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1.
Gene Reports ; : 101572, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1705097

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most infectious diseases in the world. In this study, we intended to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis by MIRU-VNTR to define the changes that occur in the transmission of tuberculosis in the region during the COVID-19 era. A total of 120 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from sputum samples of patients referred to East Azerbaijan Center TB from December 2020 to August 2021. Demographic information such as age, sex, place of birth, previous TB history, and relevant medical data was collected. The drug susceptibility testing was performed by the proportion method and the PCR-based MIRU-VNTR method was applied to identify molecular epidemiology relationships. The isolates were collected from 78 males (52%) and 72 females (48%) Iranian patients and 6 (4%) Azerbaijani patients. 120 distinct patterns were identified including 15 clustered patterns and 36 unique patterns. The largest cluster was composed of seven isolates. Furthermore,1 cluster with 7 isolates, 1 cluster with 5 members, 4 clusters with 3 members, and 9 clusters with 2 members. In MIRU-VNTR typing, 75 clusters belonged to Tabriz and just 3 clusters belonged to Azerbaijan. All isolates were sensitive to rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Results of the current study showed COVID-19 pandemic had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. Less diagnosis and less clustering can indicate public controls and hygiene and the use of masks had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, misidentification and less focus on other respiratory infections are expected during the pandemic. Studies on co-infection of COVID-19 and tuberculosis and the role of mask and sanitization against TB are strongly recommended.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 740-750, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356252

ABSTRACT

The world has been suffering from COVID-19 disease for more than a year, and it still has a high mortality rate. In addition to the need to minimize transmission of the virus through non-pharmacological measures such as the use of masks and social distance, many efforts are being made to develop a variety of vaccines to prevent the disease worldwide. So far, several vaccines have reached the final stages of safety and efficacy in various phases of clinical trials, and some, such as Moderna/NIAID and BioNTech/Pfizer, have reported very high safety and protection. The important point is that comparing different vaccines is not easy because there is no set standard for measuring neutralization. In this study, we have reviewed the common platforms of COVID-19 vaccines and tried to present the latest reports on the effectiveness of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
3.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(2): 171-178, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273805

ABSTRACT

Background: To end the COVID-19 pandemic, a large part of the world must be immune to the virus by vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to gauge intent to be vaccinated against COVID-19 among ordinary people and to identify attitudes towards vaccines and barriers for vaccine acceptance. Methods: The study population comprises 1880 people residing in different countries that answer a prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire topics are demographics, historical issues, participants' attitudes and beliefs regarding vaccines, concerns, and vaccine hesitancy. Results: Attitudes and beliefs relating to vaccines in general, and the COVID-19 vaccine, were ascertained. Overall, 66.81% of the contributors would like to be vaccinated against COVID-19, while %33.19 did not intend to be vaccinated. Reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy included concern regarding vaccine side effects, fear of getting sick from the uptake of the vaccine, and the absence of accurate vaccine promotion news. Individuals with higher education believe that India (68.6%) produces the best vaccine (P <0.001), while healthcare workers think the Chinese vaccine (44.2%) is the best (P =0.020). Individuals with higher education have not been vaccinated, not be healthcare workers, and females were the most contributors to effective of the vaccine in reducing mortality from COVID-19 disease. Conclusion: Given the degree of hesitancy against COVID-19 vaccination, a multifaceted approach to facilitate vaccine uptake that includes vaccine education, behavioral change strategies, and health promotion, is paramount.

4.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(1): 5-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129923

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dissemination occurred from December 2019 and quickly spread to all countries. Infected patients with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe illness. The most mortality was observed in patients with underlying disease and over 45 years. World statistics have shown that the COVID-19 outbreak is most expanded in Middle Eastern, West Asian, European, North, and South American countries, and is least expanded in African countries. Therefore, the aim of the paper was the evaluation of six African countries including Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Guinea, Togo, and Djibouti to find why this disease is least expanded in African countries. Study was conducted by Questioner for countries health organizers to define their different aspect exposure and fight with COVID-19 including epidemiology, clinical aspects of the disease, case definitions, diagnosis laboratory confirmation, and referral of cases by the portal of entry, case management, and disease prevention in these countries. According to this opinion review, due to the low international flights and low domestic travel, the spread, and prevalence of COVID-19 was low and the return of the immigrants of these countries has caused the spread of COVID-19 among these countries. Experience, preparation, and impact of previous infections epidemic such as the Ebola virus epidemic would have beneficial, which have promoted certain reflexes among people that cause low dissemination in these countries.

5.
J Inflamm Res ; 13: 285-292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646404

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in China and spread worldwide. In this study, we assessed the characteristics of markers of the liver in patients with COVID-19 to provide new insights in improving clinical treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 279 patients who confirmed COVID-19 and the data of liver biomarkers and complete blood count of patients were defined as the day onset when the patients admitted to the hospital. RESULTS: The average of LDH value was 621.29 U/L in all patients with COVID-19, and CPK was 286.90 U/L. The average AST was 44.03 U/L in all patients, and ALT was 31.14 U/L. The AST/ALT ratio was 1.64 in all patients. The measurement of CRP was increased by 79.93% in all patients. Average ALT and AST values of patients with elevated ALT were significantly increased in comparison to patients with normal ALT (P-value = 0.001), while AST/ALT ratio was significantly decreased compared to patients with normal ALT (P-value= 0.014). In addition, the average LDH of patients with elevated ALT was significantly increased compared to patients with normal ALT (P-value = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Hepatic injury and abnormal liver enzymes related to COVID-19 infection is an acute non-specific inflammation alteration.

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