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1.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823878

ABSTRACT

The potential preventive efficacy of tenofovir/emtricitabine on SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed in HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis (PrEP) users. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG between May and October 2020 was similar in PrEP users and in a matched population-based cohort suggesting that tenofovir/emtricitabine has no role in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition.

2.
Scientific Reports ; 12(1):7211-7211, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1821603

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic, documenting whether health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 contamination and identifying risk factors is of major concern. In this multicenter prospective cohort study, HCWs from frontline departments were included in March and April 2020 and followed for 3 months. SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed at month 0 (M0), M1, and M3 and RT-PCR in case of symptoms. The primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3. Risk factors of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3 were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Among 1062 HCWs (median [interquartile range] age, 33 [28–42] years;758 [71.4%] women;321 [30.2%] physicians), the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3 was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] [12.5;16.9]). Risk factors were the working department specialty, with increased risk for intensive care units (odds ratio 1.80, 95% CI [0.38;8.58]), emergency departments (3.91 [0.83;18.43]) and infectious diseases departments (4.22 [0.92;18.28]);current smoking was associated with reduced risk (0.36 [0.21;0.63]). Age, sex, professional category, number of years of experience in the job or department, and public transportation use were not significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3. The rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in frontline HCWs was 14.6% at the end of the first COVID-19 wave in Paris and occurred mainly early. The study argues for an origin of professional in addition to private life contamination and therefore including HCWs in the first-line vaccination target population. It also highlights that smokers were at lower risk.

3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 46: 101362, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757291

ABSTRACT

Background: In moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia, dexamethasone (DEX) and tocilizumab (TCZ) reduce the occurrence of death and ventilatory support. We investigated the efficacy and safety of DEX+TCZ in an open randomized clinical trial. Methods: From July 24, 2020, through May 18, 2021, patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen (>3 L/min) were randomly assigned to receive DEX (10 mg/d 5 days tapering up to 10 days) alone or combined with TCZ (8 mg/kg IV) at day 1, possibly repeated with a fixed dose of 400 mg i.v. at day 3. The primary outcome was time from randomization to mechanical ventilation support or death up to day 14, analysed on an intent-to-treat basis using a Bayesian approach. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04476979. Findings: A total of 453 patients were randomized, 3 withdrew consent, 450 were analysed, of whom 226 and 224 patients were assigned to receive DEX or TCZ+DEX, respectively. At day 14, mechanical ventilation or death occurred in 32/226 (14%) and 27/224 (12%) in the DEX and TCZ+DEX arms, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 0·85, 90% credible interval [CrI] 0·55 to 1·31). At day 14, the World health Organization (WHO) clinical progression scale (CPS) was significantly improved in the TCZ+DEX arm (OR 0·69, 95% CrI, 0·49 to 0.97). At day 28, the cumulative incidence of oxygen supply independency was 82% in the TCZ+DEX arms and 72% in the DEX arm (HR 1·36, 95% CI 1·11 to 1·67). On day 90, 24 deaths (11%) were observed in the DEX arm and 18 (8%) in the TCZ+DEX arm (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·42-1·41). Serious adverse events were observed in 25% and 21% in DEX and TCZ+DEX arms, respectively. Interpretation: Mechanical ventilation need and mortality were not improved with TCZ+DEX compared with DEX alone. The safety of both treatments was similar. However, given the wide confidence intervals for the estimate of effect, definitive interpretation cannot be drawn. Funding: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique [PHRC COVID-19-20-0151, PHRC COVID-19-20-0029], Fondation de l'Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (Alliance Tous Unis Contre le Virus) and from Fédération pour la Recherche Médicale" (FRM). Tocilizumab was provided by Roche.

4.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 1(4): 100041, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734699

ABSTRACT

Background: The systemic antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mucosal responses in the upper airways, the site of initial SARS-CoV-2 replication. Methods: The IgG and IgA antibody responses were analysed in plasma and nasopharyngeal swabs from the first four confirmed COVID-19 patients in France. Two were pauci-symptomatic while two developed severe disease. We characterized their antibody profiles by using an in-house ELISA to detect antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein and Spike. Results: Anti-N IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in the NPS of severe patients only. The levels of antibodies in the plasma markedly differed amongst the patients. The most distinctive features are a strong anti-N IgG response in the severe patient who recovered, and a high anti-N IgA response specifically detected in the fatal case of COVID-19. Conclusions: Anti-N IgG and IgA antibodies are detected in NPS only for severe patients, with levels related to serological antibodies. The severe patients showed different antibody profiles in the plasma, notably regarding the IgA and IgG response to the N antigen, that may reflect different disease outcome. By contrast, pauci-symptomatic patients did not exhibit any mucosal antibodies in NSP, which is associated with a low or absent serological response against both N and S.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318996

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to identify biological signatures of severe COVID-19 predictive of admission in the intensive care unit (ICU). Over 170 immunological markers were investigated in a ‘discovery’ cohort (n=98 patients) of the Lausanne University Hospital (LUH-1). While cellular immunological markers lacked power in discriminating between ICU and non-ICU patients, 13 out of 49 cytokines were significantly associated with ICU admission in the three cohorts (P<0.05 to P<0.001). The cytokine results were confirmed in two ‘validation’ cohorts, i.e. the French COVID-19 Study (FCS;n=62) and a second LUH-2 cohort (n=47). Of note, HGF is a pleiotropic cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties playing a fundamental role in lung tissue repair, and CXCL13, a pro-inflammatory chemokine associated with pulmonary fibrosis and regulating the maturation of B cell response. The two cytokines in combination were the best predictors of ICU admission (positive and negative predictive values ranging from 81.8% to 93.1% and 85.2% to 94.4% in the 3 cohorts) and occurrence of death during patient follow-up (8.8 fold higher likelihood of death when both cytokines were increased). Up-regulation of HGF reflects the most powerful counter-regulatory mechanism of the host immune response to antagonize the pro-inflammatory cytokines including CXCL13 and to prevent lung fibrosis in COVID-19 patients.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306787

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 induces a humoral response with seroconversion occurring within the first weeks after COVID-19 disease. Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution overtime after COVID-19 is however unknown.Methods: In this monocentric prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 months and 6 months post-infection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-Spike (S) and anti-Nucleocapsid (NP) IgG.Findings: Levels of sero-neutralization decreased significantly over study time, as well as IgG rates. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect on SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing assays. IgG levels correlated with sero-neutralization and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of sero-neutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission in intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation.Interpretation: Decrease of IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity in our patients. Those results are encouraging and in favor of sustained humoral response for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19, which will have to be considered in global deployment of vaccination strategy.Trial Registration: The French Covid cohort (NCT04262921)Funding Statement: The French COVID cohort is funding by the REACTing (REsearch & ACtion emergING infectious diseases) consortium and by a grant of the French Ministry of Health (PHRC n°20-0424).Outside the submitted work, JSH is supported by AP-HP, INSERM, the French National Research Agency (NADHeart ANR-17-CE17-0015-02, PACIFIC ANR-18-CE14-0032-01, CORRECT_LMNA ANR-19-CE17-0013-02), the ERA-Net-CVD (ANR-16-ECVD-0011-03, Clarify project), Fédération Française de Cardiologie, the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, and by a grant from the Leducq Foundation (18CVD05), and is coordinating a French PIA Project (2018-PSPC-07, PACIFIC-preserved, BPIFrance) and a University Research Federation against heart failure (FHU2019, PREVENT_Heart Failure). JG reports personal fees from ViiV Healthcare, Gilead Science, Janssen Cilag, and research grants from Gilead Sciences, MSD and ViiV Healthcare, outside the submitted work.Declaration of Interests: Authors have nothing to disclose. There are no relationships with industry.Ethics Approval Statement: The French Covid cohort (NCT04262921) is a prospective multi-center observational cohort sponsored by Inserm which was authorized by the French Ethics Committee CPP Ile-de-France VI (ID RCB:2020-A00256-33).

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 247-253, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have reported clinical COVID-19 sequelae six months (M6) after hospital discharge, but none has studied symptom severity. METHODS: Prevalence and severity of 7 symptoms were estimated until M6 using the self-administered influenza severity scale in COVID-19 hospitalized patients enrolled in the French COVID cohort. Factors associated with severity were assessed by logistic regression. Anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were also assessed. RESULTS: At M6, among the 324 patients (median age 61 years, 63% men, 19% admitted to intensive care during the acute phase), 187/324 (58%) reported at least one symptom, mostly fatigue (47%) and myalgia (23%). Symptom severity was scored, at most, mild in 125 (67%), moderate in 44 (23%) and severe in 18 (10%). Female gender was the sole factor associated with moderate/severe symptom reporting (OR = 1.98, 95%CI=1.13-3.47). Among the 225 patients with psychological assessment, 24 (11%) had anxiety, 18 (8%) depressive symptoms, and their physical HRQL was significantly poorer than the general population (p=0.0005). CONCLUSION: Even if 58% of patients reported ≥1 symptom at M6, less than 7% rated any symptom as severe. Assessing symptoms severity could be helpful to identify patients requiring appropriate medical care. Women may require special attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
9.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(1): 100998, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561582

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
10.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003857, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, no study has exhaustively evaluated the association between maternal morbidities and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the first wave of the pandemic in pregnant women. We investigated, in natural conceptions and assisted reproductive technique (ART) pregnancies, whether maternal morbidities were more frequent in pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis compared to pregnant women without COVID-19 diagnosis during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a national cohort of all hospitalizations for births ≥22 weeks of gestation in France from January to June 2020 using the French national hospitalization database (PMSI). Pregnant women with COVID-19 were identified if they had been recorded in the database using the ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) code for presence of a hospitalization for COVID-19. A total of 244,645 births were included, of which 874 (0.36%) in the COVID-19 group. Maternal morbidities and adverse obstetrical outcomes among those with or without COVID-19 were analyzed with a multivariable logistic regression model adjusted on patient characteristics. Among pregnant women, older age (31.1 (±5.9) years old versus 30.5 (±5.4) years old, respectively, p < 0.001), obesity (0.7% versus 0.3%, respectively, p < 0.001), multiple pregnancy (0.7% versus 0.4%, respectively, p < 0.001), and history of hypertension (0.9% versus 0.3%, respectively, p < 0.001) were more frequent with COVID-19 diagnosis. Active smoking (0.2% versus 0.4%, respectively, p < 0.001) and primiparity (0.3% versus 0.4%, respectively, p < 0.03) were less frequent with COVID-19 diagnosis. Frequency of ART conception was not different between those with and without COVID-19 diagnosis (p = 0.28). When compared to the non-COVID-19 group, women in the COVID-19 group had a higher frequency of admission to ICU (5.9% versus 0.1%, p < 0.001), mortality (0.2% versus 0.005%, p < 0.001), preeclampsia/eclampsia (4.8% versus 2.2%, p < 0.001), gestational hypertension (2.3% versus 1.3%, p < 0.03), postpartum hemorrhage (10.0% versus 5.7%, p < 0.001), preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation (16.7% versus 7.1%, p < 0.001), <32 weeks of gestation (2.2% versus 0.8%, p < 0.001), <28 weeks of gestation (2.4% versus 0.8%, p < 0.001), induced preterm birth (5.4% versus 1.4%, p < 0.001), spontaneous preterm birth (11.3% versus 5.7%, p < 0.001), fetal distress (33.0% versus 26.0%, p < 0.001), and cesarean section (33.0% versus 20.2%, p < 0.001). Rates of pregnancy terminations ≥22 weeks of gestation, stillbirths, gestational diabetes, placenta praevia, and placenta abruption were not significantly different between the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups. The number of venous thromboembolic events was too low to perform statistical analysis. A limitation of this study relies in the possibility that asymptomatic infected women were not systematically detected. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increased frequency of pregnant women with maternal morbidities and diagnosis of COVID-19 compared to pregnant women without COVID-19. It appears essential to be aware of this, notably in populations at known risk of developing a more severe form of infection or obstetrical morbidities and in order for obstetrical units to better inform pregnant women and provide the best care. Although causality cannot be determined from these associations, these results may be in line with recent recommendations in favor of vaccination for pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Fetal Distress/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Maternal Mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291594

ABSTRACT

Objective: With the COVID-19 pandemic, documenting whether health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 contamination and identifying risk factors is of major concern. Methods In this multicenter prospective cohort study, HCWs from frontline departments were included in March and April 2020 and followed for 3 months. SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed at month 0 (M0), M1, and M3 and RT-PCR in case of symptoms. The primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3. Risk factors of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3 were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Results Among 1,062 HCWs (median [interquartile range] age, 33 [28-42] years;758 [71.4%] women;321 [30.2%] physicians), the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3 was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] [12.5;16.9]). Risk factors were the working department specialty, with increased risk for intensive care units (odds ratio 1.80, 95%CI [0.38;8.58]), emergency departments (3.91 [0.83;18.43]) and infectious diseases departments (4.22 [0.92;18.28]);active smoking was associated with reduced risk (0.36 [0.21;0.63]). Age, sex, professional category, number of years of experience in the job or department, and public transportation use were not significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3. Conclusion The rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in frontline HCWs was 14.6% at the end of the first COVID-19 wave in Paris and occurred mainly early. The study argues for an origin of professional in addition to private life contamination and therefore including HCWs in the first-line vaccination target population. It also highlights that smokers were at lower risk. Trial registration: The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04304690 first registered on 11/03/2020.

12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 202-221, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are critical cost-effective tools to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the emergence of variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may threaten the global impact of mass vaccination campaigns. AIMS: The objective of this study was to provide an up-to-date comparative analysis of the characteristics, adverse events, efficacy, effectiveness and impact of the variants of concern for 19 COVID-19 vaccines. SOURCES: References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed, Google Scholar, BioRxiv, MedRxiv, regulatory drug agencies and pharmaceutical companies' websites up to 22nd September 2021. CONTENT: Overall, all COVID-19 vaccines had a high efficacy against the original strain and the variants of concern, and were well tolerated. BNT162b2, mRNA-1273 and Sputnik V after two doses had the highest efficacy (>90%) in preventing symptomatic cases in phase III trials. mRNA vaccines, AZD1222, and CoronaVac were effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 and severe infections against Alpha, Beta, Gamma or Delta variants. Regarding observational real-life data, full immunization with mRNA vaccines and AZD1222 seems to effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection against the original strain and Alpha and Beta variants but with reduced effectiveness against the Delta strain. A decline in infection protection was observed at 6 months for BNT162b2 and AZD1222. Serious adverse event rates were rare for mRNA vaccines-anaphylaxis 2.5-4.7 cases per million doses, myocarditis 3.5 cases per million doses-and were similarly rare for all other vaccines. Prices for the different vaccines varied from $2.15 to $29.75 per dose. IMPLICATIONS: All vaccines appear to be safe and effective tools to prevent severe COVID-19, hospitalization, and death against all variants of concern, but the quality of evidence greatly varies depending on the vaccines considered. Questions remain regarding a booster dose and waning immunity, the duration of immunity, and heterologous vaccination. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination outweigh the risks, despite rare serious adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1337-e1344, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs within the first weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution over time after COVID-19 as well as efficiency against novel variants are poorly characterized. METHODS: In this prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 and 6 months postinfection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NP) immunoglobulin G (IgG). RESULTS: Levels of seroneutralization and IgG rates against the ancestral strain decreased significantly over time. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect against SARS-CoV-2. IgG levels correlated with seroneutralization, and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of seroneutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission to intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation. In addition, sera collected at 6 months were tested against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and showed efficient neutralizing effects against the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants but significantly weaker activity against the B.1.351 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity. Our results indicate a sustained humoral response against the ancestral strain and the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19. A weaker protection was, however, observed for the B.1.351 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
IDCases ; 26: e01267, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377723

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) is a viral disease. Although the predominant presentation is respiratory disease, other manifestations such as gastrointestinal manifestations are commonly reported. Nevertheless, it has not been associated with chronic cholangitis or hepatic injury. In this study, we report three cases of severe CoVID-19 infection that required ICU admission, intubation, and sedation with ketamine. All three patients had abnormal liver function despite recovery and were diagnosed with cholangitis in the context of CoVID-19.

15.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367917

ABSTRACT

An Emergency Use Authorization was issued in the United States and in Europe for a monoclonal antibody monotherapy to prevent severe COVID-19 in high-risk patients. This study aimed to assess the risk of emergence of mutations following treatment with a single monoclonal antibody. Bamlanivimab was administered at a single dose of 700 mg in a one-hour IV injection in a referral center for the management of COVID-19 in France. Patients were closely monitored clinically and virologically with nasopharyngeal RT-PCR and viral whole genome sequencing. Six patients were treated for a nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection, all males, with a median age of 65 years and multiple comorbidities. All patients were infected with a B.1.1.7 variant, which was the most frequent variant in France at the time, and no patients had E484 mutations at baseline. Bamlanivimab was infused in the six patients within 4 days of the COVID-19 diagnosis. Four patients had a favorable outcome, one died of complications unrelated to COVID-19 or bamlanivimab, and one kidney transplant patient treated with belatacept died from severe COVID-19 more than 40 days after bamlanivimab administration. Virologically, four patients cleared nasopharyngeal viral shedding within one month after infusion, while two presented prolonged viral excretion for more than 40 days. The emergence of E484K mutants was observed in five out of six patients, and the last patient presented a Q496R mutation potentially associated with resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a high risk of emergence of resistance mutants in COVID-19 patients treated with monoclonal antibody monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4888, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349667

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to identify biological signatures of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predictive of admission in the intensive care unit (ICU). Over 170 immunological markers were investigated in a 'discovery' cohort (n = 98 patients) of the Lausanne University Hospital (LUH-1). Here we report that 13 out of 49 cytokines were significantly associated with ICU admission in the three cohorts (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), while cellular immunological markers lacked power in discriminating between ICU and non-ICU patients. The cytokine results were confirmed in two 'validation' cohorts, i.e. the French COVID-19 Study (FCS; n = 62) and a second LUH-2 cohort (n = 47). The combination of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) was the best predictor of ICU admission (positive and negative predictive values ranging from 81.8% to 93.1% and 85.2% to 94.4% in the 3 cohorts) and occurrence of death during patient follow-up (8.8 fold higher likelihood of death when both cytokines were increased). Of note, HGF is a pleiotropic cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties playing a fundamental role in lung tissue repair, and CXCL13, a pro-inflammatory chemokine associated with pulmonary fibrosis and regulating the maturation of B cell response. Up-regulation of HGF reflects the most powerful counter-regulatory mechanism of the host immune response to antagonize the pro-inflammatory cytokines including CXCL13 and to prevent lung fibrosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Chemokine CXCL13/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL13/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Fibrosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1041.e1-1041.e4, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225180

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Persistent COVID-19 symptoms have been reported up to 3 months after hospital discharge. Little is known on the frequency and the nature of persistent symptoms beyond 3 months. Here we have assessed, in the longitudinal prospective French COVID-19 cohort, symptoms that persisted 6 months after admission for COVID-19. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with virologically confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. Follow-up was planned with a physician's visit at month (M)3 and M6 after admission. Associations between persistence of symptoms at M6 and clinical characteristics at admission were assessed through bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: M6 data were available for 1137 participants. Median age was 61 years (IQR 51-71) and 288 (29%, 95% CI 26-32%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) during the acute phase. Six hundred and fifty-five (68%, 95% CI 65-71%) and 639 (60%, 95% CI 57-63%) participants had at least one symptom at M3 and M6 visit, respectively, mostly fatigue, dyspnoea, joint pain and myalgia. At M6, 255 (24%, 95% CI 21-27%) of participants had three or more persistent symptoms. The presence of three or more symptoms at M6 was independently associated with female gender (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.40, 95% CI 1.75-3.30), having three or more symptoms at admission (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.45-2.89) and ICU admission/transfer during acute phase (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.18), but not significantly with age or having two or more comorbidities. One hundred and twenty-five (29%, 95% CI 25-34%) of those who initially had a professional occupation were not back to work at M6. DISCUSSION: A fourth of individuals admitted to hospital for COVID-19 still had three or more persistent symptoms at M6. Longitudinal follow-up of individuals with severe COVID-19 is warranted to better understand the pathophysiology underlying this long-term persistence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 35(6): 1141-1158, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194121

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers on the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is debated. We assessed the association between chronic use of RAAS blockers and mortality among inpatients with COVID-19 and explored reasons for discrepancies in the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included adult hypertensive patients from a prospective nationwide cohort of 3512 inpatients with COVID-19 up to June 30, 2020. Cox proportional hazard models with various adjustment or propensity weighting methods were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of 30-day mortality for chronic users versus non-users of RAAS blockers. We analyzed data of 1160 hypertensive patients: 719 (62%) were male and 777 (67%) were older than 65 years. The main comorbidities were diabetes (n = 416, 36%), chronic cardiac disease (n = 401, 35%), and obesity (n = 340, 29%); 705 (61%) received oxygen therapy. We recorded 135 (11.6%) deaths within 30 days of diagnosis. We found no association between chronic use of RAAS blockers and mortality (unadjusted HR = 1.13, 95% CI [0.8-1.6]; propensity inverse probability treatment weighted HR = 1.09 [0.86-1.39]; propensity standardized mortality ratio weighted HR = 1.08 [0.79-1.47]). Our comprehensive review of previous studies highlighted that significant associations were mostly found in unrestricted populations with inappropriate adjustment, or with biased in-hospital exposure measurement. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support previous concerns regarding these drugs, nor a potential protective effect as reported in previous poorly designed studies and meta-analyses. RAAS blockers should not be discontinued during the pandemic, while in-hospital management of these drugs will be clarified by randomized trials. NCT04262921.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , France , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1337-e1344, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs within the first weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Those antibodies exert a neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2, whose evolution over time after COVID-19 as well as efficiency against novel variants are poorly characterized. METHODS: In this prospective study, sera of 107 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were collected at 3 and 6 months postinfection. We performed quantitative neutralization experiments on top of high-throughput serological assays evaluating anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NP) immunoglobulin G (IgG). RESULTS: Levels of seroneutralization and IgG rates against the ancestral strain decreased significantly over time. After 6 months, 2.8% of the patients had a negative serological status for both anti-S and anti-NP IgG. However, all sera had a persistent and effective neutralizing effect against SARS-CoV-2. IgG levels correlated with seroneutralization, and this correlation was stronger for anti-S than for anti-NP antibodies. The level of seroneutralization quantified at 6 months correlated with markers of initial severity, notably admission to intensive care units and the need for mechanical invasive ventilation. In addition, sera collected at 6 months were tested against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and showed efficient neutralizing effects against the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants but significantly weaker activity against the B.1.351 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in IgG rates and serological assays becoming negative did not imply loss of neutralizing capacity. Our results indicate a sustained humoral response against the ancestral strain and the D614G, B.1.1.7, and P.1 variants for at least 6 months in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19. A weaker protection was, however, observed for the B.1.351 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 310, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149708

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing world-wide pandemic which has already taken more than two million lives. Effective treatments are urgently needed. The enzymatic activity of the HECT-E3 ligase family members has been implicated in the cell egression phase of deadly RNA viruses such as Ebola through direct interaction of its VP40 Protein. Here we report that HECT-E3 ligase family members such as NEDD4 and WWP1 interact with and ubiquitylate the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Furthermore, we find that HECT family members are overexpressed in primary samples derived from COVID-19 infected patients and COVID-19 mouse models. Importantly, rare germline activating variants in the NEDD4 and WWP1 genes are associated with severe COVID-19 cases. Critically, I3C, a natural NEDD4 and WWP1 inhibitor from Brassicaceae, displays potent antiviral effects and inhibits viral egression. In conclusion, we identify the HECT family members of E3 ligases as likely novel biomarkers for COVID-19, as well as new potential targets of therapeutic strategy easily testable in clinical trials in view of the established well-tolerated nature of the Brassicaceae natural compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport/metabolism , Female , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/genetics , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
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