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European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 25(24):7847-7857, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1688521


OBJECTIVE: The Islamic Republic of Iran has displayed one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection in the world and the highest rate of mortality in the Middle East. Iran has used a stringent package of preventive health measures to mitigate the spread of infection, which however has negatively affected individuals' physical and psychological health. This study aimed at examining whether physical-activity (PA) behavior, anxiety, well-being, and sleep-quality changed in response to the COVID-19-related public health restrictions enforced in Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An online questionnaire was disseminated to adults residing in Iran from November 17, 2020, to February 13, 2021 (88 days), during Iran's strictest public health restrictions. Main outcome measures included Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder-7, Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: A total of 3,323 adults (mean age 30 +/- 11 years, 54.3% female) participated in the survey. Firstly, the restrictions generally reduced PA behavior: (a) among inactive participants (IPs), 60.6% became less active vs. 5.1% who became more active;and (b) among active participants (APs), 49.9% became less active vs. 22.8% who became more active. Secondly, PA behavior was associated with higher well-being and sleep quality during the restrictions: (a) APs reported higher (or lower) levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety) than did IPs;and (b) among IPs as well Corresponding as among APs, the more active the participants, the greater (or lower) the levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the beneficial role of PA behavior for well-being, anxiety, and sleep quality during the COVID-19 restrictions, whereas such restrictions appeared to decrease PA participation. Active lifestyle should be then encouraged during the COVID-19 outbreak while taking precautions.

Annals of Applied Sport Science ; 9(3):10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1389975


Background. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has created an unprecedented and daunting challenge for humanity to survive. This has also affected the sporting events across the globe as the majority of the tournaments have been cancelled or postponed as a result. For life to return to pre-pandemic normalcy, an effective and safe vaccination program needs to be implemented, be readily accessible, widely available, and affordable at the same time. Objectives. In this review, we analyze various challenges which demonstrate that COVID-19 is far from over.Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Medline, google scholar and Scopus from the commencement of the COVID-19 pandemic to 22 June 2021. The current report is a summary of data regarding challenges faced by the COVID-19 vaccination campaign and the challenges for a transition toward normalcy especially for big sports events. Results. The current COVID-19 pandemic has likely resulted in sporting events and tournaments being canceled, postponed, or held without or with restricted spectators around the world. A combination of measures including prompt vaccination with the beneficial impact of the vaccines in reducing the severity of disease, advances in treatment, expanded use of diagnostics and better implementation of public-health policies are a necessity. Following this implementation, a transition toward normality could be expected when the mortality rate of COVID-19 simulates the average influenza statistics, with public-health measures continuing to play an important role worldwide. Conclusion. The authors believe that COVID-19 will be endemic in the human population, similar to seasonal influenza, and that COVID-19 vaccines will be included as an add-on to seasonal influenza vaccinations, being administered every winter for at least the next few decades. With adequate vaccination, the sporting world will be able to withstand the challenges and resume global events, returning to pre-Covid levels of normalcy.