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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153656

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects a wide spectrum of organ systems. We report a 52-year-old man with hypertension and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and developed severe brachial plexopathy. He was not treated with prone positioning respiratory therapy. Associated with the flaccid, painfully numb left upper extremity was a livedoid, purpuric rash on his left hand and forearm consistent with COVID-19-induced microangiopathy. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological data were consistent with near diffuse left brachial plexitis with selective sparing of axillary, suprascapular and pectoral fascicles. Given his microangiopathic rash, elevated D-dimers and paucifascicular plexopathy, we postulate a patchy microvascular thrombotic plexopathy. Providers should be aware of this significant and potentially under-recognised neurologic complication of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Arm/pathology , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus , Exanthema/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neuralgia/complications , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 19, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Aminolevulinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology
3.
J Neurol Sci ; 416: 117019, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report four patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). METHODS: Patient data was abstracted from medical records at Weill Cornell Medical Center. RESULTS: Four patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and PRES were identified. The patients' ages ranged from 64 to 74 years, and two were women. All four patients were admitted to the hospital with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. PRES was diagnosed after persistent confusion, lethargy, new focal neurological deficits, or seizures were noted, with evidence of seizures on electroencephalogram for two of the patients. Imaging confirmed the presence of cerebral vasogenic edema. All four patients had elevated blood pressure and renal injury in the days preceding PRES diagnosis, as well as evidence of systemic inflammation and systemic hypercoagulability. Symptoms of PRES improved with blood pressure control. CONCLUSIONS: Our four cases demonstrate the occurrence of PRES in critically-ill patients with COVID-19. PRES should be considered in the differential for acute neurological deficits and seizures in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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