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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(33): 80758-80767, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245363

ABSTRACT

Financial inclusion enhances economic growth by facilitating businesses and individuals to access financial resources. Financial inclusion also contributes to environmental sustainability; however, very few studies have explored the link between financial inclusion and the environment. Also, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental performance remains unexplored. From this perspective, this study probes the objective of whether financial inclusion and environmental performance co-move in COVID-19 in highly polluted economies. This objective is tested with the help of 2SLS and GMM approaches. The study also gets assistance from a panel quantile regression approach for empirical tasks. The results show that financial inclusion and the COVID-19 pandemic have a negative impact on CO2 emissions. Based on these findings, the study suggests that highly polluted economies should promote financial inclusion and assimilate environmental policies with financial inclusion policies to attain environment-related goals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Carbon Dioxide , Environmental Policy , Economic Development
2.
Finance Research Letters ; : 103395, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061180

ABSTRACT

Our investigation of 46 conventional and 22 Islamic banks from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during 2008-2021 reveals that sectoral diversification effects on stability are nonlinear and different for the two bank types. While Islamic banks’ stability is worsened only by moderate levels of diversification, conventional banks’ stability is enhanced by high levels and impaired by low levels of diversification. Furthermore, diversification acted as a stabilizer during the global financial crisis but exacerbated the adverse effects of the Covid-19 pandemic. Although regulators usually call for bank diversification, our results imply that it can be a double-edged sword.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 204, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was a lack of information about prognostic accuracy of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in forecasting cure among extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of SCC at various time points in forecasting cure among XDR-TB patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 355 eligible pulmonary XDR-TB patients treated at 27 centers in Pakistan between 01-05-2010 and 30-06-2017. The baseline and follow-up information of patients from treatment initiation until the end of treatment were retrieved from electronic nominal recording and reporting system. Time to SCC was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, and differences between groups were compared through log-rank test. Predictors of time to SCC and cure were respectively evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regression analyses. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 226 (63.6%) and 146 (41.1%) patients respectively achieved SCC and cure. Median time to SCC was significantly shorter in patients who achieved cure, 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.47-3.53), than those who did not (median: 10 months, 95% CI: 5.24-14.76) (p-value < 0.001, Log-rank test). Patient's age > 40 years (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.632, p-value = 0.004), baseline sputum grading of scanty, + 1 (HR = 0.511, p-value = 0.002), + 2, + 3 (HR = 0.523, p-value = 0.001) and use of high dose isoniazid (HR = 0.463, p-value = 0.004) were significantly associated with early SCC. Only SCC at 6 month of treatment had statistically significant association with cure (odds ratio = 15.603, p-value < 0.001). In predicting cure, the sensitivities of SCC at 2, 4 and 6 months were respectively 41.8% (95%CI: 33.7-50.2), 69.9% (95%CI: 61.7-77.2) and 84.9% (95%CI: 78.1-90.3), specificities were respectively, 82.8% (95%CI: 76.9-87.6), 74.6% (95%CI: 68.2-80.4) and 69.4% (95%CI: 62.6-75.5) and prognostic accuracies were respectively 65.9% (95%CI: 60.7-70.8), 72.7% (95%CI: 67.7-77.2) and 75.8% (95%CI: 71.0-80.1). CONCLUSION: In forecasting cure, SCC at month 6 of treatment performed better than SCC at 2 and 4 months. However, it would be too long for clinicians to wait for 6 months to decide about the regimen efficacy. Therefore, with somewhat comparable prognostic accuracy to that SCC at 6 month, using SCC at 4 month of treatment as a prognostic marker in predicting cure among XDR-TB patients can decrease the clinicians waiting time to decide about the regimen efficacy.


Subject(s)
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
5.
Sustainability ; 13(10):5344, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1224234

ABSTRACT

It has been more than a year since the coronavirus (COVID-19) engulfed the whole world, disturbing the daily routine, bringing down the economies, and killing two million people across the globe at the time of writing. The pandemic brought the world together to a joint effort to find a cure and work toward developing a vaccine. Much to the anticipation, the first batch of vaccines started rolling out by the end of 2020, and many countries began the vaccination drive early on while others still waiting in anticipation for a successful trial. Social media, meanwhile, was bombarded with all sorts of both positive and negative stories of the development and the evolving coronavirus situation. Many people were looking forward to the vaccines, while others were cautious about the side-effects and the conspiracy theories resulting in mixed emotions. This study explores users’ tweets concerning the COVID-19 vaccine and the sentiments expressed on Twitter. It tries to evaluate the polarity trend and a shift since the start of the coronavirus to the vaccination drive across six countries. The findings suggest that people of neighboring countries have shown quite a similar attitude regarding the vaccination in contrast to their different reactions to the coronavirus outbreak.

6.
J Behav Exp Finance ; 30: 100498, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163984

ABSTRACT

We report new evidence that speculation in energy and precious metal futures are more prevalent in crisis periods and even more so during the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, agricultural futures attract more hedging pressure. Post-GFC patterns mirror the 1980s' recessions. Using quantile regression on a long-horizon sample we also find that speculative pressure generally coincides with abnormal returns in normal circumstances but not in the current pandemic. Instead, volatility is strongly and often non-linearly associated with speculation across instruments.

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