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1.
Journal of School of Public Health & Institute of Public Health Research ; 19(4):413-422, 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957775

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiological history of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic children in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of children younger than 14 years old were collected during the period autumn-winter 2020 and spring 2021 and tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody using the EUROIMMUN ELISA kit. In addition, questionnaires were used to collect demographic and infection status information in the participants. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software.

2.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 21(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939347

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the pediatric population. Objectives: Due to limited data, this study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of favipiravir in the hospitalized pediatric population diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: The present retrospective cohort study was conducted on pediatric patients aged 1-18 years with a diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Favipiravir was administrated at a dose of 60 mg/kg/day (max: 3200 mg/day) on the first day and then 23 mg/kg/day (max: 1200 mg/day) for 7 to 14 days. The patients were evaluated regarding the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, duration of hospital stay, and mortality. Safety was measured by the occurrence of related adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Results: A total of 95 patients were included in the study. Favipiravir was administered to 25 patients. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation was reported in 4 (16.00%) and 11 (15.71%) patients in the favipiravir and control groups, respectively (P = 1.000). The median duration of hospital stays was significantly higher in patients who received favipiravir than in the controls (P = 0.002). No difference was observed in the mortality rate (P = 0.695). The ADRs, including decreased appetite, hypotension, and chest pain, were more prevalent in patients who received favipiravir than in the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of favipiravir in the pediatric population is associated with higher ADR occurrence with no pos-itive effect on the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, hospital stay, and mortality. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary for better judgment.

3.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789625

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known as the most recent pandemic condition declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is widely believed that this infection is less frequent and severe in children, but few mortality reports are available in this age group population. Case Presentation: We described nine pediatric patients with probable or confirmed COVID-19 who died due to disease complications. Their age ranged between seven months and 14 years. All had underlying diseases, and three of them had been hospitalized before the COVID-19 diagnosis due to their previous medical conditions. Cough and respiratory symptoms were the most common symptoms observed in these patients. Bilateral ground-glass opacities were common radiologic findings. Conclusions: Although COVID-19 is less common in the pediatric group, all ages are vulnerable to this infection, and mortality may occur, especially in patients with underlying diseases. We emphasize that children with underlying diseases and COVID-19 should be hospitalized and monitored tightly during treatment. © 2021, Author(s).

4.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 9(3):4, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1273652

ABSTRACT

Diarrhea and vomiting with or without fever are common symptoms in children, while one of the most common clinical findings of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is gastrointestinal symptoms. Therefore, there is a need to develop an algorithm for dealing with a patient with gastroenteritis in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.

6.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 9(1):5, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1239118

ABSTRACT

Context: In the era of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, new scoring systems need to be developed to estimate the risk of COVID-19 complications aiding in the accurate prognosis. Improved scoring systems by combining multiple variables allow clinicians to optimize the allocation of limited medical resources for the best clinical outcomes. Methods: Published articles were selected that assessed the relationship between clinical, para-clinical, demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in a systematic review to develop a novel scoring system. Results: In this study, by summarizing the results of 97 studies and the experiences of experts, prognostic factors were determined and divided into four groups: Age, clinical symptoms, co-morbidities, and tests. Twenty-three published articles met the selection criteria and were included in this study. Accordingly, by the opinion of experts, prognostic factors were categorized into four main groups: Age, clinical symptoms, co-morbidities, and specific test results. Conclusions: This novel scoring model helps physicians to early identify critical COVID-19 patients and optimize patient management based on recent comprehensive data of the most significant predictive factors.

7.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 9(1):6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1239116

ABSTRACT

Background: Information about renal involvement in pediatric patients with COVID-19 is limited, and there is not enough data about renal and urinary tract involvement in children infected with this novel virus. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the spectrum of kidney diseases in pediatric patients with COVID-19, admitted to a tertiary children's hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was established basedonthe guidelinesby the Iranian Ministry of Health. The patients' demographiccharacteristics, clinicalsymptoms, laboratory results, and renal ultrasonography findings were extracted from the hospital medical records. Results: On admission, 10% of patients had oliguria, 7.7% had edema, and 3% had hypertension. The first urinalysis indicated proteinuria, leukocyturia, and hematuria in 46%, 24%, and 23% of the patients, respectively. Overall, 40.7% of the patients showed some degree of renal involvement. During hospitalization, acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 34.5% of the patients. Based on the pediatric risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease (pRIFLE) classification, stage I (risk group) was found in 20% of patients, stage II (injury group) in 25% of patients, and stage III (failure group) in 55% of patients with AKI. The total mortality rate was estimated at 12.67%, and the incidence of in-hospital death was 30% in pediatric patients with severe COVID-19 infection associated with AKI. Conclusions: The prevalence of AKI was high in patients with COVID-19 infection hospitalized in our tertiary hospital. We also found that a decrease in renal function was associated with a higher risk of mortality. Overall, early detection of AKI and effective treatment may help reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19.

8.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 9(1):5, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1239115

ABSTRACT

The first case of Kawasaki-like disease in children infected with COVID-19 was reported in a preprint case report. In the present case series, three pediatric probable cases with COVID-19, who presented signs and symptoms of Kawasaki-like syndrome, and their three-month follow-up are provided.

9.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 13(9):6, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1005025

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a new coronavirus appeared in China, as a cause of acute respiratory disease. Healthcare Workers (HCWs) in children's hospitals are one of the groups who are at a high rate of exposure to COVID-19 patients. The detection of antibodies is useful and helps diagnose late or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most children may present with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and can be silent sources of infection in the community and hospitals. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the antibodies (IgM and IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 in Mofid children's hospital staff. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 475 staff from Mofid children's hospital from April 20 to May 5, 2020, in Tehran. We collected blood samples for the antibody assay with a rapid test kit. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: Of 475 staff who participated in this study, 25 (5.3%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and/or CT scan. Besides,140 (29.4%) of them were positive for IgM and/or IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Conclusions: The seropositivity of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among children's hospital staff was higher than expected. Approximately 5% of the participants were diagnosed as definitive positive COVID-19 cases by PCR and/or CT scan, but 29.4% of them were seropositive. The difference is a warning, as it shows seropositive people could be silent sources of transmission during asymptomatic infection.

10.
Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 8(2), 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-621732

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of 2019 novel corona virus infection in China, we have the outbreak of disease in Iran and until March 05, 2020 have been reported a total number of confirmed cases more than 3500 and approximately 3.3% deaths. The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection as a newly emerging disease in East Asia has caused a great challenge in managing the patients and controlling the disease especially in children. This algorithm is based on the standard diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric viral infections and available strategies to prevention of COVID-19 infection. It is hoped that with international co-operation, this global dilemma will end with the least burden of disease. Due to the lack of scientific evidences in children, this algorithm is essential for decision making.

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