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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319046

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is spreading at an alarming rate globally. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and many known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. Results: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR=0.85, 95% CI=(0.02, 3.93), P =0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR= 0.76;95% CI=(0.16, 3.72), P =0.735)];however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR=0.96, 95% CI=(0.61–2.99), P =0.942] and patients on statins had a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR=0.41, 95% CI= (0.07–2.33), P =0.312]. Conclusions: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19 , we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

2.
Drug Resist Updat ; 59: 100794, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561685

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the greatest threats to human health in the 21st century with more than 257 million cases and over 5.17 million deaths reported worldwide (as of November 23, 2021. Various agents were initially proclaimed to be effective against SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and ribavirin are all examples of therapeutic agents, whose efficacy against COVID-19 was later disproved. Meanwhile, concentrated efforts of researchers and clinicians worldwide have led to the identification of novel therapeutic options to control the disease including PAXLOVID™ (PF-07321332). Although COVID-19 cases are currently treated using a comprehensive approach of anticoagulants, oxygen, and antibiotics, the novel Pfizer agent PAXLOVID™ (PF-07321332), an investigational COVID-19 oral antiviral candidate, significantly reduced hospitalization time and death rates, based on an interim analysis of the phase 2/3 EPIC-HR (Evaluation of Protease Inhibition for COVID-19 in High-Risk Patients) randomized, double-blind study of non-hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19, who are at high risk of progressing to severe illness. The scheduled interim analysis demonstrated an 89 % reduction in risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause compared to placebo in patients treated within three days of symptom onset (primary endpoint). However, there still exists a great need for the development of additional treatments, as the recommended therapeutic options are insufficient in many cases. Thus far, mRNA and vector vaccines appear to be the most effective modalities to control the pandemic. In the current review, we provide an update on the progress that has been made since April 2020 in clinical trials concerning the effectiveness of therapies available to combat COVID-19. We focus on currently recommended therapeutic agents, including steroids, various monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, baricitinib, anticoagulants and PAXLOVID™ summarizing the latest original studies and meta-analyses. Moreover, we aim to discuss other currently and previously studied agents targeting COVID-19 that either show no or only limited therapeutic activity. The results of recent studies report that hydroxychloroquine and convalescent plasma demonstrate no efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lastly, we summarize the studies on various drugs with incoherent or insufficient data concerning their effectiveness, such as amantadine, ivermectin, or niclosamide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Pandemics , Proline , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523877

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection survivors suffer from a constellation of symptoms referred to as post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. However, in the wake of recent evidence highlighting the long-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antigens in tissues and emerging information regarding the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and various components of the host cell macroautophagy/autophagy machinery, the unforeseen long-term consequences of this infection, such as increased risk of malignancies, should be explored. Although SARS-CoV-2 is not considered an oncogenic virus, the possibility of increased risk of cancer among COVID-19 survivors cannot be ruled out. Herein, we provide an overview of the possible mechanisms leading to cancer development, particularly obesity-related cancers (e.g., colorectal cancer), resulting from defects in autophagy and the blockade of the autophagic flux, and also immune escape in COVID-19 survivors. We also highlight the potential long-term implications of COVID-19 infection in the prognosis of patients with cancer and their response to different cancer treatments. Finally, we consider future directions for further investigations on this matter.

4.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 26, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains an emerging public health crisis with serious adverse effects. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV--2) infection, targeting angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor for cell entry. However, changes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) balance alter an individual's susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. We aimed to evaluate the association between AGT rs699 C > T, ACE rs4646994 I/D, and AGTR1 rs5186 C > A variants and the risk of COVID-19 infection and the severity in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. METHODS: A total of 504 subjects, including 258 COVID-19 positives, and 246 healthy controls, were recruited. Genotyping of the ACE gene rs4646994, and AGT rs699, and AGTR1 rs5186 polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. RESULTS: Our results showed that the II genotype of ACE rs4646994 and the I allele decreased the risk of COVID-19 infection. Moreover, we found that the TC genotype and C allele of AGT rs699 increased the risk of COVID-19 infection. The AGTR1 rs5186 was not associated with COVID-19 infection. Also, we did not find any association between these polymorphisms and the severity of the disease. However, we found a significantly higher age and prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in patients with severe disease than a non-severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ACE rs4646994 and AGT rs699 polymorphisms increase the risk of COVID-19 infection in a southeast Iranian population.

5.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1145-1147, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327694
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288899

ABSTRACT

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/pathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259507

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 virus. This severe acute respiratory syndrome is currently a global health emergency and needs much effort to generate an urgent practical treatment to reduce COVID-19 complications and mortality in humans. Viral infection activates various cellular responses in infected cells, including cellular stress responses such as unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy, following the inhibition of mTOR. Both UPR and autophagy mechanisms are involved in cellular and tissue homeostasis, apoptosis, innate immunity modulation, and clearance of pathogens such as viral particles. However, during an evolutionary arms race, viruses gain the ability to subvert autophagy and UPR for their benefit. SARS-CoV-2 can enter host cells through binding to cell surface receptors, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1). ACE2 blockage increases autophagy through mTOR inhibition, leading to gastrointestinal complications during SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. NRP1 is also regulated by the mTOR pathway. An increased NRP1 can enhance the susceptibility of immune system dendritic cells (DCs) to SARS-CoV-2 and induce cytokine storm, which is related to high COVID-19 mortality. Therefore, signaling pathways such as mTOR, UPR, and autophagy may be potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19. Hence, extensive investigations are required to confirm these potentials. Since there is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19 infection, we sought to review and discuss the important roles of autophagy, UPR, and mTOR mechanisms in the regulation of cellular responses to coronavirus infection to help identify new antiviral modalities against SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19/pathology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Chaperones/chemistry , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 91-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222709

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is the seventh pathogenic coronavirus recently discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. To date, our knowledge about its effect on the human host remains limited. It is well known that host genetic factors account for the individual differences in the susceptibility to infectious diseases. The genetic susceptibility factors to COVID-19 and its severity are associated with several unanswered questions. However, the experience gained from an earlier strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, which shows 78% genetic similarity to SARS-CoV-2 and uses the same receptor to bind to host cells, could provide some clues. It, therefore, seems possible to assemble new evidence in order to solve a potential genetic predisposition puzzle for COVID-19. In this chapter, the puzzle pieces, including virus entry receptors, immune response, and inflammation-related genes, as well as the probable genetic predisposition models to COVID-19, are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , China/epidemiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Virulence ; 11(1): 805-810, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104741

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak resulted in 5,993,317 confirmed cases worldwide with 365,394 confirmed deaths (as of May 29th, 2020, WHO). The molecular mechanism of virus infection and spread in the body is not yet disclosed, but studies on other betacoronaviruses show that, upon cell infection, these viruses inhibit macroautophagy/autophagy flux and cause the accumulation of autophagosomes. No drug has yet been approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, preclinical investigations suggested repurposing of several FDA-approved drugs for clinical trials. Half of these drugs are modulators of the autophagy pathway. Unexpectedly, instead of acting by directly antagonizing the effects of viruses, these drugs appear to function by suppressing autophagy flux. Based on the established cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis, we speculate that over-accumulation of autophagosomes activates an apoptotic pathway that results in apoptotic death of the infected cells and disrupts the virus replication cycle. However, administration of the suggested drugs are associated with severe adverse effects due to their off-target accumulation. Nanoparticle targeting of autophagy at the sites of interest could be a powerful tool to efficiently overcome SARS-CoV-2 infection while avoiding the common adverse effects of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Autophagy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; 58(6): 385-398, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087600

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the cardinal importance of rapid and accurate diagnostic assays. Since the early days of the outbreak, researchers with different scientific backgrounds across the globe have tried to fulfill the urgent need for such assays, with many assays having been approved and with others still undergoing clinical validation. Molecular diagnostic assays are a major group of tests used to diagnose COVID-19. Currently, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most widely used method. Other diagnostic molecular methods, including CRISPR-based assays, isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods, digital PCR, microarray assays, and next generation sequencing (NGS), are promising alternatives. In this review, we summarize the technical and clinical applications of the different COVID-19 molecular diagnostic assays and suggest directions for the implementation of such technologies in future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans
11.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067683

ABSTRACT

The medical burden caused by respiratory manifestations of influenza virus (IV) outbreak as an infectious respiratory disease is so great that governments in both developed and developing countries have allocated significant national budget toward the development of strategies for prevention, control, and treatment of this infection, which is seemingly common and treatable, but can be deadly. Frequent mutations in its genome structure often result in resistance to standard medications. Thus, new generations of treatments are critical to combat this ever-evolving infection. Plant materials and active compounds have been tested for many years, including, more recently, active compounds like flavonoids. Quercetin is a compound belonging to the flavonols class and has shown therapeutic effects against influenza virus. The focus of this review includes viral pathogenesis as well as the application of quercetin and its derivatives as a complementary therapy in controlling influenza and its related symptoms based on the targets. We also touch on the potential of this class of compounds for treatment of SARS-COV-2, the cause of new pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza, Human , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/metabolism
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 897: 173928, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062328

ABSTRACT

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. Therefore, identification of new therapeutic strategies seems essential either based on novel vaccines or drugs or simply repurposing existing drugs. Notably, due to their known safety profile, repurposing of existing drugs is the fastest and highly efficient approach to bring a therapeutic to a clinic for any new indication. One such drug that has been used extensively for decades is chloroquine (CQ, with its derivatives) either for malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Accumulating body of evidence from experimental pharmacology suggests that CQ and related analogues also activate certain pathways that can potentially be exploited for therapeutic gain. For example, in the airways, this has opened an attractive avenue for developing novel bitter taste ligands as a new class of bronchodilators for asthma. While CQ and its derivatives have been proposed as a therapy in COVID-19, it remains to be seen whether it really work in the clinic? To this end, our perspective aims to provide a timely yet brief insights on the existing literature on CQ and the controversies surrounding its use in COVID-19. Further, we also highlight some of cell-based mechanism(s) that CQ and its derivatives affect in mediating variety of physiological responses in the cell. We believe, data emanating from the clinical studies and continual understanding of the fundamental mechanisms may potentially help in designing effective therapeutic strategies that meets both efficacy and safety criteria for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Taste/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Humans
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 888: 173487, 2020 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049775

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of COVID-19 encompassing a wide range of presentations. SARS-CoV-2 is proposed to cause AKI in the patients through various mechanisms. We are, nevertheless, far from a comprehensive understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the kidney injury in this infection. AKI has been shown to be a marker of disease severity and also a negative prognostic factor for survival. Unfortunately, no effective preventive strategy to decrease the risk of kidney damage in these patients has yet been identified. In this hypothesis, we highlight the potential protective effects of acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, in preventing the proximal tubular damage caused by the virus through disrupting the virus-endosome fusion and also interfering with the lysosomal proteases. Our proposed mechanisms could pave the way for further in vitro studies and subsequent clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
14.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is globally spreading at an alarming rate. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and various known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR = 0.85, 95% CI = (0.02, 3.93), P = 0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR = 0.76; 95% CI = (0.16, 3.72), P = 0.735)]; however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR = 0.96, 95% CI = (0.61-2.99), P = 0.942] and patients on statins showed a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR = 0.41, 95% CI = (0.07-2.33), P = 0.312]. CONCLUSIONS: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19, we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to further evaluate and validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

16.
Biomolecules ; 11(1):10, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984585

ABSTRACT

The medical burden caused by respiratory manifestations of influenza virus (IV) outbreak as an infectious respiratory disease is so great that governments in both developed and developing countries have allocated significant national budget toward the development of strategies for prevention, control, and treatment of this infection, which is seemingly common and treatable, but can be deadly. Frequent mutations in its genome structure often result in resistance to standard medications. Thus, new generations of treatments are critical to combat this ever-evolving infection. Plant materials and active compounds have been tested for many years, including, more recently, active compounds like flavonoids. Quercetin is a compound belonging to the flavonols class and has shown therapeutic effects against influenza virus. The focus of this review includes viral pathogenesis as well as the application of quercetin and its derivatives as a complementary therapy in controlling influenza and its related symptoms based on the targets. We also touch on the potential of this class of compounds for treatment of SARS-COV-2, the cause of new pandemic.

17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 882: 173288, 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959742

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, many pneumonia cases with unidentified sources appeared in Wuhan, Hubei, China, with clinical symptoms like viral pneumonia. Deep sequencing analysis of samples from lower respiratory tract revealed a novel coronavirus, called 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Currently there is a rapid global spread. World Health Organization declare the disease a pandemic condition. The pathologic source of this disease was a new RNA virus from Coronaviridae family, which was named COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 entry starts with the binding of the spike glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope to ACE2 on the alveolar surface followed by clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 complex. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through endocytosis process, which is possibly facilitated, via a pH dependent endosomal cysteine protease cathepsins. Once inside the cells, SARS-CoV-2 exploits the endogenous transcriptional machinery of alveolar cells to replicate and spread through the entire lung. Endosomal acidic pH for SARS-CoV-2 processing and internalization is critical. After entering the cells, it possibly activates or hijack many intracellular pathways in favor of its replication. In the current opinion article, we will explain the possible involvement of unfolded protein response as a cellular stress response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Ionophores/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Clathrin-Coated Vesicles/drug effects , Clathrin-Coated Vesicles/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects
18.
Shiraz E Med. J. ; 6(21): 1-3, 20200601.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-658995

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid spreading of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide results in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in many patients, which can be the major cause of death in cases with COVID-19. It has been reported that chloro-quine (CQ) has improved COVID-19-induced pneumonia in clinical trials. Objectives: Since CQ and its derivatives are proved to exhibit anti-autophagy properties based on previous studies, autophagy can be introduced as a possible mechanism of respiratory complications. Methods: In the current study, we reviewed papers of Google Scholar database with no time limitation. Results: It was revealed that autophagy has an important role in the manifestation of COVID-19 respiratory complications Conclusions: Autophagy is triggered by SARS-CoV2 virus for its replication and autophagy inhibitory treatments might be consid-ered promising therapeutics.

20.
Drug Resist Updat ; 53: 100719, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645153

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus emerged, causing an outbreak of life-threatening pneumonia in the Hubei province, China, and has now spread worldwide, causing a pandemic. The urgent need to control the disease, combined with the lack of specific and effective treatment modalities, call for the use of FDA-approved agents that have shown efficacy against similar pathogens. Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir or ribavirin have all been successful in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. The initial results of a number of clinical trials involving various protocols of administration of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine mostly point towards their beneficial effect. However, they may not be effective in cases with persistently high viremia, while results on ivermectin (another antiparasitic agent) are not yet available. Interestingly, azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic in combination with hydroxychloroquine, might yield clinical benefit as an adjunctive. The results of clinical trials point to the potential clinical efficacy of antivirals, especially remdesivir (GS-5734), lopinavir/ritonavir, and favipiravir. Other therapeutic options that are being explored involve meplazumab, tocilizumab, and interferon type 1. We discuss a number of other drugs that are currently in clinical trials, whose results are not yet available, and in various instances we enrich such efficacy analysis by invoking historic data on the treatment of SARS, MERS, influenza, or in vitro studies. Meanwhile, scientists worldwide are seeking to discover novel drugs that take advantage of the molecular structure of the virus, its intracellular life cycle that probably elucidates unfolded-protein response, as well as its mechanism of surface binding and cell invasion, like angiotensin converting enzymes-, HR1, and metalloproteinase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Approval/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/metabolism , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/metabolism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , United States/epidemiology
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