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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324942

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severely immunocompromised patients are at risk for prolonged or relapsed COVID-19 leading to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of combination treatment in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included all immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19 treated with combination therapy with two antivirals (remdesivir plus nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, or molnupiravir in case of renal failure) plus, if available, anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), between February and October 2022. The main outcomes were virological response at day 14 (negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) and virological and clinical response (alive, asymptomatic, with negative SARS-CoV-2 swab) at day 30 and the last follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 22 patients (Omicron variant in 17/18) were included: 18 received full combination of two antivirals and Mabs and 4 received two antivirals only; in 20/22 (91%) two antivirals were nirmatrelvir/ritonavir plus remdesivir. Nineteen (86%) patients had hematological malignancy, 15 (68%) had received anti-CD20 therapy. All were symptomatic; 8 (36%) required oxygen. Four patients received second course of combination treatment. Response rate at day 14, 30 and last follow-up was, respectively, 75% (15/20 evaluable), 73% (16/22) and 82% (18/22). Day 14 and 30 response rates were significantly higher when combination therapy included Mabs. Higher number of vaccine doses was associated with better final outcome. Two patients (9%) developed severe side effects: bradycardia leading to remdesivir discontinuation and myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION: Combination therapy including two antivirals (mainly remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) and Mabs was associated with high rate of virological and clinical response in immunocompromised patients with prolonged/relapsed COVID-19.

2.
Microorganisms ; 11(4)2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322774

ABSTRACT

The emergence in late 2019 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), posed significant health challenges worldwide [...].

3.
Ann Med ; 55(1): 2195204, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be classified into different clinical phenotypes based on their demographic, clinical, radiology, and laboratory features. We aimed to validate in an external cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients the prognostic value of a previously described phenotyping system (FEN-COVID-19) and to assess the reproducibility of phenotypes development as a secondary analysis. METHODS: Patients were classified in phenotypes A, B or C according to the severity of oxygenation impairment, inflammatory response, hemodynamic and laboratory tests according to the FEN-COVID-19 method. RESULTS: Overall, 992 patients were included in the study, and 181 (18%), 757 (76%) and 54 (6%) of them were assigned to the FEN-COVID-19 phenotypes A, B, and C, respectively. An association with mortality was observed for phenotype C vs. A (hazard ratio [HR] 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81-5.30, p < 0.001) and for phenotype C vs. B (HR 2.20, 95% CI 1.50-3.23, p < 0.001). A non-statistically significant trend towards higher mortality was also observed for phenotype B vs. A (HR 1.41; 95% CI 0.92-2.15, p = 0.115). By means of cluster analysis, three different phenotypes were also identified in our cohort, with an overall similar gradient in terms of prognostic impact to that observed when patients were assigned to FEN-COVID-19 phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic impact of FEN-COVID-19 phenotypes was confirmed in our external cohort, although with less difference in mortality between phenotypes A and B than in the original study.


Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 can be classified into different clinical phenotypes based on their demographic, clinical, radiology, and laboratory featuresIn this study, we externally confirmed the prognostic impact of clinical phenotypes previously identified by Gutierrez-Gutierrez and colleagues in a Spanish cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and the usefulness of their simplified probabilistic model for phenotypes assignmentThis could indirectly support the validity of both phenotype's development and their extrapolation to other hospitals and countries for management decisions during other possible future viral pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Reproducibility of Results , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies
4.
Br J Haematol ; 201(4): 628-639, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272144

ABSTRACT

Outcome of early treatment of COVID-19 with antivirals or anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (MABs) in patients with haematological malignancies (HM) is unknown. A retrospective study of HM patients treated for mild/moderate COVID-19 between March 2021 and July 2022 was performed. The main composite end-point was treatment failure (severe COVID-19 or COVID-19-related death). We included 328 consecutive patients who received MABs (n = 120, 37%; sotrovimab, n = 73) or antivirals (n = 208, 63%; nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, n = 116) over a median of two days after symptoms started; 111 (33.8%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); 89 (27%) were transplant/CAR-T (chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy) recipients. Most infections (n = 309, 94%) occurred during the Omicron period. Failure developed in 31 patients (9.5%). Its independent predictors were older age, fewer vaccine doses, and treatment with MABs. Rate of failure was lower in the Omicron versus the pre-Omicron period (7.8% versus 36.8%, p < 0.001). During the Omicron period, predictors of failure were age, fewer vaccine doses and diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (AML/MDS). Independent predictors of longer viral shedding were age, comorbidities, hospital admission at diagnosis, NHL/CLL, treatment with MABs. COVID-19-associated mortality was 3.4% (n = 11). The mortality in those who developed severe COVID-19 after early treatment was 26% in the Omicron period. Patients with HM had a significant risk of failure of early treatment, even during the Omicron period, with high mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(6): 1000-1015, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recent years, many aspects of the physiological role of PCSK9 have been elucidated, in particular regarding its role in lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk but also its role in innate immunity. Increasing evidence is available on the involvement of PCSK9 in the pathogenesis of viral infections, mainly HCV, as well as in the regulation of host response to bacterial infections, mainly sepsis and septic shock. Moreover, the action of PCSK9 has been investigated as a crucial step in the pathogenesis of malaria infection and disease severity. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this paper is to review available published literature on the role of PCSK9 in a wide array of infectious diseases. CONCLUSION: Besides the ongoing investigation on PCSK9 inhibition among HIV-infected patients for the treatment of HIV- and ART-related hyperlipidemia, preclinical studies indicate how PCSK9 is involved in reducing the replication of HCV. Moreover, a protective role of PCSK9 inhibition has also been proposed against dengue and SARS-CoV-2 viral infections. Interestingly, high plasmatic PCSK9 levels have been described in patients with sepsis. Finally, a loss of function in the PCSK9-encoding gene has been reported to possibly reduce mortality in malaria infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Animals , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Proprotein Convertase 9/genetics , Proprotein Convertase 9/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(2): 88-94, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251424

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a well established respiratory tract illness. Recent studies in adults and children have shown an increasing number of patients reporting polymorphic cutaneous manifestations during COVID-19, including different types of rashes, from maculopapular, vascular, vesicular to atypical forms. RECENT FINDINGS: Although pathogenesis of skin manifestations is still not fully understood, it has been proposed that cutaneous involvement during COVID-19 may be the results of the activation of the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the reactivation or co-infection of herpesviruses or drug hypersensitivity. SUMMARY: According to available literature, skin manifestations in patients with COVID-19 may be categorized on the basis of their clinical presentations as follows: erythematous rashes, lesions of vascular origin, vesicular rash, urticarial rash and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme and other polymorphic erythema/atypical reactions. Prompt recognition of these cutaneous manifestations represents a crucial point to facilitate diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1062450, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227870

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients is difficult to treat. SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the host immune system and the role of therapy still remains only partly understood. There are no data regarding the use of monoclonal antibodies and the combination of two antivirals in fighting viral replication and disease progression. We report the cases of two patients, both treated with rituximab for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, respectively, and both hospitalized for COVID-19 with positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, who were successfully treated with a salvage combination therapy with sotrovimab, remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir.

8.
Pulmonology ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of barotrauma associated with different types of ventilatory support is unclear in COVID-19 patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the different respiratory support strategies on barotrauma occurrence; we also sought to determine the frequency of barotrauma and the clinical characteristics of the patients who experienced this complication. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective case-control study from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 included COVID-19 patients who experienced barotrauma during hospital stay. They were matched with controls in a 1:1 ratio for the same admission period in the same ward of treatment. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression (OR) were performed to explore which factors were associated with barotrauma and in-hospital death. RESULTS: We included 200 cases and 200 controls. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 39.3% of patients in the barotrauma group, and in 20.1% of controls (p<0.001). Receiving non-invasive ventilation (C-PAP/PSV) instead of conventional oxygen therapy (COT) increased the risk of barotrauma (OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.30 - 11.08, p<0.001), similarly for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 6.24, 95% CI 2.86-13.60, p<0.001). High Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO), compared with COT, did not significantly increase the risk of barotrauma. Barotrauma frequency occurred in 1.00% [95% CI 0.88-1.16] of patients; these were older (p=0.022) and more frequently immunosuppressed (p=0.013). Barotrauma was shown to be an independent risk for death (OR 5.32, 95% CI 2.82-10.03, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: C-PAP/PSV compared with COT or HFNO increased the risk of barotrauma; otherwise HFNO did not. Barotrauma was recorded in 1.00% of patients, affecting mainly patients with more severe COVID-19 disease. Barotrauma was independently associated with mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: this case-control study was prospectively registered in clinicaltrial.gov as NCT04897152 (on 21 May 2021).

10.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2207381

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients is difficult to treat. SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the host immune system and the role of therapy still remains only partly understood. There are no data regarding the use of monoclonal antibodies and the combination of two antivirals in fighting viral replication and disease progression. We report the cases of two patients, both treated with rituximab for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, respectively, and both hospitalized for COVID-19 with positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, who were successfully treated with a salvage combination therapy with sotrovimab, remdesivir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir.

11.
Sci Adv ; 8(45): eabp9961, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119401

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the mechanisms underpinning the development of protective immunity conferred by mRNA vaccines is fragmentary. Here, we investigated responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccination via high-temporal resolution blood transcriptome profiling. The first vaccine dose elicited modest interferon and adaptive immune responses, which peaked on days 2 and 5, respectively. The second vaccine dose, in contrast, elicited sharp day 1 interferon, inflammation, and erythroid cell responses, followed by a day 5 plasmablast response. Both post-first and post-second dose interferon signatures were associated with the subsequent development of antibody responses. Yet, we observed distinct interferon response patterns after each of the doses that may reflect quantitative or qualitative differences in interferon induction. Distinct interferon response phenotypes were also observed in patients with COVID-19 and were associated with severity and differences in duration of intensive care. Together, this study also highlights the benefits of adopting high-frequency sampling protocols in profiling vaccine-elicited immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , Interferons
12.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116678

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection have an overwhelming inflammatory response characterized by remarkable organs monocyte infiltration. We performed an immunophenotypic analysis on circulating monocytes in 19 COVID-19 patients in comparison with 11 naïve HIV-1 patients and 10 healthy subjects. Reduced frequency of classical monocytes and increased frequency of intermediate monocytes characterized COVID-19 patients with respect to both HIV naïve patients and healthy subjects. Intensity of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) monocyte expression highly correlated with parameters of kidney dysfunction. Our data indicate that highly activated monocytes of COVID-19 patients may be pathogenically associated with the development of renal disease.

14.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(5): 1779-1791, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966201

ABSTRACT

Systemic or pulmonary reactivations of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) have been reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19, posing a dilemma for clinicians in terms of their diagnostic and clinical relevance. Prevalence of HSV-1 reactivation may be as high as > 40% in this population, but with large heterogeneity across studies, likely reflecting the different samples and/or cut-offs for defining reactivation. There is frequently agreement on the clinical significance of HSV-1 reactivation in the presence of severe manifestations clearly attributable to the virus. However, the clinical implications of HSV-1 reactivations in the absence of manifest signs and symptoms remain controversial. Our review aims at providing immunological background and at reviewing clinical findings on HSV-1 reactivations in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939062

ABSTRACT

Information on the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in daily clinical practice is very scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of fully vaccinated patients with mild to moderate breakthrough COVID-19 treated with molnupiravir between January 2022 and February 2022. Overall, 145 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 71.0 years, and 60.7% were males. The most common underlying condition was a severe cardiovascular disease (37.2%), followed by primary or acquired immunodeficiency (22.8%), and oncological/onco-hematological disease in the active phase (22.1%). At 30 days after breakthrough COVID-19 diagnosis, only 4 out of 145 patients (2.7%) required hospital admission. No patients developed severe COVID-19, were admitted to the ICU, or died during the follow-up period. Adverse events, mild in intensity, occurred in 2 patients (1.4%). Our results support the current evidence establishing positive clinical and safety outcomes of molnupiravir in fully vaccinated patients with mild or moderate breakthrough COVID-19.

16.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 9: 20499361221095732, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854735

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) infection is being one of the most significant challenges of health care systems worldwide. Bacterial and fungal infections in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are uncommon but consumption of antibiotics and antifungals has increased dramatically during the ongoing pandemic resulting in increased selective pressure for global antimicrobial resistance. Nosocomial bacterial superinfections appear to be more frequent than community-acquired coinfections, particularly among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those receiving immunosuppressive treatment. Fungal infections associated with COVID-19 might be missed or misdiagnosed. Existing and new antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes can be utilized directly in COVID-19 pandemic and are urgently needed to contain the high rates of misdiagnosis and antimicrobial prescription. The aim of this review is to describe the role of bacterial and fungal infections and possible strategies of AMS to use in daily practice for optimal management of COVID-19.

17.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(3): 1149-1160, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783017

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Candida auris (C. auris) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, and a sharp rise in cases of colonization and infection has been registered in intensive care units (ICUs) during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The unfavorable resistance profile of C. auris and the potential high mortality of C. auris infections represent an important challenge for physicians. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study including all patients admitted to ICUs with isolation of C. auris in any non-sterile body site between February 20, 2020, and May 31, 2021. The primary aim of the study was to assess the cumulative incidence of C. auris candidemia in colonized patients. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of C. auris candidemia in the study population. RESULTS: During the study period, 157 patients admitted to ICUs in our hospital became colonized with C. auris; 59% of them were affected by COVID-19. Overall, 27 patients (17%) developed C. auris candidemia. The cumulative risk of developing C. auris candidemia was > 25% at 60 days after first detection of C. auris colonization. Seven patients with C. auris candidemia (26%) also developed a late recurrent episode. All C. auris blood isolates during the first occurring episode were resistant to fluconazole and susceptible to echinocandins, while 15 (56%) were resistant to amphotericin B. During late recurrent episodes, emergent resistance to caspofungin and amphotericin B occurred in one case each. In the final multivariable model, only multisite colonization retained an independent association with the development of C. auris candidemia. CONCLUSION: Candida auris candidemia may occur in up to one fourth of colonized critically ill patients, and multisite colonization is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Implementing adequate infection control measures remains crucial to prevent colonization with C. auris and indirectly the subsequent development of infection.

18.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(4): 437-446, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Typical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia share complex pathophysiology, a high mortality rate, and an unmet need for efficient therapeutics. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the current advances in understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying typical ARDS and severe COVID-19 pneumonia, highlighting specific aspects of COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure that require attention. Two models have been proposed to describe the mechanisms of respiratory failure associated with typical ARDS and severe COVID-19 pneumonia. EXPERT OPINION: ARDS is defined as a syndrome rather than a distinct pathologic entity. There is great heterogeneity regarding the pathophysiologic, clinical, radiologic, and biological phenotypes in patients with ARDS, challenging clinicians, and scientists to discover new therapies. COVID-19 has been described as a cause of pulmonary ARDS and has reopened many questions regarding the pathophysiology of ARDS itself. COVID-19 lung injury involves direct viral epithelial cell damage and thrombotic and inflammatory reactions. There are some differences between ARDS and COVID-19 lung injury in aspects of aeration distribution, perfusion, and pulmonary vascular responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 301: 103889, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the effects of timing of intubation in COVID-19 patients that fail helmet continuous positive airway pressure (h-CPAP) on progression and severity of disease. METHODS: COVID-19 patients that failed h-CPAP, required intubation, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) at two levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 8 and 16 cmH2O) were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided in two groups (early versus late) based on the duration of h-CPAP before intubation. Endpoints included percentage of non-aerated lung tissue at PEEP of 8 cmH2O, respiratory system compliance and oxygenation. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were included and classified in early (h-CPAP for ≤2 days, N = 26) and late groups (h-CPAP for >2 days, N = 26). Patients in the late compared to early intubation group presented: 1) lower respiratory system compliance (median difference, MD -7 mL/cmH2O, p = 0.044) and PaO2/FiO2 (MD -29 mmHg, p = 0.047), 2) higher percentage of non-aerated lung tissue (MD 7.2%, p = 0.023) and 3) similar lung recruitment increasing PEEP from 8 to 16 cmH2O (MD 0.1%, p = 0.964). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients receiving h-CPAP, late intubation was associated with worse clinical presentation at ICU admission and more advanced disease. The possible detrimental effects of delaying intubation should be carefully considered in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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