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1.
BMC Infectious Diseases ; 22(1):918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions to curb the first wave of COVID-19 in India resulted in a decline in facility-based HIV testing rates, likely contributing to increased HIV transmission and disease progression. The programmatic and economic impact of COVID-19 on index testing, a standardized contact tracing strategy, remains unknown.

3.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; : 14782715221142559, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153434

ABSTRACT

Over the past 2 years, a plethora of mucocutaneous manifestations have been described to be associated with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Nail changes attributed to COVID-19 have rarely been documented in the literature. We describe here a unique nail finding 'transverse erythronychia' due to COVID-19 and review the literature on the diverse nail pathology attributed to the disease.

4.
1st International Conference on Information and Communication Technology, ICICT 2021 ; 498:131-140, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2148686

ABSTRACT

Automated Patient monitoring is rising to importance in the mobile healthcare services as it makes day-to-day activities risk-free, by continuously monitoring their vital signs. Clinical solutions are being provided to patients in no time, which is made possible due to the latest improvements in the “Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, and fog computing”. “Machine learning and Deep learning” are now being extensively used for various applications in healthcare such as extracting relations from vast amounts of patient data, analyzing patterns to predict the propagation of diseases, classify reports and X-rays to detect diseases, to name a few. In this paper, a deep learning-based model is proposed to monitor Covid-affected patients within hospitals. Our model can provide an online link between a patient and medical facility while also collecting patient data. This will enhance the care taken for patients. At the hospital end, we present a deep learning model using ResNet-50 that could classify chest X-rays as Covid positive or No Covid. Through this model we expect to quicken the process of COVID-19 detection while lowering the healthcare expenses. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

5.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(1):4845-4882, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2124596

ABSTRACT

'Corona', this alarming word comes from the 'Latin' word 'Crown' that protects the virus. On Dec, 19, firstly, this virus was isolated from three patients having pneumonia connected to a cluster of acute illnesses. WHO declared it a 'pandemic' in Jan, 20 but later in Feb, WHO's general director Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus named the virus nCOVID-19. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, as a respiratory illness causing novel diseases (SARS and MERS). CDC informed corona primarily causes mild to moderate upper RTI and, in a few cases, lower RTI (pneumonia, bronchitis). Transmission occurs through direct contact or air droplets of sneezing, coughing, etc. The origin is not clear, but recent studies reported that ACE 2, a membrane exopeptidase receptor, was used to enter the human cell. The primary symptoms are fever above 104 degrees F, shortness of breath, pneumonia, throat soreness, diarrhea, etc. Available approved therapeutics include hydroxychloroquine. This current review updates about the viral transmission and main effect of this virus on children, pregnant women, diabetic, and cancer patients.

6.
2022 Applied Informatics International Conference, AiIC 2022 ; : 45-50, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136086

ABSTRACT

As a consequence of the Covid-19 outbreak, students are required to stay at home to prevent the virus from spreading. This has resulted in a quick acceptance of online learning, as students and faculty cannot participate in in-class activities. This study examines the determinants affecting E-Learning uptake in Oman during the Covid-19 outbreak, using 223 student responses and structural equation modeling (SEM). Four hypotheses were supported, while two were rejected. Specifically, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and institutional support affect behavioral intention to adopt E-Learning. However, infrastructure support and privacy risk, on the other hand, were not. Thus, this research serves as a springboard for higher education officials to increase the use of E-Learning and adjust to student hurdles for students to comprehend and effectively use the system. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics and Applications, ICNDA 2022 ; : 1377-1387, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2128337

ABSTRACT

Understanding first and second wave of covid19 Indian data along with its few selective states, we have realized a transition between two Sigmoid pattern with twice larger growth parameter and maximum values of cumulative data. As a result of those transition, time duration of second wave shrink to half of that first wave with four times larger peak values. Realizing first and second wave Sigmoid pattern due to covid19 virus and its mutated variant— δ virus respectively, third wave was mapped by another Sigmoid pattern with three times larger growth parameter than that of first wave. After understanding the crossing zone among first, second and third wave curves due to covid19, δ and omicron respectively, a hidden Sigmoid pattern due to mutated δ+ virus is identified in between δ and omicron. It is really interesting that entire covid19 data of India can be easily (offcourse grossly) understood by simple algebraic expressions of Sigmoid function and we can identify 4 Sigmoid patterns due to covid19 virus and its 3 dominant variants. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

8.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 13(10):4071-4086, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2100436

ABSTRACT

Introduction / Objective: In this study we aimed to elucidate the action of ultra-diluted (potency 6CH as per homeopathic pharmacopeia) ethanolic extract of Arsenicum album (Arsenic 6CH) on cytokine gene expression changes along with alteration of hepatic histology in Gallus gallus embryo (embryonated egg) challenged with the spike protein (S protein RBD of Delta SARS-CoV-2). Method(s): Allantoic fluid was collected during harvesting of the inoculated eggs after antigenic challenge. The gene expression analysis of interferons (IFN alpha, IFN beta, IFN gamma);transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta1);interleukins (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1beta) were studied in real-time PCR. Pre- and post-treatment sets were separately studied. Hepatic tissue of the embryos was collected for histological study. Result(s): The most prominent changes were found with IL-10 expression, which was significantly increased directly by Arsenic 6CH;in pre-and post-treatment experimental sets, its level was further increased, while in control sets, such changes were not delineated. Some changes were found in relation to INF beta, IL-8, IL-1beta, and TGF beta1 in alcohol 6CH (potentized vehicle alcohol as per homeopathic pharmacopoeia), and there was no significant change in other experimental sets. Histological studies of the liver indicated definite protective action of Arsenic 6CH from hepatic pathological changes in both pre and post-treatment experimental sets. Conclusion(s): Our study indicates enhancement of beneficial anti-inflammatory cytokines with hepato-protective action by Arsenic 6CH in Gallus gallus embryo challenged with Delta SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD antigen inducing pathological changes. Copyright © 2022 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research.

9.
International Conference on Innovative Computing and Communications, Icicc 2022, Vol 1 ; 473:377-384, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2094513

ABSTRACT

A convolutional neural network (CNN) has one or more layers and is mainly used for image processing, classification, segmentation. CNN is commonly used for satellite image capturing or classifying hand written letters and digits. In this particular project, a convolutional neural network is trained to predict whether a person is wearing a mask or not. The training is done by using a set of masked and unmasked images which constitutes the training data. The performance of the trained model is evaluated on the test dataset, and the accuracy of the prediction is observed.

10.
6th Asia Research Node Symposium on Humanosphere Science and INternational Conference on Radioscience, Equatorial Atmospheric Science and Environment, INCREASE 2021 ; 275:675-686, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2094475

ABSTRACT

Criteria pollutants such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 were monitored in the Kullu valley, a famous tourist destination in Himachal Pradesh, during the lockdown period of the 2nd wave of COVID-19 pandemic. The Pre-Lockdown Period (PLD) from 1 January to 6 May 2021 is taken here as a reference period, while the period from 7 May to 30 June 2021 is the Lockdown Period (LD). The present study was carried out to assess the anthropogenic impact on gaseous and particulate pollutants. Sulfur dioxide (1 h time average) and carbon monoxide (8 h average) were monitored using Thermo Fisher Scientific Gas Analyzers which uses pulse fluorescence technology and gas filter technology, respectively. While NO2 (24 h average) was analysed by Jacob and Hochessier method, and PM10 (24 h average) and PM2.5 (24 h average) were monitored using gravimetric method. The concentrations of pollutants were further analyzed incorporating mean ± standard error. HYSPLIT model was used to determine back trajectory of long-range transport of air pollutants. The results revealed average concentration of CO 0.59 ± 0.03 ppm in the PLD period, while it decreased to 0.35 ± 0.01 ppm in the LD period indicating how CO is largely influenced by vehicular emissions in the valley. Also, particulate matter such as PM10 and PM2.5 showed a decrease in lockdown period by 65.31% and 52.5%, respectively. The overall air quality was improved in the Kullu valley during lockdown period of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic as tourist-related activity and anthropogenic activities were restricted. The MERRA-2 data during the pre-lockdown and the lockdown period was analyzed in ArcGIS 10.8, which indicates almost similar result. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

11.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 13(9):642-650, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091797

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study analyzed the existing literature related to COVID 19 and Mental Health by using the technique of bibliometric analysis which may serve as guide-map for future researchers and policy makers. Method: Bibliometric analysis is conducted in the present study by using various techniques like citation analysis, co-citation analysis, co-occurrence of keywords, thematic mapping by using visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer open-source software and R-based bibliometrix. Results: The study highlighted the most significant journals, authors, co-cited authors, institutions, keywords co-occurrence, and most cited articles in the area of COVID-19 and Mental Health on the basis of bibliometric analysis of 149 studies taken from the database of Scopus for the past three years (2020– first quarter of 2022). Also, authors identified few relevant themes such as Economic Effects of COVID-19, COVID-19 and its Impact on Healthcare workers, COVID-19 and its Impact on Patients and General Population as important emerging key areas for further research. Conclusion: We have highlighted significant citations, co-citations and keywords co-occurrence to summarize the literature. The present bibliometric study convincingly confirms the effect of COVID 19 pandemic on mental health and provides enough evidence to advocate formulation of strategies to tackle mental health issues. © 2022, MedSci Publications. All rights reserved.

12.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 137:691-712, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075294

ABSTRACT

In this paper, symptoms, and medical treatment data of 130 COVID-19 patients have been collected from a leading Hospital in Kolkata. After necessary de-identification and data wrangling, a thorough exploratory data analysis has been performed. Further, it has been investigated if the drug Remdesivir affects early discharge. A decision tree-based model was subsequently built to predict the length of stay of a patient, based on demographics and health parameters. It is observed that Remdesivir cannot be concluded to be more effective than alternative treatments. It is observed that diabetes significantly increases the length of stay of a patient. It may be noted that such a study has not been conducted earlier for COVID-19 patients in India. This study will be beneficial for healthcare community and pharmaceutical companies as there is lot of conflicting views and acute dearth of information about the disease and its treatment. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

13.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(8):DC53-DC57, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067196

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the search of effective medicines against Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) besides the conventional mode of treatment many medicines belonging to alternative therapeutics claimed to be effective in this disease. In homeopathy-a branch of alternative medicine some medicines are claimed to be effective in COVID-19 after human trials. Aim: To study whether ultradiluted preparation of Phosphorus 6CH (centesimal (C) dilutions, using Hanhemann's (H) dilution method) can protect damaging action of Delta Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) in Gallus gallus embryo in relation to their gross appearances, histopathological changes and cytokine changes. Materials and Methods: An in-vivo fertilized chick embryo model experimental analysis was carried out at the Genetic Research Laboratory of Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The whole experimental study was done in a time period of November 2021 to January 2022 and the data collected were analysed using statistical software Minitab. About 14 days old Gallus gallus embryonated eggs were inoculated with the antigen along with the vehicle alcohol controls. The Phosphorus 6CH was used to see whether it can prevent or cure the damaging action of the spike protein in the embryo in different experimental sets. results: The notable finding in this experiment is the remarkable elevated expression of Interleukin (IL)-10 gene in the curative, preventive sets as well as in the medicine control sets in comparison to antigen and alcohol control sets. In case of Transforming Growth Factor, (TGF) β1 there was enhanced expression of TGF β1 gene in the alcohol 6C set and antigen set which gets ameliorated with Phosphorus 6CH. The morbid anatomy of the embryo and the histopathological picture of the liver of the embryo also reflected similar findings in these two experimental sets. After statistical analysis it was found that there was significant correlation in between Interferon (IF) γ and IL-10 in these experimental results which appears very important. conclusion: The homeopathic medicine phosphorus 6CH is capable of maintaining cytokine balance in Delta SARS-CoV-2 spike protein RBD induced pathogenecity in Gallus gallus embryo.

14.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):426-427, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063400

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Due to heterogeneity observed in the kidney transplant population, it has been extremely challenging for traditional methods such as histopathology to predict graft outcomes. In this real-world evidence(RWE) study, we applied machine learning (ML) models to a multi-analyte urinary biomarker assay to predict whether a kidney allograft would experience a rejection episode. Method(s): A cohort of 550 (37.5% biopsy matched) urine samples from patients across 3 renal transplant centers were used to develop a predictive ML model (scaled 0-100) to prognosticate allograft failure. Samples were collected between 1-1539 days post-transplant from allograft recipients with ages ranging from 7-77 years. Of the 206 biopsy matched samples, acute kidney allograft rejection (AR) and no-rejection (NR) phenotypes were confirmed in 136 and 70 respectively. We also evaluated the developed ML model on two additional cohorts of 15 COVID+ transplant recipients and 30 non-transplant healthy population. The ML model incorporates clinico-demographics with 6 urinary biomarkers: Clusterin, total protein, CXCL10, Creatinine, cfDNA and methylated cfDNA. Monte Carlo confidence intervals for the model incorporated biomarker assay and sample variances. Result(s): The novel rejection score was able to discriminate AR from NR efficiently. Score below 32 classified stable allograft, score range of 32 - 55 identified progression of AR, and Score > 55 identified AR with high sensitivity: 92%, and specificity: 89%;AUC: 96% and accuracy: 91%(figure). The associated NPV and PPV of 87% and 93% respectively. In the COVID cohort with 86% clinician assessed rejection, the median score was 51(IQR:30-87). In the non-transplants the median score was 19(IQR:13-26). It was established that presence of COVID was not a confounder in the model. Conclusion(s): The accuracy of the novel rejection score emphasizes the promise of applying ML algorithms as an aid to decision-making in evaluating graft outcomes with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, this RWE retrospective analysis demonstrates the efficacy of the urine multi-analyte approach to accurately predict acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. (Figure Presented).

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A2478, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060950

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pneumomediastinum is the presence of air or other gas in the mediastinum which can be due to trauma related to mechanical ventilation or spontaneous in preexisting lung diseases. Here, we present the case of Covid-19 pneumonia, who developed pneumomediastinum without any trauma or other risk factors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old male COVID unvaccinated with a history of essential hypertension presented to the ED with shortness of breath and worsening cough for one week. He was living with his father, who was admitted to the ICU and receiving treatment for COVID pneumonia. The patient appeared to be in respiratory distress. His initial vital signs were temperature of 99.6 F, respiratory rate of 26 breaths per minute, blood pressure 125/71 mm Hg, heart rate 109 beats per minute with a regular rhythm, and oxygen saturation of 50% while he was breathing ambient air. Pulmonary examination revealed use of respiratory accessory muscle and widespread bilateral coarse rhonchi on auscultation. The rest of the physical examination was within normal limits. RT- PCR COVID -19 test was positive. The blood gas analysis reported respiratory alkalosis. Inflammatory markers were elevated: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (35.2 mg/L), C-Reactive Protein (17.70 mg/dL), Ferritin (1108.1 ng/mL), Lactate Dehydrogenase (813 U/L), Lactate (2.4 mg/dL), D-Dimer (35.20 mg/L) and Troponin High Sensitivity-236.6 ng/L. His CBC, electrolytes, and kidney function were normal. Chest X-ray showed Pneumomediastinum with dense basilar predominant consolidation. CT Angio Chest with contrast reported Pneumomediastinum likely from the left central airway source and bilateral dense ground glass consolidation. An echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 60-65%, no valvular abnormalities. He was placed on vapotherm(Oxygen 40L/min) with 100% FiO2. He was given Dexamethasone 6mg for ten days, Remdesivir, Barcitinib, and a 7-day course of Azithromycin and Ceftriaxone for community-acquired pneumonia. He was advised to practice prone positioning for 12 hours or more per day. Pulmonology, Infectious Disease, and Cardiology were consulted. Gradually, his oxygen requirement was weaned down and Pneumomediastinum resolved on serial chest x rays. He was discharged on home oxygen in a clinically stable condition. DISCUSSION: Pneumomediastinum in viral pneumonia is rare. The exact mechanism is unknown. Covid-19 pneumonia causes diffuse alveolar wall damage, which might cause air leakage into the mediastinum. The development of pneumomediastinum is an ominous sign in these patients. Fortunately, our patient did not worsen and was weaned off high flow oxygenation requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Few isolated reported cases of pneumomediastinum in a COVID-19 patient have been associated with life-threatening complications. It should be used as a prognostic marker, and close monitoring of these patients is advisable. Reference #1: Damous, S.H.B., dos Santos Junior, J.P., Pezzano, Á.V.A. et al. Pneumomediastinum complicating COVID-19: a case series. Eur J Med Res 26, 114 (2021) DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Saad Ansari No relevant relationships by Akshit Chitkara No relevant relationships by Sudeshna Ghosh No relevant relationships by Femina Patel

16.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 15(8):339-340, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055677
17.
COVID-19: Tackling Global Pandemics through Scientific and Social Tools ; : 97-107, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048799

ABSTRACT

Transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is attributed to direct or indirect unguarded contact with infected subjects or inanimate objects. Currently only supportive treatment is available and disease-specific medication or vaccines are yet to be implemented. In such a critical situation, the only choice left is to control the rapid dissemination of the disease through government-enforced strategies and self-imposed precautionary measures across all the afflicted countries around the world. In this chapter, we have appraised in detail the different nonpharmaceutical interventions adapted by government, common people, and health workers to prevent disease spread from one person to another and from one place to another. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

18.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 57(35):18-21, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2045561

ABSTRACT

The article analyses the impact of the pandemic on the banking sector in India. Utilising data on Indian banks, it addresses two questions: fi rst, what was the magnitude of the impact on bank lending across ownership? Second, what was the impact on their costs and returns? This article is one of the early exercises to examine the impact on banks’ balance sheets in the Indian context. © 2022 Economic and Political Weekly. All rights reserved.

20.
Pandemic Risk, Response, and Resilience: COVID-19 Responses in Cities around the World ; : 335-349, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035598

ABSTRACT

The Kolkata Megacity is vulnerable to several hazards ranging from weather related to biological: tidal upsurge, earthquake, cyclone, urban storm/heavy rain-induced flooding and waterlogging, and others. The Kolkata Metropolitan Area is a continuous stretch of the urban and peri-urban area along with the east and west coast of the Hooghly River, which is surrounded by some rural regions acting as a green belt as protecting cover of the city. Cyclone Amphan on May 2020 made landfall and wreaked havoc when the world was already reeling under the COVID-19 pandemic. The twin disasters—hydrometeorological and biological hazard compounded—and the cascading impacts have affected a significant population on West Bengal. Present study explores the risk governance perspectives in the context of dual disasters. The study also reflects the need of risk informed community preparedness for immediate response and early recovery as the key element for the resilience building. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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