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Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S287-S288, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995669


BACKGROUND: The SAR-CoV-2 pandemic continues to negatively impact the healthcare system globally with over 800,000 deaths in the United States and millions more worldwide. The cases are rising despite availability of vaccines. For most immunocompetent patients these vaccines will generate a humoral response and also a memory T-cell response. Few if any studies have reported data that measure anti-spike IgG titers and also correlate those titers with clinical outcomes in the instance of breakthrough infection. METHODS: We conducted a pilot prospective observational clinical study enrolling 30 immunocompetent patients who were admitted with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Leftover blood from admission was used to obtain antispike and anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels. Baseline characteristics were collected and patients were divided into two categories based on anti-spike antibody level and vaccination status. Clinical outcomes including mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), overall length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, maximum oxygen support needs, and mechanical ventilation needs were analyzed on day 28 in both categories. RESULTS: On analyzing the patients enrolled, the median age was 59 years, 56.67% were female and 73.3% were Caucasian. 6 patients (20%) were asymptomatic, and 63.3% patients had hypertension. Among all patients, the median duration of symptoms was 7 days, and the median LOS was 7 days as well.Anti-spike antibody was detected in 22 patients (73.33%), and the median value was 956. Anti-nucleocapsid antibody was positive only in 9 patients (30%). Three patients (10%) were admitted to ICU, and all 3 were mechanically ventilated. Four patients (13.33%) had a MACE event in those 28 days, and 5 patients (16.67%) died. Comparing vaccinated vs unvaccinated: 3/5 deceased patients were unvaccinated, and 2/3 mechanically ventilated were unvaccinated as well but these were not statistically significant. 0.6% patients were asymptomatic in unvaccinated group versus 33% in the vaccinated group. Among the 7 patients with high oxygen needs (fio2 100%), 5 had undetectable anti-spike antibodies, and one had low value (89.6). 2 out of 3 mechanically ventilated and 3 out of 5 deceased patients had undetectable anti-spike antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study did not show significance in outcomes between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, but this relation has been verified in multiple larger studies. We also noted patients with undetectable/ low anti- spike antibody levels had increased fio2 needs, ICU admission, and mortality.However, it was not feasible to compare both these findings between groups due to less number of patients. This demands a larger study to better describe these relations.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927867


RATIONALE: The Center for Medicare and Medicaid requires hospitals to report compliance with a sepsis treatment bundle as part of its Inpatient Quality Reporting Program. Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) Fairview hospital reported a Sepsis Core Measure Compliance (SEP-1) of 25% and a mortality averaging 20% in 2017. Both were very dismaying. METHODS: Starting in 2018 a sepsis committee was convened with a plan for several quality initiatives. Real-time audits and peer to peer education were provided to caregivers on the failed cases. A sepsis alert in the Electronic medical record system and a sepsis checklist were initiated. In 2020 a Code sepsis team was created with 24 hours response and follow-up on all sepsis alerts. As the CCF enterprise decided in 2020 to focus on mortality reviews, our hospital adopted rather a hybrid model reviewing all failed compliance cases of the one hour antibiotic in addition to mortality cases reviews. Several educational and awareness sessions were entertained with the residents, advanced practice providers, hospitalists, intensivists and nursing teams. Seventy Registered Nurses received training in 2018 and forty-three in 2021. Sepsis Champions were designated encompassing all stakeholders. Collaboration with Emergency Room caregivers to provide hand-off communication on sepsis alert patients to the medical-surgical providers ensured continuity of care. A sepsis order set was revised and went live in September 2021. Beginning of 2022, A dedicated full time quality coordinator and program manager for sepsis was appointed. RESULTS: Despite the Coronavirus 19 infection (COVID 19) pandemic where Cleveland Clinic Fairview Hospital was designated as the tertiary referral academic center for northwestern Ohio and despite the inclusion of COVID 19 mortality within the sepsis mortality data, comparing 2017 to 2021, SEP-1 measures compliance improved from 25% to 60.4% and sepsis mortality decreased from 20% to 15.38%. The one hour antibiotic compliance averaged 78.89% in 2021. With the above performance and impact on survival, Cleveland Clinic Fairview Hospital was leading the CCF Hospitals both in compliance and Mortality. Several of the above Fairview hospital quality initiatives and approaches were later adopted across the Cleveland Clinic Hospitals. CONCLUSION: A sepsis dedicated committee, quality/program manager and a code sepsis team with a focus on the evidence base components of the sepsis core measures, all helped improve compliance and decrease mortality. Future research is needed to highlight the impact of each of those quality and educational initiatives on outcomes and performance. Word Count: 400 (Figure Presented).

Applied Physics Letters ; 119(5), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1361677


Antibiotics are commonly used as the first line of defense in the treatment of infectious diseases. However, the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is rendering many antibiotics less effective. Consequently, effective non-antibiotic antimicrobial strategies are urgently needed to combat AMR. This paper presents a strategy utilizing cold plasma for the "on-demand"activation of acetyl donor molecules. The process generates an aqueous-based antimicrobial formulation comprising a rich mixture of highly oxidizing molecules: peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The synergistic potent oxidative action between these molecules is shown to be highly effective at eradicating common wound pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and at inactivating a virus (SARS-CoV-2). © 2021 Author(s).