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2.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(12): 1525-1536, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048210

ABSTRACT

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is nicknamed the 'Miracle plant' or sometimes as the 'Wonder plant'. It is a plant that has been used since ancient times for the innumerable health benefits associated with it. It is one of the important plants that has its use in conventional medicinal treatments. It is a perennial succulent, drought-tolerant member of the family Asphodelaceae. There are scores of properties associated with the plant that help in curing various forms of human ailments. Extracts and gels obtained from plants have been shown to be wonderful healers of different conditions, mainly various skin problems. Also, this plant is popular in the cosmetics industry. The underlying properties of the plant are now mainly associated with the natural phytochemicals present in the plant. Diverse groups of phytoingredients are found in the plant, including various phenolics, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and different other organic compounds, too. One of the primary ingredients found in the plant is the aloin molecule. It is an anthraquinone derivative and exists as an isomer of Aloin A and Aloin B. Barbaloin belonging to the first group is a glucoside of the aloe-emodin anthrone molecule. Various types of pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant can be attributed to this chemical. Few significant ones are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-viral, along with their different immunity-boosting actions. Recently, molecular coupling studies have also found the role of these molecules as a potential cure against the ongoing COVID-19 disease. This study comprehensively focuses on the numerous pharmacological actions of the primary compound barbaloin obtained from the Aloe vera plant along with the mechanism of action and the potent application of these natural molecules under various conditions.


Subject(s)
Aloe , COVID-19 , Humans , Aloe/chemistry , Anthracenes/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry
3.
Environmental research ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045336

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to the generation of massive plastic wastes, comprising of onetime useable gloves, masks, tissues, and other personal protective equipment (PPE). Recommendations for the employ of single-use disposable masks made up of various polymeric materials like polyethylene, polyurethane, polyacrylonitrile, and polypropylene, polystyrene, can have significant aftermath on environmental, human as well as animal health. Improper disposal and handling of healthcare wastes and lack of proper management practices are creating serious health hazards and an extra challenge for the local authorities designated for management of solid waste. Most of the COVID-19 medical wastes generated are now being treated by incineration which generates microplastic particles (MPs), dioxin, furans, and various toxic metals, such as cadmium and lead. Moreover, natural degradation and mechanical abrasion of these wastes can lead to the generation of MPs which cause a serious health risk to living beings. It is a major threat to aquatic lives and gets into foods subsequently jeopardizing global food safety. Moreover, the presence of plastic is also considered a threat owing to the increased carbon emission and poses a profound danger to the global food chain. Degradation of MPs by axenic and mixed culture microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, microalgae etc. Can be considered an eco-sustainable technique for the mitigation of the microplastic menace. This review primarily deals with the increase in microplastic pollution due to increased use of PPE along with different disinfection methods using chemicals, steam, microwave, autoclave, and incineration which are presently being employed for the treatment of COVID-19 pandemic-related wastes. The biological treatment of the MPs by diverse groups of fungi and bacteria can be an alternative option for the mitigation of microplastic wastes generated from COVID-19 healthcare waste. Graphical Image 1

5.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 878276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002497

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain that manifests as dementia, disorientation, difficulty in speech, and progressive cognitive and behavioral impairment. The emerging therapeutic approach to AD management is the inhibition of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), known to be one of the two aspartyl proteases that cleave ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Studies confirmed the association of high BACE1 activity with the proficiency in the formation of ß-amyloid-containing neurotic plaques, the characteristics of AD. Only a few FDA-approved BACE1 inhibitors are available in the market, but their adverse off-target effects limit their usage. In this paper, we have used both ligand-based and target-based approaches for drug design. The QSAR study entails creating a multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model using 552 molecules with acceptable statistical performance (R 2 = 0.82, Q 2 loo = 0.81). According to the QSAR study, the activity has a strong link with various atoms such as aromatic carbons and ring Sulfur, acceptor atoms, sp2-hybridized oxygen, etc. Following that, a database of 26,467 food compounds was primarily used for QSAR-based virtual screening accompanied by the application of the Lipinski rule of five; the elimination of duplicates, salts, and metal derivatives resulted in a truncated dataset of 8,453 molecules. The molecular descriptor was calculated and a well-validated 6-parametric version of the QSAR model was used to predict the bioactivity of the 8,453 food compounds. Following this, the food compounds whose predicted activity (pKi) was observed above 7.0 M were further docked into the BACE1 receptor which gave rise to the Identification of 4-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1H-phenalen-1-one (PubChem I.D: 4468; Food I.D: FDB017657) as a hit molecule (Binding Affinity = -8.9 kcal/mol, pKi = 7.97 nM, Ki = 10.715 M). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation for 150 ns and molecular mechanics generalized born and surface area (MMGBSA) study aided in identifying structural motifs involved in interactions with the BACE1 enzyme. Molecular docking and QSAR yielded complementary and congruent results. The validated analyses can be used to improve a drug/lead candidate's inhibitory efficacy against the BACE1. Thus, our approach is expected to widen the field of study of repurposing nutraceuticals into neuroprotective as well as anti-cancer and anti-viral therapeutic interventions.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338473

ABSTRACT

Omicron’s traces have been found significantly faster than the Delta variant. Persons who already have been vaccinated are also affected by this variant. This shows that vaccines taken to combat COVID-19 are less effective in preventing the Omicron’s transmission. Thus, the identification of effective candidates to fight against Omicron has been the top priority in pharmaceutics. The present study deals with the investigation of the antiviral activities of the phytocompounds of Aconitum heterophyllum against the Omicron variant. The systematic in-silico study done in the paper reveals the good binding of Isoatisine with spike glycoprotein of Omicron. Isoatisine molecule follows most of the pharmacokinetic properties that make it a better drug-like molecule. The computed global reactivity parameters fairly justified the high reactivity of the Isoatisine molecule. This study aims to discover the novel antiviral activity of Isoatisine to counter the Omicron protein. The results of this study can also be considered for experimental validation and clinical trials.

7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(34): 51384-51397, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864443

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become one of the few leading causes of death and has evolved into a pandemic that disrupts everyone's routine, and balanced way of life worldwide, and will continue to do so. To bring an end to this pandemic, scientists had put their all effort into discovering the vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection. For their dedication, now, we have a handful of COVID-19 vaccines. Worldwide, millions of people are at risk due to the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Despite the lack of clinically authorized antiviral medications and vaccines for COVID-19, clinical trials of many recognized antiviral agents, their combination, and vaccine development in patients with confirmed COVID-19 are still ongoing. This discovery gave us a chance to get immune to this disease worldwide and end the pandemic. However, the unexpected capacity of mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus makes it difficult, like the recent SAS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Therefore, there is a great necessity to spread the vaccination programs and prevent the spread of this dreadful epidemic by identifying and isolating afflicted patients. Furthermore, several COVID-19 tests are thought to be expensive, time-consuming, and require the use of adequately qualified persons to be carried out efficiently. In addition, we also conversed about how the various COVID-19 testing methods can be implemented for the first time in a developing country and their cost-effectiveness, accuracy, human resources requirements, and laboratory facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Developing Countries , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335904

ABSTRACT

Omicron’s traces have been found significantly faster than the Delta variant. Persons who already have been vaccinated are also affected by this variant. This shows that vaccines taken to combat COVID-19 are less effective in preventing the Omicron’s transmission. Thus, the identification of effective candidates to fight against Omicron has been the top priority in pharmaceutics. The present study deals with the investigation of the antiviral activities of the phytocompounds of Aconitum heterophyllum against the Omicron variant. The systematic in-silico study done in the paper reveals the good binding of Isoatisine with spike glycoprotein of Omicron. Isoatisine molecule follows most of the pharmacokinetic properties that make it a better drug-like molecule. The computed global reactivity parameters fairly justified the high reactivity of the Isoatisine molecule. This study aims to discover the novel antiviral activity of Isoatisine to counter the Omicron protein. The results of this study can also be considered for experimental validation and clinical trials.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 812565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771065

ABSTRACT

The fact that viruses cause human cancer dates back to the early 1980s. By reprogramming cellular signaling pathways, viruses encoded protein that can regulate altered control of cell cycle events. Viruses can interact with a superfamily of membrane bound protein, receptor tyrosine kinase to modulate their activity in order to increase virus entrance into cells and promotion of viral replication within the host. Therefore, our study aimed at screening of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase using natural compounds from olive. Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an important factor for cancer progression and can be linked to coronavirus. It is evident that over expression of Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) enhance viral endocytosis and proliferation and the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors reduced the period of infection period. Functional network studies were carried out using two major PTKs viz. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and B-lymphocytic kinase (BTK). They are associated with coronavirus in regulation of cell signaling proteins for cellular processes. We virtually screened for 161 library of natural compounds from olive found overexpressed in ALK and BTK in metastatic as well as virus host cells. We have employed both ligand and target-based approach for drug designing by high throughput screening using Multilinear regression model based QSAR and docking. The QSAR based virtual screening of 161 olive nutraceutical compounds has successfully identified certain new hit; Wedelosin, in which, the descriptor rsa (ratio of molecular surface area to the solvent accessible surface area) plays crucial role in deciding Wedelosin's inhibitory potency. The best-docked olive nutraceuticals further investigated for the stability and effectivity of the BTK and ALK during in 150 ns molecular dynamics and simulation. Post simulation analysis and binding energy estimation in MMGBSA further revealed the intensive potential of the olive nutraceuticals in PTK inhibition. This study is therefore expected to widen the use of nutraceuticals from olive in cancer as well as SARS-CoV2 alternative therapy.

10.
Chem Zvesti ; 76(5): 2759-2776, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634397

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The unavailability of a proper drug against SARS-CoV-2 infections and the emergence of various variants created a global crisis. In the present work, we have studied the antiviral behavior of feverfew plant in treating COVID-19. We have reported a systematic in silico study with the antiviral effects of various phytoconstituents Borneol (C10H18O), Camphene (C10H16), Camphor (C10H16O), Alpha-thujene (C10H16), Eugenol (C10H14O), Carvacrol (C10H14O) and Parthenolide (C15H20O3) of feverfew on the viral protein of SARS-CoV-2. Parthenolide shows the best binding affinity with both main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro). The molecular electrostatic potential and Mulliken atomic charges of the Parthenolide molecule shows the high chemical reactivity of the molecule. The docking of Parthenolide with PLpro give score of -8.0 kcal/mol that validates the good binding of Parthenolide molecule with PLpro. This complex was further considered for molecular dynamics simulations. The binding energy of the complex seems to range in between -3.85 to -11.07 kcal/mol that is high enough to validate the stability of the complex. Free energy decomposition analysis have been also performed to understand the contribution of residues that reside into the binding site. Good binding affinity and reactivity response suggested that Parthenolide can be used as a promising drug against the COVID-19. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11696-022-02067-6.

11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105128, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500148

ABSTRACT

The scientific community has been releasing whole genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the investigation of molecular features and evolutionary history. We retrieved 36 genomes of 18 prevalent countries of Asia, Europe and America for genomic diversity and mutational analysis. Besides, we studied mutations in the RBD regions of Spike (S) proteins to analyze the drug efficiency against these mutations. In this research, phylogenenetic analysis, evolutionary modeling, substitution pattern analysis, molecular docking, dynamics simulation, etc. were performed. The genomic sequences showed >99% similarity with the reference sequence of China.TN93 + G was predicted as a best nucleotide substitution model. It was revealed that effective transition from the co-existing SARS genome to the SARS-CoV-2 and a noticeable positive selection in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes occurred. Moreover, three mutations in RBD domain, Val/ Phe367, Val/ Leu 382 and Ala/ Val522, were discovered in the genomes from Netherland, Bangladesh and the USA, respectively. Molecular docking and dynamics study showed RBD with mutation Val/Leu382 had the lowest binding affinity with remdesivir. In conclusion, the SARS-CoV-2 genomes are similar, but multiple degrees of transitions and transversions occurred. The mutations cause a significant conformational change, which are needed to be investigated during drug and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Netherlands/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United States/epidemiology
12.
Arab J Chem ; 15(1): 103499, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471879

ABSTRACT

Congruous coronavirus drug targets and analogous lead molecules must be identified as quickly as possible to produce antiviral therapeutics against human coronavirus (HCoV SARS 3CLpro) infections. In the present communication, we bear recognized a HIT candidate for HCoV SARS 3CLpro inhibition. Four Parametric GA-MLR primarily based QSAR model (R2:0.84, R2adj:0.82, Q2loo: 0.78) was once promoted using a dataset over 37 structurally diverse molecules along QSAR based virtual screening (QSAR-VS), molecular docking (MD) then molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) analysis and MMGBSA calculations. The QSAR-based virtual screening was utilized to find novel lead molecules from an in-house database of 100 molecules. The QSAR-vS successfully offered a hit molecule with an improved PEC50 value from 5.88 to 6.08. The benzene ring, phenyl ring, amide oxygen and nitrogen, and other important pharmacophoric sites are revealed via MD and MDS studies. Ile164, Pro188, Leu190, Thr25, His41, Asn46, Thr47, Ser49, Asn189, Gln191, Thr47, and Asn141 are among the key amino acid residues in the S1 and S2 pocket. A stable complex of a lead molecule with the HCoV SARS 3CLpro was discovered using MDS. MM-GBSA calculations resulted from MD simulation results well supported with the binding energies calculated from the docking results. The results of this study can be exploited to develop a novel antiviral target, such as an HCoV SARS 3CLpro Inhibitor.

13.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 193(10): 3371-3394, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease that puts most of the world on lockdown and the search for therapeutic drugs is still ongoing. Therefore, this study used in silico screening to identify natural bioactive compounds from fruits, herbaceous plants, and marine invertebrates that are able to inhibit protease activity in SARS-CoV-2 (PDB: 6LU7). We have used extensive screening strategies such as drug likeliness, antiviral activity value prediction, molecular docking, ADME, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and MM/GBSA. A total of 17 compounds were shortlisted using Lipinski's rule in which 5 compounds showed significant predicted antiviral activity values. Among these 5, only 2 compounds, Macrolactin A and Stachyflin, showed good binding energy of -9.22 and -8.00 kcal/mol, respectively, within the binding pocket of the Mpro catalytic residues (HIS 41 and CYS 145). These two compounds were further analyzed to determine their ADME properties. The ADME evaluation of these 2 compounds suggested that they could be effective in developing therapeutic drugs to be used in clinical trials. MD simulations showed that protein-ligand complexes of Macrolactin A and Stachyflin with the target receptor (6LU7) were stable for 100 nanoseconds. The MM/GBSA calculations of Mpro-Macrolactin A complex indicated higher binding free energy (-42.58 ± 6.35 kcal/mol). Dynamic cross-correlation matrix (DCCM) and principal component analysis (PCA) on the residual movement in the MD trajectories further confirmed the stability of Macrolactin A bound state with 6LU7. In conclusion, this study showed that marine natural compound Macrolactin A could be an effective therapeutic inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 protease (6LU7). Additional in vitro and in vivo validations are strongly needed to determine the efficacy and therapeutic dose of Macrolactin A in biological systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Macrolides/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Humans
14.
Results Chem ; : 100199, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433775

ABSTRACT

Unavailability of treatment for the SARS-CoV-2 virus has raised concern among the population worldwide. This has led to many attempts to find alternative options to prevent the infection of the disease, including focusing on vaccines and drugs. The use of natural products and herbal extracts can be a better option in beating the virus and boosting up immunity. In the present paper, we have done a systematic in silico study of papain-like protease of COVID-19 virus with the chemical constituents of herbal plant Piper Longum. Screening of the pharmacokinetic properties is done with thirty-two phytoconstituents of Piper Longum which help us in selecting the most active components of the plant. After selection molecular docking is performed with Aristololactam (C17H11NO4), Fargesin (C21H22O6), l-asarinin (C20H18O6), Lignans Machilin F (C20H22O5), Piperundecalidine (C23H29NO3), and Pluviatilol (C20H20O6). Molecular dynamic (MD) is also performed with the inhibitor-receptor complex which suggest significant inhibition and a stable complex of I-Asarinin with PLpro. Docking scores and simulation results suggest that I-Asarinin can act as a potential drug like candidate against COVID-19.

15.
Front Nutr ; 8: 629440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332129

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global health challenge, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggers a plethora of respiratory disturbances and even multiple organs failure that can be fatal. Nutritional intervention is one of the key components toward to a proper management of COVID-19 patients, especially in those requiring medication, and should thus be considered the first-line treatment. Immuno-modulation and -stimulation are currently being explored in COVID-19 management and are gaining interest by food and pharmaceutical industries. Various dietary combinations, bioactive components, nutrients and fortified foods have been reported to modulate inflammation during disease progression. Dietary combinations of dairy-derived products and eggs are gaining an increasing attention given the huge immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties attributed to some of their chemical constituents. Eggs are complex dietary components containing many essential nutrients and bioactive compounds as well as a high-quality proteins. Similarly, yogurts can replenish beneficial bacteria and contains macronutrients capable of stimulating immunity by enhancing cell immunity, reducing oxidative stress, neutralizing inflammation and regulating the intestinal barriers and gut microbiome. Thus, this review highlights the impact of nutritional intervention on COVID-19 management, focusing on the immunomodulatory and inflammatory effects of immune-enhancing nutrients.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 629935, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236736

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a potentially fatal multisystemic infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, viable therapeutic options that are cost effective, safe and readily available are desired, but lacking. Nevertheless, the pandemic is noticeably of lesser burden in African and Asian regions, where the use of traditional herbs predominates, with such relationship warranting a closer look at ethnomedicine. From a molecular viewpoint, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the crucial first phase of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Here, we review plants with medicinal properties which may be implicated in mitigation of viral invasion either via direct or indirect modulation of ACE2 activity to ameliorate COVID-19. Selected ethnomedicinal plants containing bioactive compounds which may prevent and mitigate the fusion and entry of the SARS-CoV-2 by modulating ACE2-associated up and downstream events are highlighted. Through further experimentation, these plants could be supported for ethnobotanical use and the phytomedicinal ligands could be potentially developed into single or combined preventive therapeutics for COVID-19. This will benefit researchers actively looking for solutions from plant bioresources and help lessen the burden of COVID-19 across the globe.

17.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187020

ABSTRACT

Due to the genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, the present work endeavored to derive a balanced Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies to identify novel molecules having inhibitory potential against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. The QSAR analysis developed on multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model with acceptable statistical performance (R2 = 0.898, Q2loo = 0.859, etc.). QSAR analysis attributed the good correlation with different types of atoms like non-ring Carbons and Nitrogens, amide Nitrogen, sp2-hybridized Carbons, etc. Thus, the QSAR model has a good balance of qualitative and quantitative requirements (balanced QSAR model) and satisfies the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. After that, a QSAR-based virtual screening of 26,467 food compounds and 360 heterocyclic variants of molecule 1 (benzotriazole-indole hybrid molecule) helped to identify promising hits. Furthermore, the molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Mpro with molecule 1 recognized the structural motifs with significant stability. Molecular docking and QSAR provided consensus and complementary results. The validated analyses are capable of optimizing a drug/lead candidate for better inhibitory activity against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2.

18.
J Mol Model ; 27(3): 97, 2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103468

ABSTRACT

The spread of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has directed to a state of an unprecedented global pandemic. Many synthetic compounds and FDA-approved drugs have been significantly inhibitory against the virus, but no SARS-CoV-2 solution has been identified. However, small molecule fragment-based derivatives of potent phytocompounds may serve as promising inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2. In the pursuit of exploring novel SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors, we generated small molecule fragment derivatives from potent phytocompounds using neural networking and machine learning-based tools, which can cover unexplored regions of the chemical space that still retain lead-like properties. Out of 300 derivative molecules from withaferin-A, hesperidin, and baicalin, 30 were screened out with synthetic accessibility scores > 4 having the best ADME properties. The withaferin-A derivative molecules 61 and 64 exhibited a significant binding affinity of - 7.84 kcal/mol and - 7.94 kcal/mol. The docking study reveals that withaferin-A mol 61 forms 5 polar H-bonds with the Mpro where amino acids involved are GLU166, THR190, CYS145, MET165, and GLN152 and upon QSAR analysis showed a minimal predicted IC50 value of 7762.47 nM. Furthermore, the in silico cytotoxicity predictions, pharmacophore modeling, and molecular dynamics simulation studies have resulted in predicting the highly potent small molecule derivative from withaferin-A (phytocompound from Withania somnifera) to be the potential inhibitor of SARS-CoV 2 protease (Mpro) and a promising future lead candidate against COVID-19. The rationale of choosing withaferin-A from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) was propelled by the innumerous applications of Ashwagandha for the treatment of various antiviral diseases, common cold, and fever since time immemorial. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Withanolides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Withanolides/chemistry
19.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(12): 5462-5480, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059961

ABSTRACT

In this work we aimed to perform an in silico predictive screening, docking and molecular dynamic study to identify 1,2,3-triazole-phthalimide derivatives as drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. The in silico prediction of pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties of hundred one 1,2,3-triazole-phtalimide derivatives, obtained from SciFinder® library, were investigated. Compounds that did not show good gastrointestinal absorption, violated the Lipinski's rules, proved to be positive for the AMES test, and showed to be hepatotoxic or immunotoxic in our ADMET analysis, were filtered out of our study. The hit compounds were further subjected to molecular docking on SARS-CoV-2 target proteins. The ADMET analysis revealed that 43 derivatives violated the Lipinski's rules and 51 other compounds showed to be positive for the toxicity test. Seven 1,2,3-triazole-phthalimide derivatives (A7, A8, B05, E35, E38, E39, and E40) were selected for molecular docking and MFCC-ab initio analysis. The results of molecular docking pointed the derivative E40 as a promising compound interacting with multiple target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The complex E40-Mpro was found to have minimum binding energy of -10.26 kcal/mol and a general energy balance, calculated by the quantum mechanical analysis, of -8.63 eV. MD simulation and MMGBSA calculations confirmed that the derivatives E38 and E40 have high binding energies of -63.47 ± 3 and -63.31 ± 7 kcal/mol against SARS-CoV-2 main protease. In addition, the derivative E40 exhibited excellent interaction values and inhibitory potential against SAR-Cov-2 main protease and viral nucleocapsid proteins, suggesting this derivative as a potent antiviral for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phthalimides/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazoles/pharmacology
20.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(12): 5665-5686, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032053

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) is ß-coronavirus that is responsible for the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) all over the world. The rapid spread of the novel SARS CoV-2 worldwide is raising a significant global public health issue with nearly 61.86 million people infected and 1.4 million deaths. To date, no specific drugs are available for the treatment of COVID-19. The inhibition of proteases essential for the proteolytic treatment of viral polyproteins is a conventional therapeutic strategy for conquering viral infections. In the study, molecular docking approach was used to screen potential drug compounds among the phytochemicals of Vitex negundo L. against COVID-19 infection. Molecular docking analysis showed that oleanolic acid forms a stable complex and other phyto-compounds ursolic acid, 3ß-acetoxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid and isovitexin of V. negundo natural compounds form a less-stable complex. When compared with the control the synergistic interaction of these compounds shows inhibitory activity against papain-like protease (PLpro) of SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19). The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation (50 ns) were performed on the complexes of PLpro and the phyto-compounds viz. oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, 3ß-acetoxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid and isovitexin followed by the binding free energy calculations using MM-GBSA and these molecules have stable interactions with PLpro protein binding site. The MD simulation study provides more insight into the functional properties of the protein-ligand complex and suggests that these molecules can be considered as a potential drug molecule against COVID-19. In this pandemic situation, these herbal compounds provide a rich resource to produce new antivirals against COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oleanolic Acid , Vitex , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Pandemics , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitex/metabolism
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