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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311069

ABSTRACT

Context: The prevalence of in-hospital death due to COVID-19 hospital is one of the qualitative indexes, which can be used to assess the quality of care, as well as the mortality patterns in COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives: Therefore, this systematic and meta-analysis study has been done with the aim of estimating overall prevalence in-hospital death due to COVID-19 disease in iranian patients Evidence Acquisition: Articles were identified through international searching databases including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and Iranian scientific information database (SID), Health.barakatkns, IranDoc, Civilica and MagIran. We reviewed systematically all studies reporting the prevalence of in-hospital death due to COVID-19 disease. In this study meta-analysis method with random effect model has been used to estimate the pooled prevalence. Results: : 118 records were identified by the electronic search, of which 43 studies were identified as relevant papers that were meta-analyzed for the pooled in-hospital death due to COVID-19 prevalence. Overall, prevalence of death were 12.16% (95% CI: 10.72%-13.61%). The highest and lowest death prevalence has been reported in Northern Provinces (Gilan, 27.27% (95% CI: 8.66%-45.88%) and Mazandaran, 21.27% (95% CI: 18.14%-24.40%)) and Turkish-speaking provinces (Azerbaijan, East, 3.29% (95% CI: 2.11%-4.47%) and Zanjan, 3.42% (95% CI: 1.82%-5.02%)) respectively. Conclusions: : Considering the death rate obtained in this study and its comparison with other countries, it can be said that the performance of the Iranian medical system in COVID-19 pandemic is acceptable.

2.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 245, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We performed a multicenter, randomized open-label trial in patients with moderate to severe Covid-19 treated with a range of possible treatment regimens. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to one of three regimen groups at a ratio of 1:1:1. The primary outcome of this study was admission to the intensive care unit. Secondary outcomes were intubation, in-hospital mortality, time to clinical recovery, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Between April 13 and August 9, 2020, a total of 336 patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the 3 treatment regimens including group I (hydroxychloroquine stat, prednisolone, azithromycin and naproxen; 120 patients), group II (hydroxychloroquine stat, azithromycin and naproxen; 116 patients), and group III (hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir (116 patients). The mean LOS in patients receiving prednisolone was 5.5 in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population and 4.4 days in the per-protocol (PP) population compared with 6.4 days (mITT population) and 5.8 days (PP population) in patients treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir. RESULTS: The mean LOS was significantly lower in the mITT and PP populations who received prednisolone compared with populations treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir (p = 0.028; p = 0.0007). We observed no significant differences in the number of deaths, ICU admission, and need for mechanical ventilation between the Modified ITT and per-protocol populations treated with prednisolone and Lopinavir/Ritonavir, although these outcomes were better in the arm treated with prednisolone. The time to clinical recovery was similar in the modified ITT and per-protocol populations treated with prednisolone, lopinavir/ritonavir, and azithromycin (P = 0.335; P = 0.055; p = 0.291; p = 0.098). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study show that therapeutic regimen (regimen I) with low dose prednisolone was superior to other regimens in shortening the length of hospital stay in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. The steroid sparing effect may be utilized to increase the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the management of diabetic patients by decreasing the dosage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Iran , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisolone/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107894, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for hospitalizations of cases with positive and negative COVID-19 tests. METHODS: In this case-control study, the case and control groups consisted of 292 COVID-19 patients and 296 non-COVID-19 patients. Patients who referred to a reference laboratory in Tehran (Iran) in March 2020 were selected and interviewed. The patients were contacted by telephone and data were recorded through a questionnaire. RESULTS: The sample of this study consisted of 588 patients (349 [59%] females, 239 [41%] males) with a mean age of 42 ± 15. The results of this study showed that comorbidities like diabetes (OR = 7.42), hypertension (OR = 4.85), asthma and respiratory diseases (OR = 5.64) in addition to symptoms including fever (OR = 6.67), chills (OR = 11.2), anorexia (OR = 11.3), dyspnea (OR = 4.8), weakness and lethargy (OR = 5.7) were the most predictive variables for hospitalization of non-COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, demographical variables like male gender (OR = 3.71), high age (>50; OR = 3.12), BMI (>25; OR = 2.37), travel (OR = 2.79), comorbidities including diabetes (OR = 5.26), hypertension (OR = 3.7) and underlying immunosuppressant patients receiving corticosteroid therapy (OR = 3.62) in addition to symptoms like anorexia [OR = 2.55] and dyspnea (OR = 6.99) tend to increase the risk of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients, suggesting their predictive values for hospitalization of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that different factors tend to increase the odds of hospital admission in patients with positive and negative COVID-19 tests, suggesting their predictive values for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(6): 826-832, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207109

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged as a health problem worldwide. It seems that COVID-19 is more lethal for Iranian veterans with a history of exposure to mustard gas. There are some similarities in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas in immune system disruption and pulmonary infection. SARS-CoV-2 and mustard gas inducing oxidative stress, immune system dysregulation, cytokine storm, and overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptor in lungs that act as functional entry receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure are more susceptible and vulnerable to COVID-19. It is suggested that the principles of COVID-19 infection prevention and control be adhered to more stringently in Iranian survivors of mustard gas exposure than others who have not been exposed to mustard gas. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the different pathologic aspects of lung injury caused by mustard gas and also the relationship between this damage and the increased susceptibility of Iranian mustard gas exposed survivors to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Mustard Gas/toxicity , Survivors , Veterans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-2, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014949
8.
Tanaffos ; 19(2): 112-121, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak quickly has spread and became a pandemic. However, no approved therapeutics or effective treatment is available for the treatment of these patients. The present study was done to retrospectively assess the treatment strategies (e.g., pharmaceutical care services) for COVID-19 patients in selected hospitals and highlight the importance of such services in the management of a pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a series of COVID-19 patients (978 patients; 658 males [66.9%] and 324 females [33.1%]) admitted to the selected hospitals in Tehran from 20 February to 19 March 2020 were retrieved retrospectively from the Health Information System (HIS) of the hospitals. The statistical tests were used for analyzing the effect and correlation of the variables (drugs) with the average length of stay (ALOS) in the hospital. RESULTS: Diverse medication classes and old drugs with or without strong evidence of therapeutic effects against the novel coronavirus, some previously tried as a treatment for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, were mostly used for the treatment of patients in the hospitals. Many medications (broad-spectrum antibiotics and antivirals) or combination therapies are used without evidence of their therapeutic effects during pandemics. CONCLUSION: Therefore, guidelines should be provided for the off-label use of these drugs by policymakers and stakeholders during a pandemic emergency due to high demands. Also, monitoring of the HIS data can play an important role in improving public health response to emerging diseases.

9.
Radiol Res Pract ; 2020: 8825761, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969080

ABSTRACT

In this review, we aim to assess previous radiologic studies in COVID-19 and suggest a pulmonary pathogenesis based on radiologic findings. Although radiologic features are not specific and there is heterogeneity in symptoms and radiologic and clinical manifestation, we suggest that the dominant pattern of computed tomography is consistent with limited pneumonia, followed by interstitial pneumonitis and organizing pneumonia.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(1): 591-595, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934013

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can present with a variety of clinical features, ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms to fulminant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) depending on the host's immune responses and the extent of the associated pathologies. This implies that several measures need to be taken to limit severely impairing symptoms caused by viral-induced pathology in vital organs. Opioids are most exploited for their analgesic effects but their usage in the palliation of dyspnoea, immunomodulation and lysosomotropism may represent potential usages of opioids in COVID-19. Here, we describe the mechanisms involved in each of these potential usages, highlighting the benefits of using opioids in the treatment of ARDS from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunomodulation/physiology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Receptors, Opioid/immunology
11.
Daru ; 28(2): 507-516, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no identified pharmacological therapy for COVID-19 patients, where potential therapeutic strategies are underway to determine effective therapy under such unprecedented pandemic. Therefore, combination therapies may have the potential of alleviating the patient's outcome. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of two different combination regimens in improving outcomes of patients infected by novel coronavirus (COVID-19). METHODS: This is a single centered, retrospective, observational study of 60 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 positive inpatients (≥18 years old) at two wards of the Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patient's data including clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded. According to the drug regimen, the patients were divided into two groups; group I who received regimen I consisting azithromycin, prednisolone, naproxen, and lopinavir/ritonavir and group II who received regimen II including meropenem, levofloxacin, vancomycin, hydroxychloroquine, and oseltamivir. RESULTS: The oxygen saturation (SpO2) and temperature were positively changed in patients receiving regimen I compared to regimen II (P = 0.013 and P = 0.012, respectively). The serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) changed positively in group I (P < 0.001). Although there was a significant difference in platelets between both groups (75.44 vs 51.62, P < 0.001), their change did not clinically differ between two groups. The findings indicated a significant difference of the average length of stay in hospitals (ALOS) between two groups, where the patients under regimen I showed a shorter ALOS (6.97 vs 9.93, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study revealed the beneficial effect of the short-term use of low-dose prednisolone in combination with azithromycin, naproxen and lopinavir/ritonavir (regimen I), in decreasing ALOS compared to regimen II. Since there is still lack of evidence for safety of this regimen, further investigation in our ongoing follow-up to deal with COVID-19 pneumonia is underway. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Iran , Length of Stay , Levofloxacin/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Meropenem/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Naproxen/administration & dosage , Oseltamivir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin/administration & dosage
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