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1.
Annals of African Medicine ; 22(1):40-44, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217228

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reporting and data system (CO-RADS) grade of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)-thorax scan investigation is an innovative tool for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. By this tool, majority of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients are screened to detect lung pathologies. Hardly any study has explored its use vis-a-vis reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in asymptomatic patients.

2.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):DC24-DC27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hybrid Problem-Based Learning (h-PBL) is a type of teaching-learning technique that incorporates both in-person learning and virtual learning via hybrid classroom tools. It reportedly increases student engagement, positively impact their learning process and improve communication skills. During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) times, its applicability was further enhanced as it allowed the flexibility of teaching as well as learning from home to both teachers and students. Aim: To assess the perception and experience of 2nd phase MBBS students after undergoing training by the h-PBL method. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2nd phase MBBS students in the Department of Microbiology at College of Medicine and Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata from 15th March to 14th April 2022. A total of 111 students of 2nd phase MBBS of the college gave an informed consent to be part of the study. All inductees underwent a structured training by h-PBL technique following which their perception and experience about the exercise was sought via questionnaire. Data were presented in frequency and percentage. Association between mean scores of male and female participants was calculated by Chi-square test. Results: Out of the 111 participants, 58 (52.2%) were male and 53 (47.8%) were female with mean age of 19.5±0.5 years (range 18-22 years). The h-PBL technique was perceived to be motivating for self-directed learning by 97 (85.6%) of the respondents. A total of 107 (96.4%) students agreed that h-PBL is more effective than traditional teaching for acquiring both theoretical and practical knowledge, learning and understanding topics correctly and also identifying and rectifying their deficiencies in knowledge and skills. More than 90% participants (102 of 111) felt that h-PBL has more potential than traditional teaching to establish fruitful student-teacher interaction and provide better feedback opportunities. Overall student satisfaction in our study showed 96.4% agreement (107 of 111). Conclusion: The students considered h-PBL model to be better than traditional teaching to help them acquire theoretical knowledge and practical skills. They also felt that it improved their communication skills, teamwork ethics and motivated them to undertake self-directed learning.

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A2662-A2663, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060980

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Chest Infections Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Initial reports of COVID-19 autopsies revealed significant evidence of micro and macrovascular thrombosis. Due to concern for increased thrombotic events, many institutions implemented anticoagulation (AC) protocols for hospitalized patients. The study’s objective is to evaluate disease progression in patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation vs. prophylactic anticoagulation in noncritical COVID-19 hospitalized patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia between March 1-May 1, 2020. Inclusion criteria was any adult patient directly admitted to non-intensive care setting for radiologically confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. T-test was performed for the continuous variables with normal distribution. Wilcoxon-rank-sum test for non-parametric groups. Chi-squared test for categorical variables. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Overall, 81 (34%) received therapeutic AC, and 159 (66%) subjected received prophylactic AC. The clinical characteristics of the therapeutic group included: average age 57.8 (vs. 55.7), 77.78% male (vs. 72.92%), 40.74% obese (vs. 37.92%), 64.74% had hypertension (vs. 40.88%), 44.44% had Diabetes Mellitus (vs. 37.92%) and 11.11% had chronic kidney disease (vs. 13.84%). Initial inflammatory markers were higher in therapeutic group vs. prophylactic, including D-dimer (845 vs 361ng/dL), Ferritin (918.5 vs. 632ng/mL), and CRP (20 vs. 11.2mg/dL). The average length of stay (LOS) of the therapeutic group was 10 days (vs. 7 for prophylactic), and a higher number of patients required mechanical ventilation (36 vs. 23), and hemodialysis (18 vs. 6). A higher number of adverse events (bleeding) was noticed in the therapeutic group (13.58% vs. 2.52%) with a p-value of <0.001. Higher odds of In-Hospital mortality observed in therapeutic group subjects with Hypertension (OR=5.41), chronic kidney disease (OR= 4.08), and lung disease (OR= 2.87) with a p-value of <0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In noncritically ill patients with COVID-19, treatment with therapeutic AC was related to greater LOS, requiring mechanical ventilation, hemodialysis, and adverse effects compared to prophylactic AC. We also observed a significantly higher D-dimer, ferritin, and CRP in the therapeutic group. RCT performed by ACTIV-4a investigators demonstrated increased organ support-free days in the therapeutic group, contrary to our study, which showed increased dependence of respiratory support and hemodialysis. Our therapeutic group patients appear to have higher comorbidities and significantly elevated initial inflammatory markers compared to the prophylactic group, which may explain these differences. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Finally, our study supports the use of therapeutic anticoagulation depending on the patient overall clinical scenario. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Adebola Adetiloye No relevant relationships by Jennifer Arzu No relevant relationships by Kuldeep Ghosh No relevant relationships by Gabriel Ibarra no disclosure on file for Armeen Poor;No relevant relationships by Ingrid Portillo No relevant relationships by Fernando Quesada Mata No relevant relationships by Natoushka Trenard No relevant relationships by Julio Valencia Manrique

4.
Environmental Science-Nano ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004800

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticle (NP)-based colorimetric methods are extensively used for the rapid detection of environmental contaminants, different substances and SARS-CoV-2 in various fields such as environmental science, virology, pollution research, and the food industry, as well as biomedicine. Colorimetric sensors exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity, are easy to handle, portable, safe for screening purposes and can be visualized by the naked eye. Herein, the colorimetric sensing approaches of the two most commonly used metallic NPs, i.e., gold (Au) and silver (Ag), and their physicochemical methods are discussed, as metallic NPs show good efficiency due to their unique optical and chemical properties. This review summarizes the progress on colorimetric sensors based on metallic NPs as sensors and their applications, elucidating the utility and superior features of metallic-NP-based colorimetric assay for the detection of different environmental contaminants, biomolecules and SARS-CoV-2 in the environmental as well as human biological samples. An outlook with respect to the trends and future development of the proposed sensors is also provided.

5.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880268
6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1879942
7.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1879904
8.
13th Annual Meeting of the Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation, FIRE 2021 ; : 22-24, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1708797

ABSTRACT

Microblogging sites such as Twitter play an important role in dealing with various mass emergencies including natural disasters and pandemics. The FIRE2021 track on Information Retrieval from Microblogs during Disasters (IRMiDis) focused on two important tasks - (i) to identify claims or fact-checkable tweets, which is the first step towards verifying information posted on social media, and (ii) to detect the vaccine-related stance of tweets related to COVID-19 vaccines. © 2021 Owner/Author.

9.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407539
10.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407156
11.
Acta Biologica Szegediensis ; 64(2):159-171, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1278753

ABSTRACT

On-going global pandemic COVID-19 has spread all over the world and has led to more than 1.97 million deaths till date. Natural compounds may be useful to protecting health in this perilous condition. Mechanism of shuttle entry of SARS-COV-2 virus is by interaction with viral spike protein with human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. To explore potential natural therapeutics, 213 important phytochemicals of nine medicinal plants Aconitum heterophyllum, Cassia angustifolia, Cymbopogon fl exuosus, Cymbopogon martinii, Nux vomica, Phyllanthus urinaria, Swertia chirayita, Justicia adhatoda, Vetiveria zizanioides were selected for in-silico molecular docking against the spike protein of SARS-COV-2 and compared with recently prescribed drug chloroquine, ramdesivir, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine. Results revealed that rhamnocitrin of P. urinaria, 1,5-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyxanthone of S. chirayita and laevojunenol of V. zizanioides potentially binds with the receptor binding site of SARS-COV-2 spike glycoprotein and more robustly destabilized the RBD-ACE-2 binding over chloroquine, ramdesivir, lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine. It was also found that laevojunenol, rhamnocitrin, and 1,5-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyxanthone qualifi ed the criteria for drug-likeness as per Lipinski rule. After attachment of the selected phytochemical with the spike protein the affi nity of the later towards ACE-2 was minimized and the eff ect of 1,5-dihydroxy-3,8- dimethoxyxanthone and laevojunenol was superior. Hence, rhamnocitrin of P. urinaria, 1,5-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyxanthone of S. chirayita and laevojunenol of V. zizanioides, are potential therapeutic molecules for SARS-COV-2, which upon binding with spike protein changes the affi nity of the spike towards ACE-2 and therefore restrict the entry of the virus into a human cell. Subsequent clinical validation is needed to confi rm these phytochemicals as drugs to combat COVID-19.

12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277547

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is an infection caused by severe-acute-respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).1 Many recent reports have shown an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE)4-5. Despite therapeutic anticoagulation with elevated D-dimer is widely described7, data on post-discharge prophylactic anticoagulation is limited.Case report: A 52-year-old female presented with 1-day mid-sternal chest pain and difficulty breathing. Her medical history included type-2-Diabetes Mellitus, obesity, and a hospital admission 4 weeks prior for COVID-19. She received Ceftriaxone, Azithromycin, Hydroxychloroquine, and prophylactic anticoagulation. She remained stable, with no fever or oxygen requirements and was discharged home to selfquarantine. She returned to the hospital, describing pain as sharp, constant, mild, radiating to left chest and back, aggravating on lying down and alleviating on leaning forward. Physical exam was normal, with no tachycardia, tachypnea, or hypoxemia. D-dimer was elevated (6834ng/dL), with normal troponin-T and pro Btype natriuretic peptide. In light of the findings, a contrasted Chest-CT was performed, showing a saddle pulmonary embolus (PE) in left pulmonary artery and non-obstructing thrombus in right main pulmonary artery. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm and right-bundle-branch block, but no “S1Q3T3 pattern”.Patient was admitted to ICU and received enoxaparin. COVID-19 was negative. She remained hemodynamically stable. Lower extremities venous duplex scan was negative for DVT, echocardiogram reported normal ventricular function and dilation of inferior vena cava, consistent with elevated right atrial pressure. Patient was discharged on apixaban.Discussion: Several COVID-19 case-studies have highlighted the association with VTE4-5. During SARSCoV-1 epidemic the reported incidence of DVT and PE was 20% and 11% respectively10. The underlying pathophysiology is probably related to excessive inflammatory response “cytokine storm” and microvascular thrombosis. It is known that infections, either viral, bacterial or fungal can activate immune-thrombotic pathways as initial inflammatory response. However, in COVID-19, such response is disproportioned. McGonagle6 described that the tropism for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expressed on type-II pneumocytes and the proximity of these cells to vasculature, combined with the aforementioned inflammation may play the main role. Is COVID-19 a risk factor for PE at the recovery phase of the disease? When are the patients at the highest risk for VTE? Should COVID-19 PE be treated as provoked? Can D-dimer be relied upon as indicator for anticoagulation initiation in these settings? and if so, at what levels? Should COVID-19 patients be discharged on prophylactic anticoagulation? As more patients are being treated, COVID-19's role as risk factor for VTE in the recovery is still unclear.

13.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277246

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, was first identified in December 2019 and declared a pandemic by the WHO in March 2020. Knowledge about COVID-19 is growing exponentially, but long-term pulmonary outcomes and factors influencing the development of fibrosis, such as intubation status, remain uncertain. We present three patients with no previous underlying pulmonary disease who developed post-ARDS fibrosis secondary to COVID-19 and continue to be severely impaired six months after initial hospitalization. Case Series: Three patients developed post-ARDS pulmonary fibrosis secondary to COVID-19 within one month of acute infection. Two males and one female, aged 56 to 75, were admitted 4 to 7 days after symptom onset and required ICU admission. One patient required 12 days of mechanical ventilation and was managed with noninvasive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for 15 days and one was managed with HFNC for 37 days. One patient receiving oxygenation via HFNC and oxymask developed pneumomediastinum on day 30 of admission and was managed conservatively. All patients demonstrated characteristic bilateral ground-glass opacities on CT chest and follow up scans showed traction-bronchiectasis with diffuse fibrotic changes. C-reactive protein level on admission ranged from 41.22 to 30.79, and all patients received systemic corticosteroids along with therapeutic anticoagulation. All patients met criteria for home oxygen on discharge. Discussion: Post-ARDS pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 appears to be multifactorial. Possible outcome predictors identified include: advanced age, illness severity, length of ICU stay, mechanical ventilation, smoking, and chronic alcoholism. While the mechanism remains uncertain, virus-induced cell injury and inflammatory mediators may be responsible for the accelerated lung damage observed. Management has evolved over the course of the pandemic from emphasis on early intubation to maximal use of non-invasive pressure ventilation, taking into consideration the potential harm associated with patient self-inflicted lung injury versus ventilator induced injury. Our case series demonstrates three patients with varying comorbidities and elevated inflammatory markers, who received steroids and therapeutic anticoagulation. All patients had similar clinical outcomes irrespective of intubation status. Conclusion: Intubation status did not appear to have an impact on progression to post-ARDS pulmonary fibrosis in our case series of three patients. All patients developed fibrosis and continued to experience severe dyspnea requiring home oxygen six months after acute infection. Long-term observational cohort studies are required to better establish if mechanical ventilation is a predictor of post-ARDS pulmonary fibrosis from COVID-19.

14.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 12(6):3104-3119, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1261471

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has enforced the entire scientific community to work together and find a solution for the adversity the whole world is facing. This has called for immediate actions, and the most common point of discussion and rapid way to tackle this is to repurpose the previously approved molecules and check their activity against this virus. The role of computational techniques has paved the way for rapid screening of molecules so as to provide us an insight on to designing drugs to inhibit this virus. Our group has screened the Dug bank database containing 8696 molecules. These molecules were screened using three tired molecular docking protocol. We utilized 5R82 as our target structure for the main protease enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, as it was the best available structure in Protein Data Bank. After screening the database, we obtained 200 molecules having docking scores better than the standard molecules (Ritonavir and Lopinavir). Eventually, after detailed analysis, we selected three molecules DB02307, DB04226, and DB01713, for Molecular dynamics simulation study and also compared them with standard molecules. The results clearly show these molecules can potentially act as the main protease inhibitor either by further optimization or repurposing the drug. The wait for the drug continues, but the repurposing strategy surely reveals the ray of hope.

16.
J. Phys. Conf. Ser. ; 1797, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1139913

ABSTRACT

In the present work investigation of self-similarity as well as scaling analysis have been performed over daily number of new confirmed cases of COVID-19 in some major impacted countries viz. USA, Brazil, India, Russia, Spain, UK, Italy, Germany and France from their respective dates of first report of COVID-19 till June 30, 2020. To reduce uncertainty and irregular fluctuations in these present time series seven-point moving averages are taken and the entire analysis has been further performed over these seven-point moving average data. Scale invariance and self-similarity or self affinity manifests the fractal nature. For these time series, investigations of fractal nature have been performed by means of Higuchi method and corresponding fractal dimensions have been obtained. Also scaling analysis has been applied to understand the nature of the memory in these by means of Hurst exponent. Next, on the basis of these seven-point moving average data cumulative profiles of confirmed cases of COVID-19 for these countries have been generated. An effort has been made to understand the initial exponential growths in them. Study does not yield constant growth rates of infection;rather it shows time dependent profiles with variable functional representations at different windows of time for all these countries. Finally an effort has been made to predict the scenario for certain upcoming days for all the nine countries considered within a pre-assigned tolerance level continuing with the last obtained exponential growth rates. Results are not persistent in most of the cases. This might point towards a difficult scenario of prediction of future impacts in these countries. © 2021 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

17.
International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences ; 9:58-61, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1106187

ABSTRACT

Using masks for self-protection has a long history. There are records of the use of masks ranging as far back as the Roman era to Medieval Europe, where masks were used as protective devices. During many festivities, masks were used as a fashion statement. Gas masks were commonly used during the world wars. As pollution started growing, people started using pollution masks. 2020 might be the only era when the entire human population has been forced to wear masks to protect themselves and to protect others. As expected, the healthcare workers, who are leading the fight against the COVID19, are the ones who are most at the need of these devices. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of personal protection equipment all over the world. Hence, we must understand their properties and strengths, and hence that we can achieve maximum benefits from the limited resources.

18.
Int Orthop ; 44(12): 2819, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792990

ABSTRACT

The published online version contains mistake, as the Fig. 1 legend should read "Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 30-day survival for 2020 cohort COVID-19 positive vs COVID-19 negative" whilst the Fig. 2 legend should read "Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 30-day survival 2020 COVID-19 negative group vs 2019 cohort".

19.
Int Orthop ; 45(1): 23-31, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734827

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thirty-day mortality of patients with hip fracture is well researched and predictive; validated scoring tools have been developed (Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, NHFS). COVID-19 has significantly greater mortality in the elderly and comorbid patients which includes hip fracture patients. Non-operative treatment is not appropriate due to significantly higher mortality, and therefore, these patients are often exposed to COVID-19 in the peri-operative period. What is unclear is the effect of concomitant COVID-19 infection in these patients. METHODS: A multicentre prospective study across ten sites in the United Kingdom (responsible for 7% of hip fracture patients per annum in the UK). Demographic and background information were collected by independent chart review. Data on surgical factors included American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, time to theatre, Nottingham Hip fracture score (NHFS) and classification of fracture were also collected between 1st March 2020 and 30th April 2020 with a matched cohort from the same period in 2019. RESULTS: Actual and expected 30-day mortality was found to be significantly higher than expected for 2020 COVID-19 positive patients (RR 3.00 95% CI 1.57-5.75, p < 0.001), with 30 observed deaths compared against the 10 expected from NHFS risk stratification. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection appears to be an independent risk factor for increased mortality in hip fracture patients. Whilst non-operative management of these fractures is not suggested due to the documented increased risks and mortality, this study provides evidence to the emerging literature of the severity of COVID-19 infection in surgical patients and the potential impact of COVID-19 on elective surgical patients in the peri-operative period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures/mortality , Aged, 80 and over , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Hip Fractures/surgery , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
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