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1.
Indian Journal of Community Medicine ; 47(2):202-206, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964243

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the low level of clinical evidence in hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) favor, it was prescribed for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis in India and worldwide. In absence of a large randomized control trial, the evidence needs to be generated through observation study, hence the study was conducted to find the evidence for prophylaxis of HCQ. Materials and Methods: A multi-centric cross-sectional study involving government hospitals was chosen for serosurvey conducted from August 21, 2020, to November 20, 2020. Questionnaire was adopted from WHO. Data about chloroquine (CQ) use among health-care workers (HCWs) were added and the duration of CQ intake was also noted. Results: A total of 2,224 HCWs were recruited. The mean duration of time of taking HCQ was 7.1 weeks (standard deviation ± 6.1 weeks, median = 4 weeks with IQR, 3-10 weeks). Training on personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge of handwashing, direct care to the patient, availability of alcohol hand rub, close contact with the patient, duration of contact, and usage of PPE were associated with HCQ intake. The antibody formation in group taking HCQ was 16.9% compared to 19.8% not taking it (P = 0.08). The Chi-square for linear trend for weeks of HCQ intake and antibody formation. However, the same was not statistically significant (Chi-square = 3.61, P = 0.06). Conclusion: Our study did not find a statistically significant association in the large multicentric study. The absolute difference of 2.9% in the two groups may not be sufficient to warrant its widespread use for prophylaxis. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

2.
Working Notes of FIRE - 13th Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation, FIRE-WN 2021 ; 3159:1221-1226, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1957980

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus has resulted in unprecedented action, which has led authorities to decide to begin the blockade of the areas most hit by the infectious disease. Social media has been an important support for people during this difficult time. On November 9, 2020, when the first vaccine with an infection rate of 90% or higher was announced, social media responded with, and people around the world began to express the feelings of vaccination. It was no longer a hypothesis, but closer to,every day to become a reality Therefore, it becomes imperative to verify some of the information posted on social media during the pandemic situation, specially related to Covid vaccines. To this end, it is necessary to correctly identify fact-checkable posts, so that their information content can be verified.In this work, we have addressed the problem to identify 3 types of classification on the Twitter microblogging site. We organized a shared task in the FIRE 2021 conference to study the problem of identifyefficient classifier for prediction tweets posted during a particular pandemic scenario (the Covid 19). This paper describes the dataset used in the shared task, and compares the performance of different classification that are provax, antivax and last neutraal for identifying effective tweets related to Covid vaccines.We experimented with a classification-based approach. Our experiment shows that SVM classification performs well in order to effiective posts.Using this support vector machine in order to solve the antivax, provax,neutral classification of twets .We’re going to do this because vaccination is an important step for Covid19 so people can easily fix the news about the vaccine and grab their own slot. © 2021 Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation, December 13-17, 2021, India.

3.
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948667

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of promoting peer support to reduce depression, anxiety and stress among migrant construction workers in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: This longitudinal study drew participants from migrant workers of various nationalities in the construction sector in Singapore. Baseline data pertaining to depression, anxiety and stress was established using the DASS-21 questionnaire, and salient covariates such as demographic factors and work environment factors recorded using suitable questionnaires. Intervention was training of participants on peer support techniques, supplemented by episodic support by trained counsellors. At the end of 6 months, DASS-21 was again deployed to obtain the post-results. Comparison of baseline with post-results data was performed to evaluate effectiveness of the peer support intervention. Findings: Statistically significant reduction was observed in measures of all the three parameters studied, namely, depression, anxiety and stress. A decrease of 3.3 (95% CI:2.3 to 4.3) points in mean depression score, a decrease of 2.6 (95% CI: 1.6 to 3.7) points in mean anxiety score and a decrease of 2.7 (with 95% CI: 1.6 to 4.0) points in mean stress scores on the DASS-21 scale were recorded. Conclusions: Peer support is effective in improving mental health of migrant workers in the construction sector in Singapore. This intervention should be considered among other measures to improve their welfare. Originality/value: This is the first paper that talks about the mental health of migrant workers pre-COVID and hence would be a strong paper for the future comparative studies for pre-and post-COVID periods. This is the first paper that addresses the benefits of peer-support among migrant workers to improve their mental wellbeing. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

4.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(3):123-126, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939145

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The mechanism of sudden cardiac death in COVID-19 can be multifactorial. Cardiac hypersensitivity to 5-ASA therapy leading to myocarditis has been reported in some cases. Cytokine storm syndrome and idiosyncratic reaction with mesalazine use may lead to sudden cardiac death in COVID-19. Use of immunosuppressants in hospitalized COVID-19 patients should be continued with caution, especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Patient's concern: A 75-year-old man who was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 was admitted with a history of shortness of breath for the last two days. He was a known case of Crohn's disease treated with mesalazine. Diagnosis: COVID-19 pneumonia with underlying Crohn's disease leading to sudden cardiac death. Intervention: Remdesivir, antibiotics, steroids, low molecular weight heparin, tablet zinc, tab vitamin C, and other supportive treatment were started. Because of increased inflammatory markers, itolizumab was given to the patient on the 2nd day. Outcome: On the 5th day of the intensive care unit, the patient complained of sudden chest pain with respiratory distress leading to bradycardia and asystole and could not be resuscitated. Lessons: Causes for sudden cardiac death in COVID-19 pneumonia patients with Crohn's disease is multifactorial. Although mesalazine may be a safe and effective drug in the management of inflammatory bowel disease, it can induce sytokine strom syndrome and idiosyncratic reactions that could be one of the reasons of sudden cardic death. Therefore, we should be aware of its serious and potentially life-threatening complications, especially in COVID-19 infected patients.

5.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936999

ABSTRACT

Background: The change in serological status of community may be used as input for guiding the public health policy. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine change in seroprevalence of COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: From the baseline multicentric study sample, a subsample was followed up, and a seroepidemiological study was conducted among them between 6 and 22 weeks after the second dose of the vaccination. Multistage population proportion to size sampling was performed for the selection of subsample of HCWs. The serosurvey was conducted using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based IgG antibody test (COVID KAVACH). Results: Follow-up serological testing was done in subsample of 1122 participants of original 3253 participants. The mean age of the participants was 34.6 (8.13) years. A total of 300 (26.7%) participants were females. The seroprevalence was 78.52, (95%CI:76-80.1). Among those who were seronegative at initial test, 708 (77.04%) were seroconverted. Those who were not seroconverted (241 (21.5%)) have longer duration from the second dose of the vaccination (93 (31.4) vs. 56 (38.4); p value < 0.001). The COVID-19 infection was significantly associated with seropositive status and being a medical staff was associated with remaining seronegative on follow-up. The higher age (≥50 years) was found to be significantly associated with seroreversion. Conclusion: Four in five HCWs had detectable antibodies. Seroepidemiological studies carry vital information to control the public health response in the course of the pandemic. The study can also further help as a platform to study the seroconversion and effect of vaccination among HCWs for newer variants of SARS-CoV-2.

6.
AIMS Environmental Science ; 9(3):325-353, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934308

ABSTRACT

Social activities, economic benefits, and environmental friendly approach are very much essential for a sustainable production system. This is widely observed during the Covid-19 pandemic situation. The demand for essential goods in the business sector is always changing due to different unavoidable situations. The proposed study introduces a variable demand for controlling the fluctuating demand. However, a reworking of produced imperfect products makes the production model more profitable. Partial outsourcing of the good quality products has made the production system more popular and profitable. Separate holding cost for the reworked and produced products are very helpful idea for the proposed model. Moreover, consumption of energy during various purpose are considered. Separate green investment make the model more sustainable and eco-friendly. The main focus of the model is to find the maximum profit through considering optimum value of lot size quantity, average selling price, and green investment. The classical optimization technique is utilized here for optimizing the solution theoretically. The use of concave 3D graphs, different examples, and sensitivity analyses are considered here. Furthermore, managerial insights from this study can be used for industry improvement. © 2022 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press.

7.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; : 30, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1915901

ABSTRACT

Purpose The Indian hospitality and tourism industries, major economic growth drivers and employment generators, have been greatly affected by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. In FY 2020, the Indian tourism sector created 39 million jobs and contributed nearly US$194.3bn, or 6.8%, to India's gross domestic product. The purpose of this study is to focus on ranking 22 listed hotels and 9 listed travel agencies in India based on their performance across 14 selected financial parameters in both the pre-COVID-19 year ending in March 2019 and the post-COVID-19 year ending in March 2021 to understand how the pandemic affected their businesses. Design/methodology/approach This research proposes to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the financial performance of 22 listed Indian hotels and 9 listed travel agencies evaluated over 14 financial parameters using a pipeline of two recently developed multicriteria decision-making techniques, method based on the removal effects of criteria (MEREC) and grey-based combined compromised solution (CoCoSo). First, the criteria weights are objectively determined using MEREC, and then the financial performances of the selected companies in both the hospitality and tourism industries are separately assessed using CoCoSo to get their overall performance score, based on which the companies are ranked in order of preference. Findings It was observed that Westlife Development, Lemon Tree Hotels, Indian Tourism Development Corporation, Royal Orchid and Country Club performed significantly poorer than their peers in the aftermath of the pandemic, whereas EIH, Advani Hotels and Resorts and TGB Banquets performed relatively better. Travel agencies Easy Trip and International Travel House performed particularly poorly because of the pandemic, but VMV Holidays performed relatively better in FY 2021. Practical implications The findings of the analysis will aid portfolio construction, corporate investment decisions, competition research, government policymaking and industrial analysis. Originality/value The proposed model is novel because it fills the research gap in the application of the integrated MEREC-CoCoSo method to study the impact of COVID-19 on the hospitality and tourism sectors in India.

8.
4th International Conference on Recent Trends in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, RTIP2R 2021 ; 1576 CCIS:33-41, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899021

ABSTRACT

CheXNet is not a surprise for Deep Learning (DL) community as it was primarily designed for radiologist-level pneumonia detection in Chest X-rays (CXRs). In this paper, we study CheXNet to analyze CXRs to detect the evidence of Covid-19. On a dataset of size 4, 600 CXRs (2, 300 Covid-19 positive cases and 2, 300 non-Covid cases (Healthy and Pneumonia cases)) and with k(=5) fold cross-validation technique, we achieve the following performance scores: accuracy of 0.98, AUC of 0.99, specificity of 0.98 and sensitivity of 0.99. On such a large dataset, our results can be compared with state-of-the-art results. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

9.
Journal of Scientometric Research ; 11(1):47-54, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897066

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the dynamics of the published articles and preprints of Covid-19 related literature from different scientific databases and sharing platforms. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ResearchGate (RG) databases were under consideration in this study over a specific time. Analyses were carried out on the number of publications as (a) function of time (day), (b) journals and (c) authors. Doubling time of the number of publications was analyzed for PubMed "all articles" and ScienceDirect published articles. Analyzed databases were (1A) PubMed (01/12/2019-12/06/2020) "all_articles" (16) PubMed Review articles) and (1C) PubMed Clinical Trials (2) ScienceDirect all publications (01/12/2019- 25/05/2020) (3) RG (Article, Pre Print, Technical Report) (15/04/2020 - 30/4/2020). Total publications in the observation period for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG were 23000, 5898 and 5393 respectively. The average number of publications/day for PubMed, ScienceDirect and RG were 70.0 +/- 128.6, 77.6 +/- 125.3 and 255.6 +/- 205.8 respectively. PubMed shows an avalanche in the number of publications around May 10, the number of publications jumped from 6.0 +/- 8.4/day to 282.5 +/- 110.3/ day. The average doubling time for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 10.3 +/- 4 days, 20.6 days, and 2.3 +/- 2.0 days respectively. The average number of publications per author for PubMed, ScienceDirect, and RG was 1.2 +/- 1.4, 1.3 +/- 0.9, and 1.1 +/- 0.4 respectively. Subgroup analysis, PubMed review articles mean review <0 vertical bar 17 +/- 17 vertical bar 77> days: and reducing at a rate of -0.21 days (count)/day. The number of publications related to the COVID-19 until now is huge and growing very fast with time. It is essential to rationalize and limit the publications.

10.
High Contrast Metastructures XI 2022 ; 12011, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891710

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic attributed to the SARs-Cov-2 virus has disrupted the lives of individuals in every corner of the world, causing millions of infections and numerous deaths worldwide. Identifying and isolating infected people is very crucial to slow down the spread of the disease. In this paper, we report a design of highly sensitive, graphene-metasurface based biosensor for detecting the S1 spike protein expressed on the surface of the SARSCoV-2 virus in the terahertz band. Our structure consists of a silicon dioxide substrate sandwiched between a complete gold layer at the bottom, and a graphene monolayer on top etched with a phi-shaped slot tilted at 45 degree, which performs a wideband reflective-type cross-polarization conversion of the incident electromagnetic (EM) wave. The optimized polarization conversion ratio (PCR) has been achieved at 0.75eV chemical potential value of the graphene layer. When samples of Sars-CoV-2 virus contained in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solvent is put on top of proposed design of the sensing surface, the spike proteins of the virus interact with the spike antibody grown on the sensing surface;and it changes the refractive index of the overall system (Biosensor + Analyte), which in turn changes the PCR and the corresponding frequency of the reflected wave. The biosensor response has been computed using the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) in the terahertz region. The sensitivity of the biosensor is found to be 354 GHz/RIU at the PCR of 0.9. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the is permitted for personal use only.

11.
Journal of Labor Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1889052

ABSTRACT

We examine to what extent relaxing occupational licensing results in labor mobility. For this, we consider the case of the Nurse Licensure Compact (NLC). NLC permits registered nurses and licensed practical/vocational nurses to have one multistate license enabling them to practice in their state of residency and other NLC states (compact states) without obtaining additional licenses. The nursing profession has led the way among the healthcare professions in establishing and implementing an interstate practice model, yet how it affects the mobility of practitioners remains unanswered. As of March 2021, 34 states are within the compact. We exploit the state-level staggered adoptions of compact and use the regression method to estimate the compacts’ impact on the mobility of registered nurses and licensed practical/vocational nurses. We find an 11% increment in the mobility of registered nurses and licensed practical/vocational nurses within the compact states. During the COVID-19 pandemic, among other policies, joining to compact may help relax the urgent needs of health care professionals. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

12.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):55, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880940

ABSTRACT

Background: The number of undiagnosed persons globally remains a barrier to achieving UNAIDS 95-95-95 goals. While nearly 80% are aware of their status, there is much variability by age and geography. Many of those undiagnosed are not engaging in traditional HIV services and do not visit physical locations;novel strategies are needed to overcome structural barriers. We implemented an online, HIV self-testing (HIVST) service for vulnerable populations in India. Methods: An integrated web-based platform for HIVST www.safezindagi. net/selftesting was implemented across 24 Indian states in July 2021. Virtual outreach workers (vORWs) contacted clients on dating apps and social media platforms, provided counseling, and directed interested clients to HIVST via a platform that allowed for home delivery or pick up at a community site. HIVST could be assisted or unassisted with pre/post-test counseling from vORWS. Linkage to confirmatory testing/ART and PrEP was provided as needed. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize outcomes. Results: Between June 30-October 21, 2021, 2,234 clients registered and 1,356 (61%) clients ordered an HIVST kit. Median age of the 1,356 clients was 27 years;74% were male and 66% self-identified as MSM. Ten percent self-identified as transgender. In the prior 6 months, 67% reported condomless sex, 51% multiple partners, 13% transactional sex, 7% STIs, and 4% injection drug use. 1,190 clients (88%) received their kits within 3 days;44% used a courier service and 56% picked up from a community site. Of 1,070 (90%) results uploaded, 43 (4%) were positive with geographical variability (5 states had >4% positivity). The median age of the positive clients was 30 years and 74% were male. Of importance, 65% reported condomless sex with multiple partners in prior 6 months and none were previously tested for HIV. 19 (44%) were linked to confirmatory testing of whom 16 (84%) were confirmed positive and 14 (88%) initiated ART at public centers (see Figure). Conclusion: These data highlight the role of an HIVST platform to reach first time test-takers in a population with high risk behaviors and identified HIV burden >16 times the general population. With increasing online engagement and uptake of telemedicine globally, as well as continuing disruptions due to COVID-19, HIVST offers a critical approach to reach high-risk individuals, identify PLHIV, and link them to care and treatment.

13.
Fertility and Sterility ; 116(3 SUPPL):e296-e297, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses several catastrophic threat s globally including those on economy, lifestyle and health. Although the respiratory tract is the primary proliferation site of the virus, its effects on other organs and organ systems is devastating. One of the potential tar-gets for SARS-CoV-2 invasion is the male reproductive system owing to the presence of viral receptors i.e., ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the testis. Currently there are differing views in literature on whether SARS-CoV-2 infection has any short term and long term effects on male fertility. This pilot study was aimed to assess the impact of viral infection on crucial reproductive processes at the molecular level even after recovery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of semen procured from 17 COVID-19 recovered and 10 healthy fertile individuals using high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Our proteomic analysis resulted in the identification of 48 differentially expressed proteins of which 27 were upregulated and 21 were downregulated in recovered individuals. Further bio-informatic analysis revealed the dysregulation of several biological processes linked to male reproductive functions. Pathways like regulation of cell motility, regulation of adhesion, sperm-egg recognition, response to testosterone, extracellular matrix adhesion and endopeptidase activity were found to be downregulated in the recovered group. Moreover, the down regulation of two candidate proteins;Semenogelin 1 and Prosaposin which are related to male fertility were also validated using targeted proteomic approach CONCLUSIONS: This extensive proteomic study sheds light on the possible effects of SARS-CoV2 infection on reproductive functions and subsequently on male fertility even after apparent recovery from viral infection. IMPACT STATEMENT: The semen proteomic analysis of the COVID-19 recovered patients portrays a clear scenario of alteration of reproductive function in response to viral infection after clinical recovery, thus corroborating a possibility of virus-mediated impact on male infertility. A similar kind of study on large cohort will also direct the way to combat the viral effect on male reproductive function. This study would guide clinicians in counselling couples affected by COVID-19 as to the possible short term and long term effects on male reproductive potential.

14.
International Journal of Procurement Management ; 15(3):424-446, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875144

ABSTRACT

This model investigates the optimal time at which a production cycle should be stopped and then resumed in a production-inventory system, in order to keep shortages under control. This study considers a perishable item that decays at a constant rate. Year 2020 has seen a sudden surge in the demand of masks, PPEs, etc. to combat COVID-19. Such demand, which follows an exponential distribution, has been considered. The production rate is taken to be a linear function of demand, so as to cope up with an exponential market demand. The holding cost is taken to be a linear function of time. Shortages are allowed to occur and are completely backlogged. This model handles variable production, variable demand and variable holding cost simultaneously. The model is illustrated by a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is carried out and has been detailed with the help of graphs. A case study has also been done. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

15.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874326

ABSTRACT

We present the design and analysis of a graphene metasurface-based cross polarization converter operating within the terahertz gap for detecting biomolecules over a broad spectral range, taking the SARS-CoV-2 virus as a specific example. To the best of our knowledge, our design reports the widest band of operation in the THz region of a graphene-based metasensor. Each meta-atom comprises a graphene pattern on silicon dioxide atop a continuous gold layer and exhibits near-unity cross polarization conversion ratio (PCR) and a 90% PCR bandwidth of 0.926 THz within the desired band (1.88 THz-2.81 THz). The proposed device demonstrates additional benefits which include a thin configuration (λ/7.84) and compact lattice size (λ/10.66), which are significantly better than other recently reported graphene metasurface biosensors. The device provides a sensitivity up to 490 GHz/RIU and a figure of merit (FoM) of 0.377 over a wide span of 0.926 THz within the terahertz gap. The electromagnetic response of this device has been validated via rigorous numerical analyses of simulated outputs as well as by developing a detailed circuit model representation of the same. The device demonstrates angular stability of nearly 40°under oblique incidence of the incident wave. IEEE

16.
Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena ; 17:20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868030

ABSTRACT

We develop a new data-driven immuno-epidemiological model with distributed infectivity, recovery and death rates determined from the epidemiological, clinical and experimental data. Immunity in the population is taken into account through the time-dependent number of vaccinated people with different numbers of doses and through the acquired immunity for recovered individuals. The model is validated with the available data. We show that for the first time from the beginning of pandemic COVID-19 some countries reached collective immunity. However, the epidemic continues because of the emergence of new variant BA.2 with a larger immunity escape or disease transmission rate than the previous BA.l variant. Large epidemic outbreaks can be expected several months later due to immunity waning. These outbreaks can be restrained by an intensive booster vaccination.

17.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S158-S159, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857718

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid-19 affected our population in multiple waves. We have looked for the differences in frequency and the weight/impact of symptoms between the first and the second waves. Method: The post-covid-19 subjects attending our out-patient department for post-covid-19 problems after the 1st and he 2nd waves were enquired retrospectively about the demography with the frequency and severity of different symptoms cough, breathlessness, throat pain, nasal discharge, fever, body-ache, weakness, diarrhoea, constipation, pedal/finger swelling, headache, expectoration. anosmia, and loss of taste) that they suffered from. The weight/impact of a symptom was derived by multiplying the duration of symptoms (in days) with the severity (in Likert scale;0 to 5;0=none and 5=maximum possible symptoms). The data was analysed statistically using unpaired 't-test' and 'chi-square test' to compare between the two covid-19 waves. Result: 185 and 222 subjects' data were included for the 1st and the 2nd waves of covid-19 respectively. The gender ratio was similar but the mean age was significantly lower in the victims of the second wave (56.17±13.64, 51.32±15.59;p=0.0017). As regards the symptom-frequency, fever (p=0.0154), constipation (p=0.0243), headache (p=0.0014), anosmia (p=<0.0001) and loss of taste (p=0.0009) were significantly worse in the 2nd wave. The symptom severity of cough (p=0.0184), throat pain (p=0.039), mild weakness (p=0.0063), anosmia (p=0.0004) and loss of taste (p=0.0026) were also higher in the 2nd wave of Covid-19. Conclusion: It appears that each wave of the pandemic was distinct as regards the symptomatology. Such peculiarity in the clinical dynamics of Covid-19 needs to be noticed and followed in future.

18.
Tissue Engineering - Part A ; 28(SUPPL 1):S390-S391, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1852882

ABSTRACT

During the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, collection and donation of human cadaveric corneas are cumbersome. Decellularized corneas (DC) have gained intense popularity as a possible scaffold for corneal remodeling and as an alternative tissue source for corneal replacement. However, DC elicits immune response inspite of elimination of the cellular contents/antigens due to distortion of the collagen fibrils that exposes certain antigenic sites, which often lead to graft rejection. Therefore, here, we tested the hypothesis that cross-linking DC with chondroitin sulfate (CS) may help in restoring distorted conformational changes of the fibrous matrix and would reduce graft rejection. An in vitro immune response study confirmed that the cross-linked DC elicited the least immune response than DC. We implanted three sets of corneal scaffolds obtained from goat, i.e., native, decellularized, and DC conjugated with CS into rabbit stroma. Histology analysis, three months post-implantation confirmed seamless graft integration, cell migration, and no sign of inflammation in the crosslinked cornea. However, so far we have checked the immunogenic potential of decellularized and crosslinked cornea among cross-species(goat to rabbit). Now, before moving to a human clinical trial (patients with infectious keratitis), we are validating the decellularization of the human stromal layer using discarded human corneas not suitable for implantation, for the regeneration of the corneal endothelial layer. The decellularized, chemically decorated cornea will be tectonically strong, offer less immunogenicity, can be sterilized, and will have a longer shelf life. Through this novel study, we can meet the demand for alternative bioengineered human cornea for keratitis patients.

19.
Msystems ; 6(6):52, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849163

ABSTRACT

After emerging in China in late 2019, the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread worldwide, and as of mid-2021, it remains a significant threat globally. Only a few coronaviruses are known to infect humans, and only two cause infections similar in severity to SARS-CoV-2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, a species closely related to SARS-CoV-2 that emerged in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, which emerged in 2012. Unlike the current pandemic, previous epidemics were controlled rapidly through public health measures, but the body of research investigating severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome has proven valuable for identifying approaches to treating and preventing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Building on this research, the medical and scientific communities have responded rapidly to the COVID-19 crisis and identified many candidate therapeutics. The approaches used to identify candidates fall into four main categories: adaptation of clinical approaches to diseases with related pathologies, adaptation based on virological properties, adaptation based on host response, and data-driven identification (ID) of candidates based on physical properties or on pharmacological compendia. To date, a small number of therapeutics have already been authorized by regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while most remain under investigation. The scale of the COVID-19 crisis offers a rare opportunity to collect data on the effects of candidate therapeutics. This information provides insight not only into the management of coronavirus diseases but also into the relative success of different approaches to identifying candidate therapeutics against an emerging disease. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic is a rapidly evolving crisis. With the worldwide scientific community shifting focus onto the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19, a large number of possible pharmaceutical approaches for treatment and prevention have been proposed. What was known about each of these potential interventions evolved rapidly throughout 2020 and 2021. This fast-paced area of research provides important insight into how the ongoing pandemic can be managed and also demonstrates the power of interdisciplinary collaboration to rapidly understand a virus and match its characteristics with existing or novel pharmaceuticals. As illustrated by the continued threat of viral epidemics during the current millennium, a rapid and strategic response to emerging viral threats can save lives. In this review, we explore how different modes of identifying candidate therapeutics have borne out during COVID-19.

20.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816938

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cancer patients have been considered a high-risk population in the COVID-19 pandemic. We previously investigated risk of COVID-19 death in COVID-19 positive cancer patients during a median follow-up of 134 days, and identified the following risk factors: male sex, age >60 years, Asian ethnicity, hematological cancer type, cancer diagnosis for >2.5 years, patients presenting with fever or dyspnea, and high levels of ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Here, we further investigate which factors are associated with a COVID-19 related death within 7 days of diagnosis. Methods: Using data from Guy's Cancer Centre and one of its partner trusts (King's College Hospital), we included 306 cancer patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis (February 29th-July 31st 2020). 72 patients had a COVID-19 related death (24%) of whom 35 died within 7 days (50%). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify which factors were associated with a COVID-19 related death <7 days of diagnosis. Results: Of the 72 cancer patients who had a COVID-19 related death, the mean age was 72 years (Standard Deviation (SD) 14). A total of 53 (74%) patients were men. 37 (52%) had a hematological cancer type, 47 (65%) had stage IV cancer, and 42 (58%) had been diagnosed with cancer more than 24 months before COVID-19 related death. In the group of patients who died within 7 days of diagnosis (n= 35), mean age was 73 years (SD 13.96), 24 (68%) were men, 20 (57%) had a hematological cancer type, 26 (74%) had stage IV cancer, and 24 (68%) had been diagnosed with cancer >24 months before COVID-19 diagnosis. Factors associated with COVID-19 related death <7 days of diagnosis were: hematological cancer (Hazard Ratio (HR): 2.74 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.21-6.22)), 2-5 yrs since cancer diagnosis (HR: 4.81 (95%CI: 1.47-15.69)), and >5 yrs since cancer diagnosis (HR: 4.41 (95%CI: 1.38-14.06)). Additionally, patients who presented with dyspnea had increased risk of COVID-19 related death <7 days compared to asymptomatic patients (HR: 5.25 (95%CI 2.14-12.89)). CRP levels in the third tercile (146-528 mg/L) as compared to the first were also associated with increased risk of an early death due to COVID-19. Conclusion: From all the factors identified in our previous COVID-19 related death analysis, only hematological cancer type, a longer-established cancer diagnosis (2-5 years and more than 5 years), dyspnea at time of diagnosis and high levels of CRP were indicative of an early COVID-19 related death (within 7 days of diagnosis) in cancer patients.

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