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1.
Acta Veterinaria Eurasia ; 48(2):117-122, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885087

ABSTRACT

After the identification of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from camels in Saudi Arabia by 2012, it has been believed that camel is a primary reservoir of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and viral transmission from camel to human could occur. The current study is the initial announcement on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus detection from camels in Iran. Middle East respiratory syndrome genome was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in samples taken from camels that illegally entered Iran. The presence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus was investigated in nasal and rectal swab samples by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for upE and ORF 1a genes. Positive samples were then subjected to ORF 1a and N gene-distinct polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The acquired sequences were applied for phylogenetic analysis in comparison with sequences of related regional human cases and non-regional camel isolates. Nasal swabs from 3 out of 18 camels showed positive results in both real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. The nucleotide sequencing revealed that N and ORF 1a fragments of the studied viruses had a high level of similarity to the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses isolated from camels in African countries, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, and to those isolated from a person in Iran. The current study is the primary report on the characterization of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus from Iranian camels.

2.
Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology ; 15(59), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841817

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and has numerous serotypes and strains. Rapid replication combined with high mutation rate and recombination are the main causes of the observed high diversity. Feed conversion and average daily gain are affected in broilers, and infection is often followed by secondary bacterial infections. In layers, IBV causes a reduction in egg production. Today, IB is one of the most economically important diseases in the poultry industry. Transcriptional profiles of trachea tissue of the infected group (IBV) were studied with control group to evaluate changes in transcriptome profile at the early stages of infection. After the challenge of SPF chickens with IBV IS-1494 like (GI-23), the trachea tissue was used for RNA extraction, and changes in the transcriptome were investigated by Illumina RNA-seq technique. Up-regulated and down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the transcriptome of trachea were identified. Gene ontology category, KEGG pathway were analyzed to identify relationships among differentially expressed genes. In general, the numbers of up-regulated genes were higher than of down-regulated genes in experimental group. In the experimental group, a more severe immune response occurred;an important up-regulated genes in this group's was Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, apoptotic pathway, MAPK signaling pathway. Results of this study could provide a general overview of transcriptome changes in the trachea at the early stage of infection with avian infectious bronchitis (IBV) virus.

3.
Iran J Vet Res ; 23(1): 18-23, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841783

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses worldwide. IBV has a broad tissue distribution with different viral loads in different tissues. Additionally, IBV can induce apoptosis in infected cells. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of the genetic background of chickens in viral load and the expression level of apoptotic genes in different tissues of two hybrids of commercial broiler chickens (Ross 308 and Cobb 500) challenged with IBV. Methods: Chickens at 21 days of age were nasally challenged with 200 µL of allantoic fluid containing 104 EID50/ml of Iranian variant-2-like IBV (IS/1494). The expression level of apoptotic genes (Fas, FasL, Bax, and Bcl-2) in the tracheal and renal tissues and the amount of viral load in the tracheal, renal, and cloacal swab samples were investigated two, five, and seven days after IBV infection by RT-qPCR assay. Results: The amount of viral load and apoptotic the expression level of apoptotic genes in the tracheal (two and five days after infection) and renal samples (seven days after infection) were significantly higher in the Ross challenged group than in the Cobb challenged group.Furthermore, no difference was observed in the cloaca viral load on sampling days. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report that evaluated the role of the chickens' genetic background in the amount of viral load and the expression level of apoptotic genes against IBV. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathogenic characteristics of IBV in Ross 308 and Cobb 500 chickens.

4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 117, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767581

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to find the direct economic losses due to the three viral causes of the avian respiratory syndrome, including Newcastle disease (ND), H9N2 influenza, and infectious bronchitis (IB) in stamped-out broiler farms during 2016-2017 across the country. This study was carried out on the information on cross-sectional monitoring in the years 2016-2017. The statistical society of the study was all the active broiler farms of the country stamped out due to respiratory syndrome. This study used compensation insurance data, and other sources. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed data. In total, during the study period, 132 broiler farms and 1,723,131 fowls were stamped out. According to the results of the present investigation, the sum of costs and losses due to respiratory complex was 9.47 $US Million, 2016-2017 (5.72 from $US Million chicken meat losses and 3.75 $US Million was the total cost). ND was the main cause of economic losses and costs with 3.86 $US equal to 40.8% of the total. Cost of feeding was the highest followed by veterinary services and medicines, vaccination, and 1-day-old chicks costs with 2.27, 1.11, 0.33, and 0.036 $US Million, 2016-2017. In conclusion, we need to improve the preventive measures against respiratory viruses, especially NDV. Additionally, as the cost of feeding was the largest, it is important to shorten the time interval between disease occurrence and stamping out to reduce the cost.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies , Farms , Financial Stress , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
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