Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
1.
J Exp Med ; 219(9)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018322

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells detect microbial infection via recognition of riboflavin-based antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-related protein 1 (MR1). Most MAIT cells in human peripheral blood express CD8αα or CD8αß coreceptors, and the binding site for CD8 on MHC-I molecules is relatively conserved in MR1. Yet, there is no direct evidence of CD8 interacting with MR1 or the functional consequences thereof. Similarly, the role of CD8αα in lymphocyte function remains ill-defined. Here, using newly developed MR1 tetramers, mutated at the CD8 binding site, and by determining the crystal structure of MR1-CD8αα, we show that CD8 engaged MR1, analogous to how it engages MHC-I molecules. CD8αα and CD8αß enhanced MR1 binding and cytokine production by MAIT cells. Moreover, the CD8-MR1 interaction was critical for the recognition of folate-derived antigens by other MR1-reactive T cells. Together, our findings suggest that both CD8αα and CD8αß act as functional coreceptors for MAIT and other MR1-reactive T cells.


Subject(s)
Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Antigens , CD8 Antigens , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Humans , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 889372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967361

ABSTRACT

Joining a function-enhanced Fc-portion of human IgG to the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 produces an antiviral decoy with strain transcending virus neutralizing activity. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and Fc-effector functions of ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, formatted with or without the ACE2 collectrin domain, were optimized by Fc-modification. The different Fc-modifications resulted in distinct effects on neutralization and effector functions. H429Y, a point mutation outside the binding sites for FcγRs or complement caused non-covalent oligomerization of the ACE2-Fc decoy proteins, abrogated FcγR interaction and enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Another Fc mutation, H429F did not improve virus neutralization but resulted in increased C5b-C9 fixation and transformed ACE2-Fc to a potent mediator of complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) expressing cells. Furthermore, modification of the Fc-glycan enhanced cell activation via FcγRIIIa. These different immune profiles demonstrate the capacity of Fc-based agents to be engineered to optimize different mechanisms of protection for SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 100(2): 112-126, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940995

ABSTRACT

MHC-related protein 1 (MR1) presents microbial riboflavin metabolites to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells for surveillance of microbial presence. MAIT cells express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes MR1-antigen complexes in a pattern-recognition-like manner. Recently, diverse populations of MR1-restricted T cells have been described that exhibit broad recognition of tumor cells and appear to recognize MR1 in association with tumor-derived self-antigens, though the identity of these antigens remains unclear. Here, we have used TCR gene transfer and engineered MR1-expressing antigen-presenting cells to probe the MR1 restriction and antigen reactivity of a range of MR1-restricted TCRs, including model tumor-reactive TCRs. We confirm MR1 reactivity by these TCRs, show differential dependence on lysine at position 43 of MR1 (K43) and demonstrate competitive inhibition by the MR1 ligand 6-formylpterin. TCR-expressing reporter lines, however, failed to recapitulate the robust tumor specificity previously reported, suggesting an importance of accessory molecules for MR1-dependent tumor reactivity. Finally, MR1-mutant cell lines showed that distinct residues on the α1/α2 helices were required for TCR binding by different MR1-restricted T cells and suggested central but distinct docking modes by the broad family of MR1-restricted αß TCRs. Collectively, these data are consistent with recognition of distinct antigens by diverse MR1-restricted T cells.


Subject(s)
Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics
6.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103729, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are now being rolled out, a better understanding of immunity to the virus, whether from infection, or passive or active immunisation, and the durability of this protection is required. This will benefit from the ability to measure antibody-based protection to SARS-CoV-2, ideally with rapid turnaround and without the need for laboratory-based testing. METHODS: We have developed a lateral flow POC test that can measure levels of RBD-ACE2 neutralising antibody (NAb) from whole blood, with a result that can be determined by eye or quantitatively on a small instrument. We compared our lateral flow test with the gold-standard microneutralisation assay, using samples from convalescent and vaccinated donors, as well as immunised macaques. FINDINGS: We show a high correlation between our lateral flow test with conventional neutralisation and that this test is applicable with animal samples. We also show that this assay is readily adaptable to test for protection to newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the beta variant which revealed a marked reduction in NAb activity. Lastly, using a cohort of vaccinated humans, we demonstrate that our whole-blood test correlates closely with microneutralisation assay data (specificity 100% and sensitivity 96% at a microneutralisation cutoff of 1:40) and that fingerprick whole blood samples are sufficient for this test. INTERPRETATION: Taken together, the COVID-19 NAb-testTM device described here provides a rapid readout of NAb based protection to SARS-CoV-2 at the point of care. FUNDING: Support was received from the Victorian Operational Infrastructure Support Program and the Australian Government Department of Health. This work was supported by grants from the Department of Health and Human Services of the Victorian State Government; the ARC (CE140100011, CE140100036), the NHMRC (1113293, 2002317 and 1116530), and Medical Research Future Fund Awards (2005544, 2002073, 2002132). Individual researchers were supported by an NHMRC Emerging Leadership Level 1 Investigator Grants (1194036), NHMRC APPRISE Research Fellowship (1116530), NHMRC Leadership Investigator Grant (1173871), NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship (1137285), NHMRC Investigator Grants (1177174 and 1174555) and NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowships (1117766 and 1136322). Grateful support was also received from the A2 Milk Company and the Jack Ma Foundation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Australia , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Macaca/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(49)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845016

ABSTRACT

Unlike conventional αß T cells, γδ T cells typically recognize nonpeptide ligands independently of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction. Accordingly, the γδ T cell receptor (TCR) can potentially recognize a wide array of ligands; however, few ligands have been described to date. While there is a growing appreciation of the molecular bases underpinning variable (V)δ1+ and Vδ2+ γδ TCR-mediated ligand recognition, the mode of Vδ3+ TCR ligand engagement is unknown. MHC class I-related protein, MR1, presents vitamin B metabolites to αß T cells known as mucosal-associated invariant T cells, diverse MR1-restricted T cells, and a subset of human γδ T cells. Here, we identify Vδ1/2- γδ T cells in the blood and duodenal biopsy specimens of children that showed metabolite-independent binding of MR1 tetramers. Characterization of one Vδ3Vγ8 TCR clone showed MR1 reactivity was independent of the presented antigen. Determination of two Vδ3Vγ8 TCR-MR1-antigen complex structures revealed a recognition mechanism by the Vδ3 TCR chain that mediated specific contacts to the side of the MR1 antigen-binding groove, representing a previously uncharacterized MR1 docking topology. The binding of the Vδ3+ TCR to MR1 did not involve contacts with the presented antigen, providing a basis for understanding its inherent MR1 autoreactivity. We provide molecular insight into antigen-independent recognition of MR1 by a Vδ3+ γδ TCR that strengthens an emerging paradigm of antibody-like ligand engagement by γδ TCRs.


Subject(s)
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology , Adult , Antigen Presentation , Female , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/physiology , Humans , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/physiology , Ligands , Male , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/chemistry , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/physiology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/physiology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/physiology
8.
JCI Insight ; 6(16)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251356

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) is both the principal target of neutralizing antibodies and one of the most rapidly evolving domains, which can result in the emergence of immune escape mutations, limiting the effectiveness of vaccines and antibody therapeutics. To facilitate surveillance, we developed a rapid, high-throughput, multiplex assay able to assess the inhibitory response of antibodies to 24 RBD natural variants simultaneously. We demonstrate how this assay can be implemented as a rapid surrogate assay for functional cell-based serological methods to measure the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity of antibodies at the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-RBD (ACE2-RBD) interface. We describe the enhanced affinity of RBD variants N439K, S477N, Q493L, S494P, and N501Y to the ACE2 receptor and demonstrate the ability of this assay to bridge a major gap for SARS-CoV-2 research, informing selection of complementary monoclonal antibody candidates and the rapid identification of immune escape to emerging RBD variants following vaccination or natural infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mutation
9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(60)2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172588

ABSTRACT

CD1c presents lipid-based antigens to CD1c-restricted T cells, which are thought to be a major component of the human T cell pool. However, the study of CD1c-restricted T cells is hampered by the presence of an abundantly expressed, non-T cell receptor (TCR) ligand for CD1c on blood cells, confounding analysis of TCR-mediated CD1c tetramer staining. Here, we identified the CD36 family (CD36, SR-B1, and LIMP-2) as ligands for CD1c, CD1b, and CD1d proteins and showed that CD36 is the receptor responsible for non-TCR-mediated CD1c tetramer staining of blood cells. Moreover, CD36 blockade clarified tetramer-based identification of CD1c-restricted T cells and improved identification of CD1b- and CD1d-restricted T cells. We used this technique to characterize CD1c-restricted T cells ex vivo and showed diverse phenotypic features, TCR repertoire, and antigen-specific subsets. Accordingly, this work will enable further studies into the biology of CD1 and human CD1-restricted T cells.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , Antigens, CD1/metabolism , CD36 Antigens/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Blood Buffy Coat , CD36 Antigens/antagonists & inhibitors , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Ligands , Lipids/immunology , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893175

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies are important for immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and as therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Here, we identified high-affinity nanobodies from alpacas immunized with coronavirus spike and receptor-binding domains (RBD) that disrupted RBD engagement with the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2. Epitope mapping, X-ray crystallography, and cryo-electron microscopy revealed two distinct antigenic sites and showed two neutralizing nanobodies from different epitope classes bound simultaneously to the spike trimer. Nanobody-Fc fusions of the four most potent nanobodies blocked ACE2 engagement with RBD variants present in human populations and potently neutralized both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the N501Y D614G variant at concentrations as low as 0.1 nM. Prophylactic administration of either single nanobody-Fc or as mixtures reduced viral loads by up to 104-fold in mice infected with the N501Y D614G SARS-CoV-2 virus. These results suggest a role for nanobody-Fc fusions as prophylactic agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Camelids, New World , Humans , Mice , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology
11.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 9(6): 612-623, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674358

ABSTRACT

Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) are immunogenic skin cancers associated with viral infection or UV mutagenesis. To study T-cell infiltrates in MCC, we analyzed 58 MCC lesions from 39 patients using multiplex-IHC/immunofluorescence (m-IHC/IF). CD4+ or CD8+ T cells comprised the majority of infiltrating T lymphocytes in most tumors. However, almost half of the tumors harbored prominent CD4/CD8 double-negative (DN) T-cell infiltrates (>20% DN T cells), and in 12% of cases, DN T cells represented the majority of T cells. Flow cytometric analysis of single-cell suspensions from fresh tumors identified DN T cells as predominantly Vδ2- γδ T cells. In the context of γδ T-cell inflammation, these cells expressed PD-1 and LAG3, which is consistent with a suppressed or exhausted phenotype, and CD103, which indicates tissue residency. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) identified a transcriptional profile of γδ T cells suggestive of proinflammatory potential. T-cell receptor (TCR) analysis confirmed clonal expansion of Vδ1 and Vδ3 clonotypes, and functional studies using cloned γδ TCRs demonstrated restriction of these for CD1c and MR1 antigen-presenting molecules. On the basis of a 13-gene γδ T-cell signature derived from scRNA-seq analysis, gene-set enrichment on bulk RNA-seq data showed a positive correlation between enrichment scores and DN T-cell infiltrates. An improved disease-specific survival was evident for patients with high enrichment scores, and complete responses to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment were observed in three of four cases with high enrichment scores. Thus, γδ T-cell infiltration may serve as a prognostic biomarker and should be explored for therapeutic interventions.See related Spotlight on p. 600.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/mortality , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Survival Analysis
12.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(1): e1242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532071

ABSTRACT

Older individuals exhibit a diminished ability to respond to and clear respiratory pathogens and, as such, experience a higher rate of lung infections with a higher mortality rate. It is unclear why respiratory pathogens impact older people disproportionately. Using human lung tissue from donors aged 22-68 years, we assessed how the immune cell landscape in lungs changes throughout life and investigated how these immune cells respond following in vitro exposure to influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2, two clinically relevant respiratory viruses. While the frequency of most immune cell subsets profiled in the human lung remained stable with age, memory CD8+ T cells declined, with the tissue-resident memory (Trm) CD8+ T-cell subset being most susceptible to age-associated attrition. Infection of lung tissue with influenza virus resulted in an age-associated attenuation in the antiviral immune response, with aged donors producing less type I interferon (IFN), GM-CSF and IFNγ, the latter correlated with a reduction of IFNγ-producing memory CD8+ T cells. In contrast, irrespective of donor age, exposure of human lung cells to SARS-CoV-2, a pathogen for which all donors were immunologically naïve, did not trigger activation of local immune cells and did not result in the induction of an early IFN response. Our findings show that the attrition of tissue-bound pathogen-specific Trm in the lung that occurs with advanced age, or their absence in immunologically naïve individuals, results in a diminished early antiviral immune response which creates a window of opportunity for respiratory pathogens to gain a greater foothold.

13.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1428-1434, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661393

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has dramatically expedited global vaccine development efforts1-3, most targeting the viral 'spike' glycoprotein (S). S localizes on the virion surface and mediates recognition of cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)4-6. Eliciting neutralizing antibodies that block S-ACE2 interaction7-9, or indirectly prevent membrane fusion10, constitute an attractive modality for vaccine-elicited protection11. However, although prototypic S-based vaccines show promise in animal models12-14, the immunogenic properties of S in humans are poorly resolved. In this study, we characterized humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell (cTFH) immunity against spike in recovered patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We found that S-specific antibodies, memory B cells and cTFH are consistently elicited after SARS-CoV-2 infection, demarking robust humoral immunity and positively associated with plasma neutralizing activity. Comparatively low frequencies of B cells or cTFH specific for the receptor binding domain of S were elicited. Notably, the phenotype of S-specific cTFH differentiated subjects with potent neutralizing responses, providing a potential biomarker of potency for S-based vaccines entering the clinic. Overall, although patients who recovered from COVID-19 displayed multiple hallmarks of effective immune recognition of S, the wide spectrum of neutralizing activity observed suggests that vaccines might require strategies to selectively target the most potent neutralizing epitopes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vero Cells/immunology
14.
J Immunol ; 204(5): 1119-1133, 2020 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988181

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are important for immune responses against microbial infections. Although known to undergo marked numerical changes with age in humans, our understanding of how MAIT cells are altered during different phases across the human life span is largely unknown. Although also abundant in the tissues, our study focuses on MAIT cell analyses in blood. Across the human life span, we show that naive-like MAIT cells in umbilical cord blood switch to a central/effector memory-like profile that is sustained into older age. Whereas low-grade levels of plasma cytokine/chemokine were apparent in older donors (>65 y old), surprisingly, they did not correlate with the ex vivo MAIT hyperinflammatory cytokine profile observed in older adults. Removal of MAIT cells from older individuals and an aged environment resulted in the reversal of the baseline effector molecule profile comparable with MAIT cells from younger adults. An upregulated basal inflammatory profile accounted for reduced Escherichia coli-specific responses in aged MAIT cells compared with their young adult counterparts when fold change in expression levels of GzmB, CD107a, IFN-γ, and TNF was examined. However, the magnitude of antimicrobial MR1-dependent activation remained as potent and polyfunctional as with younger adults. Paired TCRαß analyses of MAIT cells revealed large clonal expansions in older adults and tissues that rivalled, remarkably, the TCRαß repertoire diversity of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. These data suggest that MAIT cells in older individuals, although associated with large clonal TCRαß expansions and increased baseline inflammatory potential, demonstrate plasticity and provide potent antimicrobial immunity.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Adult , Aged , Escherichia coli/immunology , Female , Granzymes/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Viruses/immunology
15.
Science ; 367(6478)2020 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919129

ABSTRACT

Gamma delta (γδ) T cells are essential to protective immunity. In humans, most γδ T cells express Vγ9Vδ2+ T cell receptors (TCRs) that respond to phosphoantigens (pAgs) produced by cellular pathogens and overexpressed by cancers. However, the molecular targets recognized by these γδTCRs are unknown. Here, we identify butyrophilin 2A1 (BTN2A1) as a key ligand that binds to the Vγ9+ TCR γ chain. BTN2A1 associates with another butyrophilin, BTN3A1, and these act together to initiate responses to pAg. Furthermore, binding of a second ligand, possibly BTN3A1, to a separate TCR domain incorporating Vδ2 is also required. This distinctive mode of Ag-dependent T cell activation advances our understanding of diseases involving pAg recognition and creates opportunities for the development of γδ T cell-based immunotherapies.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Butyrophilins/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antigens, CD/chemistry , Antigens, CD/immunology , Butyrophilins/chemistry , Butyrophilins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Ligands , Lymphocyte Activation , Phosphorylation , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization
16.
Science ; 366(6472): 1522-1527, 2019 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857486

ABSTRACT

T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. We describe a diverse population of human γδ T cells isolated from peripheral blood and tissues that exhibit autoreactivity to the monomorphic MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). The crystal structure of a γδTCR-MR1-antigen complex starkly contrasts with all other TCR-MHC and TCR-MHC-I-like complex structures. Namely, the γδTCR binds underneath the MR1 antigen-binding cleft, where contacts are dominated by the MR1 α3 domain. A similar pattern of reactivity was observed for diverse MR1-restricted γδTCRs from multiple individuals. Accordingly, we simultaneously report MR1 as a ligand for human γδ T cells and redefine the parameters for TCR recognition.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Humans , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/chemistry , Protein Domains , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/chemistry
17.
Curr Protoc Immunol ; 127(1): e90, 2019 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763790

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of unconventional T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). MAIT cells are found throughout the body, especially in human blood and liver. Unlike conventional T cells, which are stimulated by peptide antigens presented by MHC molecules, MAIT cells recognize metabolite antigens derived from an intermediate in the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin. MAIT cells mediate protective immunity to infections by riboflavin-producing microbes via the production of cytokines and cytotoxicity. The discovery of stimulating MAIT cell antigens allowed for the development of an analytical tool, the MR1 tetramer, that binds specifically to the MAIT T cell receptor (TCR) and is becoming the gold standard for identification of MAIT cells by flow cytometry. This article describes protocols to characterize the phenotype of human MAIT cells in blood and tissues by flow cytometry using fluorescently labeled human MR1 tetramers alongside antibodies specific for MAIT cell markers. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The main protocols include: Basic Protocol 1: Determining the frequency and steady-state surface phenotype of human MAIT cells Basic Protocol 2: Determining the activation phenotype of human MAIT cells in blood Basic Protocol 3: Characterizing MAIT cell TCRs using TCR-positive reporter cell lines Alternate protocols are provided for determining the absolute number, transcription factor phenotype, and TCR usage of human MAIT cells; and determining activation phenotype by staining for intracellular markers, measuring secreted cytokines, and measuring fluorescent dye dilution due to proliferation. Additional methods are provided for determining the capacity of MAIT cells to produce cytokine independently of antigen using plate-bound or bead-immobilized CD3/CD28 stimulation; and determining the MR1-Ag dependence of MAIT cell activation using MR1-blocking antibody or competitive inhibition. For TCR-positive reporter cell lines, methods are also provided for evaluating the MAIT TCR-mediated MR1-Ag response, determining the capacity of the reporter lines to produce cytokine independently of antigen, determining the MR1-Ag dependence of the reporter lines, and evaluating the MR1-Ag response of the reporter lines using IL-2 secretion. Support Protocols describe the preparation of PBMCs from human blood, the preparation of single-cell suspensions from tissue, the isolation of MAIT cells by FACS and MACS, cloning MAIT TCRα and ß chain genes and MR1 genes for transduction, generating stably and transiently transfected cells lines, generating a stable MR1 knockout antigen-presenting cell line, and generating monocyte-derived dendritic cells.


Subject(s)
Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/cytology , Phenotype
18.
Nat Immunol ; 20(9): 1110-1128, 2019 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406380

ABSTRACT

In recent years, a population of unconventional T cells called 'mucosal-associated invariant T cells' (MAIT cells) has captured the attention of immunologists and clinicians due to their abundance in humans, their involvement in a broad range of infectious and non-infectious diseases and their unusual specificity for microbial riboflavin-derivative antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like protein MR1. MAIT cells use a limited T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire with public antigen specificities that are conserved across species. They can be activated by TCR-dependent and TCR-independent mechanisms and exhibit rapid, innate-like effector responses. Here we review evidence showing that MAIT cells are a key component of the immune system and discuss their basic biology, development, role in disease and immunotherapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Animals , Antigens/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mice , Neoplasms/immunology
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2243, 2019 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113973

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express an invariant TRAV1/TRAJ33 TCR-α chain and are restricted to the MHC-I-like molecule, MR1. Whether MAIT cell development depends on this invariant TCR-α chain is unclear. Here we generate Traj33-deficient mice and show that they are highly depleted of MAIT cells; however, a residual population remains and can respond to exogenous antigen in vitro or pulmonary Legionella challenge in vivo. These residual cells include some that express Trav1+ TCRs with conservative Traj-gene substitutions, and others that express Trav1- TCRs with a broad range of Traj genes. We further report that human TRAV1-2- MR1-restricted T cells contain both MAIT-like and non-MAIT-like cells, as judged by their TCR repertoire, antigen reactivity and phenotypic features. These include a MAIT-like population that expresses a public, canonical TRAV36+ TRBV28+ TCR. Our findings highlight the TCR diversity and the resulting potential impact on antigen recognition by MR1-restricted T cells.


Subject(s)
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Legionellosis/immunology , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/metabolism , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/metabolism , Animals , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Legionella/immunology , Legionellosis/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology
20.
J Immunol ; 201(10): 2862-2871, 2018 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397170

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are characterized by a semi-invariant TCR that recognizes vitamin B metabolite Ags presented by the MHC-related molecule MR1. Their Ag restriction determines a unique developmental lineage, imbuing a tissue-homing, preprimed phenotype with antimicrobial function. A growing body of literature indicates that MR1-restricted T cells are more diverse than the MAIT term implies. Namely, it is increasingly clear that TCR α- and TCR ß-chain diversity within the MR1-restricted repertoire provides a potential mechanism of Ag discrimination, and context-dependent functional variation suggests a role for MR1-restricted T cells in diverse physiological settings. In this paper, we summarize MR1-restricted T cell biology, with an emphasis on TCR diversity, Ag discrimination, and functional heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Animals , Humans , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL