this vaccine induces lower severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein (S)-specific antibody levels than those induced by messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a homologous or heterologous booster in persons who have received an Ad26.COV2.S priming dose are unclear. METHODS: In this single-blind, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving health care workers who had received a priming dose of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, we assessed immunogenicity and reactogenicity 28 days after a homologous or heterologous booster vaccination. The participants were assigned to receive no booster, an Ad26.COV2.S booster, an mRNA-1273 booster, or a BNT162b2 booster. The primary end point was the level of S-specific binding antibodies, and the secondary end points were the levels of neutralizing antibodies, S-specific T-cell responses, and reactogenicity. A post hoc analysis was performed to compare mRNA-1273 boosting with BNT162b2 boosting. RESULTS: Homologous or heterologous booster vaccination resulted in higher levels of S-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses than a single Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. The increase in binding antibodies was significantly larger with heterologous regimens that included mRNA-based vaccines than with the homologous booster. The mRNA-1273 booster was most immunogenic and was associated with higher reactogenicity than the BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S boosters. Local and systemic reactions were generally mild to moderate in the first 2 days after booster administration. CONCLUSIONS: The Ad26.COV2.S and mRNA boosters had an acceptable safety profile and were immunogenic in health care workers who had received a priming dose of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. The strongest responses occurred after boosting with mRNA-based vaccines. Boosting with any available vaccine was better than not boosting. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development ZonMw; SWITCH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04927936.).


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260894, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Performance of the SD Biosensor saliva antigen rapid test was evaluated at a large designated testing site in non-hospitalized patients, with or without symptoms. METHOD: All eligible people over 18 years of age presenting for a booked appointment at the designated SARS-CoV-2 testing site were approached for inclusion and enrolled following verbal informed consent. One nasopharyngeal swab was taken to carry out the default antigen rapid test from which the results were reported back to the patient and one saliva sample was self-taken according to verbal instruction on site. This was used for the saliva antigen rapid test, the RT-PCR and for virus culture. Sensitivity of the saliva antigen rapid test was analyzed in two ways: i, compared to saliva RT-PCR; and ii, compared to virus culture of the saliva samples. Study participants were also asked to fill in a short questionnaire stating age, sex, date of symptom onset. Recommended time of ≥30mins since last meal, drink or cigarette if applicable was also recorded. The study was carried out in February-March 2021 for 4 weeks. RESULTS: We could include 789 people with complete records and results. Compared to saliva RT-PCR, overall sensitivity and specificity of the saliva antigen rapid test was 66.1% and 99.6% which increased to 88.6% with Ct ≤30 cutoff. Analysis by days post onset did not result in higher sensitivities because the large majority of people were in the very early phase of disease ie <3 days post onset. When breaking down the data for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, sensitivity ranged from 69.2% to 50% respectively, however the total number of RT-PCR positive asymptomatic participants was very low (n = 5). Importantly, almost all culture positive samples were detected by the rapid test. CONCLUSION: Overall, the potential benefits of saliva antigen rapid test, could outweigh the lower sensitivity compared to nasopharyngeal antigen rapid test in a comprehensive testing strategy, especially for home/self-testing and in vulnerable populations like elderly, disabled or children where in intrusive testing is either not possible or causes unnecessary stress.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , Carrier State/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1681-1691, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer have an increased risk of complications from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination to prevent COVID-19 is recommended, but data on the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with solid tumours receiving systemic cancer treatment are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and chemoimmunotherapy on the immunogenicity and safety of the mRNA-1273 (Moderna Biotech, Madrid, Spain) COVID-19 vaccine as part of the Vaccination Against COVID in Cancer (VOICE) trial. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, non-inferiority trial was done across three centres in the Netherlands. Individuals aged 18 years or older with a life expectancy of more than 12 months were enrolled into four cohorts: individuals without cancer (cohort A [control cohort]), and patients with solid tumours, regardless of stage and histology, treated with immunotherapy (cohort B), chemotherapy (cohort C), or chemoimmunotherapy (cohort D). Participants received two mRNA-1273 vaccinations of 100 µg in 0·5 mL intramuscularly, 28 days apart. The primary endpoint, analysed per protocol (excluding patients with a positive baseline sample [>10 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL], indicating previous SARS-CoV-2 infection), was defined as the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-specific IgG serum antibody response (ie, SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody concentration of >10 BAU/mL) 28 days after the second vaccination. For the primary endpoint analysis, a non-inferiority design with a margin of 10% was used. We also assessed adverse events in all patients who received at least one vaccination, and recorded solicited adverse events in participants who received at least one vaccination but excluding those who already had seroconversion (>10 BAU/mL) at baseline. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04715438. FINDINGS: Between Feb 17 and March 12, 2021, 791 participants were enrolled and followed up for a median of 122 days (IQR 118 to 128). A SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody response was found in 240 (100%; 95% CI 98 to 100) of 240 evaluable participants in cohort A, 130 (99%; 96 to >99) of 131 evaluable patients in cohort B, 223 (97%; 94 to 99) of 229 evaluable patients in cohort C, and 143 (100%; 97 to 100) of 143 evaluable patients in cohort D. The SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody response in each patient cohort was non-inferior compared with cohort A. No new safety signals were observed. Grade 3 or worse serious adverse events occurred in no participants in cohort A, three (2%) of 137 patients in cohort B, six (2%) of 244 patients in cohort C, and one (1%) of 163 patients in cohort D, with four events (two of fever, and one each of diarrhoea and febrile neutropenia) potentially related to the vaccination. There were no vaccine-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Most patients with cancer develop, while receiving chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or both for a solid tumour, an adequate antibody response to vaccination with the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. The vaccine is also safe in these patients. The minority of patients with an inadequate response after two vaccinations might benefit from a third vaccination. FUNDING: ZonMw, The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/immunology , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Vaccination/adverse effects , /administration & dosage , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunomodulation , Injections, Intramuscular , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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