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1.
Studies in Political Economy ; 103(1):103-108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1947846

ABSTRACT

This paper is part of the SPE Theme on the Political Economy of COVID-19.

2.
The Lancet ; 400(10345):18-19, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1921472

ABSTRACT

[...]examining incomes, along with other variables, is also essential. The crucial role of public activity then transcends capitalism, because when such services are provided by public authorities without basing them on commercial principles in anticipation of profits, this effectively creates a mixed economy. In addition to redistribution, he argues that taxes on inheritance can serve the goal of “predistribution” that inhibit too much intergenerational wealth transfer, once again suggesting that highly confiscatory rates of taxation on individuals have had immense historical success. [...]this is precisely why, in addition to the fiscal policies that he puts so much emphasis on, it is necessary to bring in other regulatory measures and changes in legal codes that would impact predistribution nationally and internationally. [...]low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) today, which cannot achieve what rich countries can through this progressive fiscal strategy alone, necessarily require other elements of a broader strategy.

3.
Carbonaceous materials Coal tar pitch DNA sensor HIV-1 Impedimetric sensor ; 2020(Journal of Industrial and Business Economics)
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-638927

ABSTRACT

In this study, a highly sensitive, electrochemical, and label-free DNA impedimetric sensor was developed using carbonized glass fiber-coal tar pitch (GF-CTP) electrodes supported with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the detection of HIV-1 gene. Thiol-modified GF-CTP electrodes were prepared using amine crosslinking chemistry and AuNPs were self-assembled obtaining highly conductive nanoelectrodes, GF-CTP-ATP-Au. All steps of electrode modifications were characterized using electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic methods. GF-CTP-ATP-Au electrode was then modified with a capture DNA probe (C-ssDNA) and optimized with a target DNA probe in terms of hybridization time and temperature between 30 and 180 min and 20-50 °C, respectively. Finally, the analytic performance of the developed ssDNA biosensor was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The calibration of the sensor was obtained between 0.1 pM and 10 nM analyte working range. The limit of detection was calculated using signal to noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) as 13 fM. Moreover, interference results for two noncomplementary DNA probes were also tested to demonstrate non-specific ssDNA interactions. An electrochemical label-free DNA impedimetric sensor was successfully developed using a novel GF-CTP-ATP-Au electrode. This study suggests that highly sensitive DNA-based biosensors can be developed using relatively low-cost carbonaceous materials.

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