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1.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2339, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712179

ABSTRACT

In dengue-endemic regions, the co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and dengue is a significant health concern. Therefore, we performed a literature search for relevant papers in seven databases on 26 Spetember 2021. Out of 24 articles, the mortality rate and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were 19.1% and 7.8%, respectively. The mean hospital stay was 11.4 days. In addition, we identified two pregnancies with dengue and COVID-19 co-infection; one ended with premature rupture of membrane and intrauterine growth restriction fetus, while the other one ended with maternal mortality and intrauterine fetal death. COVID-19 and dengue co-infection had worse outcomes regarding mortality rates, ICU admission, and prolonged hospital stay. Thus, wise-decision management approaches should be adequately offered to these patients to enhance their outcomes. Establishing an early diagnosis might be the answer to reducing the estimated significant burden of these conditions.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319635

ABSTRACT

Background: The current pandemic of COVID-19 impacted the psychological wellbeing of populations globally. Objectives: We aimed to examine the extent and identify associated factors of psychological distress, fear of COVID-19, and coping. Methods: : We conducted a cross-sectional study across 17 countries during Jun-2020 to Jan-2021. Levels of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale), and coping (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) were assessed. Results: : A total of 8,559 people participated;mean age (±SD) was 33(±13) years, 64% were females and 40% self-identified as frontline workers. More than two-thirds (69%) experienced moderate-to-very high levels of psychological distress, which was 46% in Thailand and 91% in Egypt. A quarter (24%) had high levels of fear of COVID-19, which was as low as 9% in Libya and as high as 38% in Bangladesh. More than half (57%) exhibited medium to high resilient coping;the lowest prevalence (3%) was reported in Australia and the highest (72%) in Syria. Being female (AOR 1.31 [95% CIs 1.09-1.57]), perceived distress due to change of employment status (1.56 [1.29-1.90]), comorbidity with mental health conditions (3.02 [1.20-7.60]) were associated with higher levels of psychological distress and fear. Doctors had higher psychological distress (1.43 [1.04-1.97]), but low levels of fear of COVID-19 (0.55 [0.41-0.76]);nurses had medium to high resilient coping (1.30 [1.03-1.65]). Conclusions: : The extent of psychological distress, fear of COVID and coping varied by country;however, some groups were more vulnerable than others. There is an urgent need to prioritise health and well-being of these people through well-designed intervention that may need to be tailored to meet country specific requirements.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319634

ABSTRACT

Background: The current pandemic of COVID-19 impacted the psychological wellbeing of populations globally. Our study aimed to examine the extent and associated factors to psychological distress, the level of fear of COVID-19, and coping strategies amongst a diverse range of community people in multi-country settings.Methods: A cross-sectional study across 17 countries was conducted. Psychological distress (based on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) was categorized into low and moderate to very high, fear of COVID-19 (based on the Fear of COVID-19 Scale) was categorized into low and high, and coping (based on the Brief Resilient Coping Scale) was categorized into low and medium to high. For country-wise comparisons, we selected the reference country based on the lowest prevalence of each outcome and examined the status for other countries. Multivariate analyses were conducted to adjust potential confounders including in-country variations;adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported.Findings: A total of 8559 people participated in this study. Mean age (±SD) was 33 (±13) years and two-thirds (64%) were females. More than one-third (40%) self-identified as frontline or essential service workers. More than two-thirds (69%) experienced moderate to very high levels of psychological distress, which was 46% in Thailand and 91% in Egypt. A quarter (24%) had high levels of fear of COVID-19, which was as low as 9% in Libya and as high as 38% in Bangladesh. More than half (57%) exhibited medium to high resilient coping;the lowest prevalence (3%) was reported in Australia and the highest (72%) in Syria. Being female (AOR 1.31 [95% CIs 1.09-1.57]), perceived distress due to change of employment status (AOR 1.56 [1.29-1.90]), being affected by the change of financial situation, comorbidity with mental health conditions (AOR 3.02 [1.20-7.60]), unsure contact with COVID-19 patient, and use of healthcare services in the last six months were associated with moderate to very high levels of psychological distress. Doctors had higher psychological distress (AOR 1.43 [1.04-1.97]), but low levels of fear of COVID-19 (AOR 0.55 [0.41-0.76]);nurses had medium to high resilient coping (AOR 1.30 [1.03-1.65]). Participants from 10 countries (Hong Kong, Oman, Libya, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Jordan, Syria, Palestine and Egypt) demonstrated significantly higher psychological stress compared to the participants from Thailand. Participants from four countries (Oman, Indonesia, Hong Kong and Pakistan) exhibited higher levels of fear of COVID-19 compared to those from Libya. Participants from 12 countries (Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Hong Kong, UAE, Palestine, Thailand, Oman, Nepal, Indonesia and Syria) demonstrated statistically significant medium to high resilience coping compared to those from Australia.Interpretation: Females and people with existing mental health issues were the most vulnerable groups of populations for adverse psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic across 17 countries. While these two groups had ongoing challenges in a COVID-free world, the pandemic worsened their wellbeing. There is an urgent need to prioritise their needs. Adequate medical and social support along with specific health promotion policies should be considered within the strategic response to the ongoing pandemic and future crises.Funding Information: None.Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethics approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee from each participating country. The survey was voluntary in nature and it was clarified in the PLIS, so that participants got the opportunity to have informed decision to participate in the study. Privacy and confidentiality of the collected data were maintained. All responses were anonymous and there was no information about the identity of the participants.

5.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 213: 107140, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that the clinical course and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and myasthenia gravis (MG) are highly variable. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature with a key aim to assess the outcomes of invasive ventilation, mortality, and hospital length of stay (HLoS) for patients presenting with MG and COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and MedRxiv databases for original articles that reported patients with MG and COVID-19. We included all clinical studies that reported MG in patients with confirmed COVID-19 cases via RT-PCR tests. We collected data on patient background characteristics, symptoms, time between MG and COVID-19 diagnosis, MG and COVID-19 treatments, HLoS, and mortality at last available follow-up. We reported summary statistics as counts and percentages or mean±SD. When necessary, inverse variance weighting was used to aggregate patient-level data and summary statistics. RESULTS: Nineteen studies with 152 patients (mean age 54.4 ± 12.7 years; 79/152 [52.0%] female) were included. Hypertension (62/141, 44.0%) and diabetes (30/141, 21.3%) were the most common comorbidities. The mean time between the diagnosis of MG and COVID-19 was7.0 ± 6.3 years. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed in all patients via RT-PCR tests. Fever (40/59, 67.8%) and ptosis (9/55, 16.4%) were the most frequent COVID-19 and MG symptoms, respectively. Azithromycin and ceftriaxone were the most common COVID-19 treatments, while prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin were the most common MG treatments. Invasive ventilation treatment was required for 25/59 (42.4%) of patients. The mean HLoS was 18.2 ± 9.9 days. The mortality rate was 18/152 (11.8%). CONCLUSION: This report provides an overview of the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of MG in COVID-19 patients. Although COVID-19 may exaggerate the neurological symptoms and worsens the outcome in MG patients, we did not find enough evidence to support this notion. Further studies with larger numbers of patients with MG and COVID-19 are needed to better assess the clinical outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate , Young Adult
6.
Interdiscip Neurosurg ; 27: 101441, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536613

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus reportedly called 2019-nCoV started to spread around the world at the end of 2019. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was later renamed after links with SARS were observed. Multiple studies have reported possible connections between the COVID-19 virus and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Theories support that vitamin D deficiency plays a part in the pathogenicity of Parkinson's disease or the credibility of the associated dopamine system. Administration of vitamin D3 was shown to significantly enhance the motor and non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease and enhance the quality of life. Also, multiple recent reviews have shown specific ways in which vitamin D reduces the risk of pathogenic infections. Recent studies supported the potential role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infections and mortality. On the immunological level, immune response regulation remains one of the well-recognized actions of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to complications in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and Parkinson's disease. Whereas more studies are required, Vitamin D supplementation with a moderate and well-calculated dosage of vitamin D3 in patients with Parkinson's disease can help minimize the risk and burden of COVID-19 complications.

7.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Egyptian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Six databases were searched for relevant papers. The quality of the selected articles was measured using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool. We used a fixed-effects model when there was no heterogeneity and a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. RESULTS: After screening 197 records, 10 studies were ultimately included. Anxiety was the most commonly reported psychiatric disorder among HCWs, with a prevalence of 71.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.4 to 86.9), followed by stress (66.6%; 95% CI, 47.6 to 81.3), depression (65.5%; 95% CI, 46.9 to 80.3), and insomnia (57.9%; 95% CI, 45.9 to 69.0). As measured using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the most common level of severity was moderate for depression (22.5%; 95% CI, 19.8 to 25.5) and stress (14.5%; 95% CI, 8.8 to 22.9), while high-severity anxiety was more common than other levels of severity (28.2%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 79.6). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on Egyptian HCWs' psychological well-being. More psychological support and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the further development of psychiatric illness among physicians and other HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291315

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 caused the worst international public health crisis, accompanied by major global economic downturns, mass-scale job losses, which impacted on the psychosocial wellbeing of the worldwide population. This study examined factors associated with psychosocial distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping strategies amongst the general population in Saudi Arabia. Methods: : A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were used;Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) was reported. Results: : Among 803 participants, 70 %(n=556), were females and the median age was 27 years;35% (n=278), were frontline or essential service workers;24% (n=195), reported comorbid conditions including mental health illness. Factors associated with moderate to high levels of psychological distress were: youth (18 - 29 years) (AOR 3.35, 95% CIs 2.06 - 5.44), females (2.59, 1.60 - 4.19), non-Saudi nationals (2.17, 1.11 - 4.26), change in employment (2.9, 1.73 - 4.87), negative financial impact (2.14, 1.29-3.56), having comorbidities (2.67, 1.47 - 4.87), and current smoking (2.87, 1.55 - 5.33). Being ex-smokers (3.72, 1.14 - 12.14) and change in employment (3.42, 1.91 - 6.11) were associated with higher levels of fear of COVID-19. People whose financial situation was impacted and who had contact with known/suspected cases (1.63, 1.12-2.38) had low medium to high resilient coping. Conclusions: : People in Saudi Arabia were at a higher risk of psychosocial distress and fear along with low resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic, warranting urgent attention from healthcare providers and policymakers, to provide specific mental health support strategies for their wellbeing currently and to avoid a post-pandemic mental health crisis.

9.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Egyptian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Six databases were searched for relevant papers. The quality of the selected articles was measured using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool. We used a fixed-effects model when there was no heterogeneity and a random-effects model when there was heterogeneity. RESULTS: After screening 197 records, 10 studies were ultimately included. Anxiety was the most commonly reported psychiatric disorder among HCWs, with a prevalence of 71.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.4 to 86.9), followed by stress (66.6%; 95% CI, 47.6 to 81.3), depression (65.5%; 95% CI, 46.9 to 80.3), and insomnia (57.9%; 95% CI, 45.9 to 69.0). As measured using the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, the most common level of severity was moderate for depression (22.5%; 95% CI, 19.8 to 25.5) and stress (14.5%; 95% CI, 8.8 to 22.9), while high-severity anxiety was more common than other levels of severity (28.2%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 79.6). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on Egyptian HCWs' psychological well-being. More psychological support and preventive measures should be implemented to prevent the further development of psychiatric illness among physicians and other HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Global Health ; 17(1): 117, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current pandemic of COVID-19 impacted the psychological wellbeing of populations globally. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the extent and identify factors associated with psychological distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study across 17 countries during Jun-2020 to Jan-2021. Levels of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale), and coping (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 8,559 people participated; mean age (±SD) was 33(±13) years, 64% were females and 40% self-identified as frontline workers. More than two-thirds (69%) experienced moderate-to-very high levels of psychological distress, which was 46% in Thailand and 91% in Egypt. A quarter (24%) had high levels of fear of COVID-19, which was as low as 9% in Libya and as high as 38% in Bangladesh. More than half (57%) exhibited medium to high resilient coping; the lowest prevalence (3%) was reported in Australia and the highest (72%) in Syria. Being female (AOR 1.31 [95% CIs 1.09-1.57]), perceived distress due to change of employment status (1.56 [1.29-1.90]), comorbidity with mental health conditions (3.02 [1.20-7.60]) were associated with higher levels of psychological distress and fear. Doctors had higher psychological distress (1.43 [1.04-1.97]), but low levels of fear of COVID-19 (0.55 [0.41-0.76]); nurses had medium to high resilient coping (1.30 [1.03-1.65]). CONCLUSIONS: The extent of psychological distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping varied by country; however, we identified few higher risk groups who were more vulnerable than others. There is an urgent need to prioritise health and well-being of those people through well-designed intervention that may need to be tailored to meet country specific requirements.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 580427, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317251

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus (named SARS-CoV-2) has gained attention globally and has been recognized as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to the rapidly increasing number of deaths and confirmed cases. Health care workers (HCWs) are vulnerable to this crisis as they are the first frontline to receive and manage COVID-19 patients. In this multicenter multinational survey, we aim to assess the level of awareness and preparedness of hospital staff regarding COVID-19 all over the world. Methods: From February to March 2020, the web-based or paper-based survey to gather information about the hospital staff's awareness and preparedness in the participants' countries will be carried out using a structured questionnaire based on the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) checklist and delivered to participants by the local collaborators for each hospital. As of March 2020, we recruited 374 hospitals from 58 countries that could adhere to this protocol as approved by their Institutional Review Boards (IRB) or Ethics Committees (EC). Discussion: The awareness and preparedness of HCWs against COVID-19 are of utmost importance not only to protect themselves from infection, but also to control the virus transmission in healthcare facilities and to manage the disease, especially in the context of manpower lacking and hospital overload during the pandemic. The results of this survey can be used to inform hospitals about the awareness and preparedness of their health staff regarding COVID-19, so appropriate policies and practice guidelines can be implemented to improve their capabilities of facing this crisis and other future pandemic-prone diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , United States
12.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(2): e2278, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309015

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who contracted Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) had a decline in motor functions; nevertheless, there is limited evidence on whether PD patients have a higher risk for contracting Covid-19 or have worse outcomes. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to review the impact of PD on the prognosis of Covid-19 patients. We performed a systematic search through seven electronic databases under the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses statement (PRISMA) guidelines. The R software version 4.0.2 was used to calculate pooled sample sizes and their associated confidence intervals (95%CI). Finally, we included 13 papers in this study. The pooled prevalence rate of Covid-19 was 2.12% (95%CI: 0.75-5.98). Fever, cough, fatigue and anorexia were the most common symptoms with a rate of 72.72% (95% CI: 57.3 - 92.29), 66.99% (95% CI: 49.08-91.42), 61.58% (95% CI: 46.69-81.21) and 52.55% (95% CI: 35.09-78.68), respectively. The pooled rates were 39.89% (95% CI: 27.09-58.73) for hospitalisation, 4.7% (95% CI: 1.56-14.16) for ICU admission and 25.1% (95%CI: 16.37-38.49) for mortality. On further comparison of hospitalisation and mortality rates among Covid-19 patients with and without PD, there were no significant differences. In conclusion, the prevalence and prognosis of Covid-19 patients seem comparable in patients with PD and those without it. The increased hospitalisation and mortality may be attributed to old age and co-morbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 129, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected health and lifestyle behaviors of people globally. This project aims to identify the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle behavior of individuals in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during confinement. METHODS: We conducted an online survey in 17 countries (Egypt, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Palestine, Algeria, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, Iraq, and Sudan) from the MENA region on August and September 2020. The questionnaire included self-reported information on lifestyle behaviors, including physical activity, eating habits, smoking, watching television, social media use and sleep before and during the pandemic. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle behaviors. RESULTS: A total of 5896 participants were included in the final analysis and 62.8% were females. The BMI of the participants was 25.4 ± 5.8 kg/m2. Around 38.4% of the participants stopped practicing any physical activities during the confinement (P < 0.001), and 57.1% reported spending more than 2 h on social media (P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in smoking habits. Also, 30.9% reported an improvement in their eating habits compared with 24.8% reported worsening of their eating habits. Fast-food consumption decreased significantly in 48.8% of the study population. This direct/indirect exposure to COVID-19 was associated with an increased consumption of carbohydrates (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02-1.17; P = 0.01), egg (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.02-1.16; P = 0.01), sugar (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02-1.16; P = 0.02), meat, and poultry (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.06-1.20; P < 0.01). There was also associated increase in hours spent on watching television (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.12; P < 0.01) and social media (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01-1.18; P = 0.03). However, our results showed a reduction in sleeping hours among those exposed to COVID-19 infection (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.77-0.94; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increase in food consumption and sedentary life. Being exposed to COVID-19 by direct infection or through an infected household is a significant predictor of amplifying these changes. Public health interventions are needed to address healthy lifestyle behaviors during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Life Style , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
European Journal of Medical Case Reports ; 5(1):26-30, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1145756

ABSTRACT

Background: In this report, we discuss the diagnosis and management of a case of COVID-19-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Case Presentation: A 58-year-old male with PCR-based COVID-19 diagnosis (at a specialized hospital, Minia, Egypt) was admitted and received supportive medications along with corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine. After 2 days, the patient developed tachypnoea and desaturation. Therefore, he was transferred to the intensive care unit with a continuous positive airway pressure. On the third day, he developed oliguria with spiking kidney function tests, metabolic acidosis, and eventually anuria on the 6th day. AKI diagnosis was established, and the patient received daily dialysis sessions for 10 days until discharge together with tocilizumab and methylprednisolone. The patient was discharged after normalization and stabilization of his clinical parameters and a second negative PCR swab with continuous follow-up. Conclusion: Early monitoring of kidney function tests during the infection might help in preventing further kidney damage.

17.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2238-2242, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935131

ABSTRACT

A healthy patient presented to Klinikum Altmühlfranken Weißenburg Hospital, Germany, with two morning attacks of painful muscle spasm in the left upper and lower limbs, without altered consciousness. Full examinations, radiological imaging, electroencephalography, lumbar puncture, and autoimmune profile were either normal or not consistent with patient's complaint. Subsequent epileptic episodes were observed on admission day and the following days; thus, the patient was diagnosed with focal epilepsy. The patient started to develop a fever and severe cough on day 4, and SARS-coronavirus-2 was confirmed through a nasopharyngeal swap. She received anticonvulsants and symptomatic treatments and completely recovered. This report emphasizes the potential nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Epilepsies, Partial/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Aged , Ambroxol/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Dipyrone/therapeutic use , Epilepsies, Partial/diagnostic imaging , Epilepsies, Partial/drug therapy , Epilepsies, Partial/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Radiography, Abdominal , Treatment Outcome
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