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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337875

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection have an overwhelming inflammatory response characterized by remarkable organs monocyte infiltration. We performed an immunophenotypic analysis on circulating monocytes in 19 COVID-19 patients in comparison with 11 naïve HIV-1 patients and 10 healthy subjects. Reduced frequency of classical monocytes and increased frequency of intermediate monocytes characterized COVID-19 patients with respect to both HIV naïve patients and healthy subjects. Intensity of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) monocyte expression highly correlated with parameters of kidney dysfunction. Our data indicate that highly activated monocytes of COVID-19 patients may be pathogenically associated to the development of renal disease.

2.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 9: 20499361221095732, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854735

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) infection is being one of the most significant challenges of health care systems worldwide. Bacterial and fungal infections in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are uncommon but consumption of antibiotics and antifungals has increased dramatically during the ongoing pandemic resulting in increased selective pressure for global antimicrobial resistance. Nosocomial bacterial superinfections appear to be more frequent than community-acquired coinfections, particularly among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those receiving immunosuppressive treatment. Fungal infections associated with COVID-19 might be missed or misdiagnosed. Existing and new antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes can be utilized directly in COVID-19 pandemic and are urgently needed to contain the high rates of misdiagnosis and antimicrobial prescription. The aim of this review is to describe the role of bacterial and fungal infections and possible strategies of AMS to use in daily practice for optimal management of COVID-19.

3.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(3): 1149-1160, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783017

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Candida auris (C. auris) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, and a sharp rise in cases of colonization and infection has been registered in intensive care units (ICUs) during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The unfavorable resistance profile of C. auris and the potential high mortality of C. auris infections represent an important challenge for physicians. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study including all patients admitted to ICUs with isolation of C. auris in any non-sterile body site between February 20, 2020, and May 31, 2021. The primary aim of the study was to assess the cumulative incidence of C. auris candidemia in colonized patients. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of C. auris candidemia in the study population. RESULTS: During the study period, 157 patients admitted to ICUs in our hospital became colonized with C. auris; 59% of them were affected by COVID-19. Overall, 27 patients (17%) developed C. auris candidemia. The cumulative risk of developing C. auris candidemia was > 25% at 60 days after first detection of C. auris colonization. Seven patients with C. auris candidemia (26%) also developed a late recurrent episode. All C. auris blood isolates during the first occurring episode were resistant to fluconazole and susceptible to echinocandins, while 15 (56%) were resistant to amphotericin B. During late recurrent episodes, emergent resistance to caspofungin and amphotericin B occurred in one case each. In the final multivariable model, only multisite colonization retained an independent association with the development of C. auris candidemia. CONCLUSION: Candida auris candidemia may occur in up to one fourth of colonized critically ill patients, and multisite colonization is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Implementing adequate infection control measures remains crucial to prevent colonization with C. auris and indirectly the subsequent development of infection.

4.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(4): 437-446, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Typical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia share complex pathophysiology, a high mortality rate, and an unmet need for efficient therapeutics. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the current advances in understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying typical ARDS and severe COVID-19 pneumonia, highlighting specific aspects of COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure that require attention. Two models have been proposed to describe the mechanisms of respiratory failure associated with typical ARDS and severe COVID-19 pneumonia. EXPERT OPINION: ARDS is defined as a syndrome rather than a distinct pathologic entity. There is great heterogeneity regarding the pathophysiologic, clinical, radiologic, and biological phenotypes in patients with ARDS, challenging clinicians, and scientists to discover new therapies. COVID-19 has been described as a cause of pulmonary ARDS and has reopened many questions regarding the pathophysiology of ARDS itself. COVID-19 lung injury involves direct viral epithelial cell damage and thrombotic and inflammatory reactions. There are some differences between ARDS and COVID-19 lung injury in aspects of aeration distribution, perfusion, and pulmonary vascular responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 301: 103889, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the effects of timing of intubation in COVID-19 patients that fail helmet continuous positive airway pressure (h-CPAP) on progression and severity of disease. METHODS: COVID-19 patients that failed h-CPAP, required intubation, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) at two levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 8 and 16 cmH2O) were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided in two groups (early versus late) based on the duration of h-CPAP before intubation. Endpoints included percentage of non-aerated lung tissue at PEEP of 8 cmH2O, respiratory system compliance and oxygenation. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were included and classified in early (h-CPAP for ≤2 days, N = 26) and late groups (h-CPAP for >2 days, N = 26). Patients in the late compared to early intubation group presented: 1) lower respiratory system compliance (median difference, MD -7 mL/cmH2O, p = 0.044) and PaO2/FiO2 (MD -29 mmHg, p = 0.047), 2) higher percentage of non-aerated lung tissue (MD 7.2%, p = 0.023) and 3) similar lung recruitment increasing PEEP from 8 to 16 cmH2O (MD 0.1%, p = 0.964). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients receiving h-CPAP, late intubation was associated with worse clinical presentation at ICU admission and more advanced disease. The possible detrimental effects of delaying intubation should be carefully considered in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306491

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence and clinical presentation of neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. No data regarding the use of neuromonitoring tools in this group of patients are available. Methods: : This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data. The primary aim was to assess the incidence and type of neurological complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients and their effect on survival, as well as on hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length-of-stay. The secondary aim was to describe cerebral hemodynamic changes detected by noninvasive neuromonitoring modalities such as transcranial doppler (TCD), optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), and pupillometry. Results: : Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation and admitted to an ICU from February 28 to June 30, 2020, were included in this study. Fifty-three patients underwent noninvasive neuromonitoring. Neurological complications were detected in 47/94 patients (50%), with delirium as the most common manifestation. Patients with neurological complications, compared to those without, had longer hospital (36.8±25.1 vs. 19.4±16.9 days, p <0.001) and ICU (31.5±22.6 vs. 11.5±10.1 days, p <0.001) stay. The duration of mechanical ventilation was independently associated with risk of developing neurological complications (OR 1.100, 95%CI 1.046-1.175, p=0.001). Patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) measured by ONSD (19% of the overall population) had longer ICU stays. Conclusions: : In conclusion, neurological complications are common in critically ill patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and are associated with prolonged ICU length-of-stay. Multimodal noninvasive neuromonitoring systems are useful tools for early detection of cerebrovascular changes in COVID-19. Registration number: 163/2020

8.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 411-418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is challenging, and the role of Aspergillus-PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Aspergillus-PCR in BAL in IPA in three different cohorts: ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19, ICU-admitted patients without COVID-19 and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: All stored available BAL samples collected from three patient groups were tested with Aspergillus-PCR (AsperGenius® ). IPA was diagnosed according to appropriate criteria for each patient group. RESULTS: We included 111 BAL samples from 101 patients: 52 (51%) patients admitted to ICU for COVID-19, 24 (24%) admitted to ICU for other reasons and 25 (25%) immunocompromised. There were 31 cases of IPA (28%). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 64% (95% CI 47-79) and specificity 99% (95% CI 93-100). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 40% (95%CI 19-64) in ICU COVID-19, 67% (95% CI 21-93) in non-COVID-19 ICU patients and 92% (95%CI 67-98) in the immunocompromised. The concordance between positive BAL-GM and BAL-PCR in patients with and without IPA was significantly lower in ICU patients (32%; 43% in COVID-19, 18% in non-COVID-19) than in the immunocompromised (92%), p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus-PCR in BAL improves the diagnostic accuracy of BAL-GM in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Galactose , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674731

ABSTRACT

Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been described in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. In the present two-center retrospective experience, we primarily aimed to assess the cumulative risk of HSV-1 reactivation detected on bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) samples in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with worsening respiratory function. The secondary objectives were the identification of predictors for HSV-1 reactivation and the assessment of its possible prognostic impact. Overall, 41 patients met the study inclusion criteria, and 12/41 patients developed HSV-1 reactivation (29%). No independent predictors of HSV-1 reactivation were identified in the present study. No association was found between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality. Eleven out of 12 patients with HSV-1 reactivation received antiviral therapy with intravenous acyclovir. In conclusion, HSV-1 reactivation is frequently detected in intubated patients with COVID-19. An antiviral treatment in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1 reactivation and worsening respiratory function might be considered.

10.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(1): 101-105, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674604

ABSTRACT

Infection of surgical wounds with acid-fast bacilli, including tubercle bacilli, is rare, and is poorly described in the literature. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who developed a sternal wound infection after cardiac surgery due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, diagnosed post-mortem. SARS-CoV-2 infection contributed to worsened clinical conditions and surgical site infection. A high degree of suspicion to avoid unnecessary treatments and progression to severe disease with dismal prognosis is necessary in these types of infections.

11.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(2): 149-162, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672443

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop pulmonary bacterial coinfection or superinfection, that could unfavorably impact their prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: The exact burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lung infection in peculiar populations such as patients with COVID-19 remains somewhat elusive, possibly because of wide heterogeneity in methods and endpoints across studies. SUMMARY: There was important heterogeneity in the retrieved literature on the epidemiology of MRSA lung infection in patients with COVID-19, both when considering all other bacteria as the denominator (relative prevalence ranging from 2% to 29%) and when considering only S. aureus as the denominator (relative prevalence ranging from 11% to 65%). Overall, MRSA is among the most frequent causative agents of pulmonary infection in patients with COVID-19. Improving our ability to rapidly reach etiological diagnosis of bacterial lung infection in COVID-19 patients remains fundamental if we are to improve the rates of appropriate antibiotic therapy in patients with COVID-19 and concomitant/superimposed MRSA infection, at the same time avoiding antibiotic overuse in line with antimicrobial stewardship principles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus
12.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(2): 88-94, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650791

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a well established respiratory tract illness. Recent studies in adults and children have shown an increasing number of patients reporting polymorphic cutaneous manifestations during COVID-19, including different types of rashes, from maculopapular, vascular, vesicular to atypical forms. RECENT FINDINGS: Although pathogenesis of skin manifestations is still not fully understood, it has been proposed that cutaneous involvement during COVID-19 may be the results of the activation of the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the reactivation or co-infection of herpesviruses or drug hypersensitivity. SUMMARY: According to available literature, skin manifestations in patients with COVID-19 may be categorized on the basis of their clinical presentations as follows: erythematous rashes, lesions of vascular origin, vesicular rash, urticarial rash and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme and other polymorphic erythema/atypical reactions. Prompt recognition of these cutaneous manifestations represents a crucial point to facilitate diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology
13.
Front Neurol ; 12: 735469, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607501

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The role of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the evaluation of cerebral haemodynamics is gaining increasing popularity because of its noninvasive nature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the integral components of regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) measured by NIRS [i.e., arterial-oxyhemoglobin (O2Hbi) and venous-deoxyhemoglobin (HHbi)-components], as indirect surrogates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a cohort of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared these findings to the gold standard technique for noninvasive CBF assessment, Transcranial Doppler (TCD). Methods: Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Policlinico San Martino Hospital, Genova, Italy, who underwent multimodal neuromonitoring (including NIRS and TCD), were included. rSO2 and its components [relative changes in O2Hbi, HHbi, and total haemoglobin (cHbi)] were compared with TCD (cerebral blood flow velocity, CBFV). Changes (Δ) in CBFV and rSO2, ΔO2Hbi, ΔHHbi, and ΔcHbi after systemic arterial blood pressure (MAP) modifications induced by different manoeuvres (e.g., rescue therapies and haemodynamic manipulation) were assessed using mixed-effect linear regression analysis and repeated measures correlation coefficients. All values were normalised as percentage changes from the baseline (Δ%). Results: One hundred and four measurements from 25 patients were included. Significant effects of Δ%MAP on Δ%CBF were observed after rescue manoeuvres for CBFV, ΔcHbi, and ΔO2Hbi. The highest correlation was found between ΔCBFV and ΔΔO2Hbi (R = 0.88, p < 0.0001), and the poorest between ΔCBFV and ΔΔHHbi (R = 0.34, p = 0.002). Conclusions: ΔO2Hbi had the highest accuracy to assess CBF changes, reflecting its role as the main component for vasomotor response after changes in MAP. The use of indexes derived from the different components of rSO2 can be useful for the bedside evaluation of cerebral haemodynamics in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19.

15.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470899

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies, such as bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination (BEC), have been proposed for patients with mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies have assessed the factors associated with the early administration of BEC or the impact of early BEC treatment on the clinical evolution of the patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults with COVID-19 who received BEC at three institutions in the Liguria region. The primary endpoint was to investigate the clinical variables associated with early BEC infusion. Secondary endpoints were 30-day overall mortality and the composite endpoint of requirement of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen during the 30-day follow-up period. A total of 127 patients (median age 70 years; 56.7% males) received BEC. Of those, 93 (73.2%) received BEC within 5 days from symptoms onset (early BEC). Patients with a higher Charlson comorbidity index were more likely to receive early treatment (odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.45; p = 0.03) in contrast to those reporting fever at presentation (OR 0.26, 0.08-0.82; p = 0.02). Early BEC was associated with lower likelihood of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen (OR 0.19, 0.06-0.65; p = 0.008). Five patients who received early BEC died during the follow-up period, but only one of them due to COVID-19-related causes. Early bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination was more frequently administered to patients with a high Charlson comorbidity index. Despite this, early BEC was associated with a lower rate of hospital admission or need for any supplementary oxygen compared to late administration. These results suggest that efforts should focus on encouraging early BEC use in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 at risk for complications.

16.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1779-1786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unexpected high prevalence of enterococcal bloodstream infection (BSI) has been observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary objective was to describe the characteristics of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19. A secondary objective was to exploratorily assess the predictors of 30-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI. RESULTS: During the study period, 223 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to COVID-19-dedicated ICUs in our centre. Overall, 51 episodes of enterococcal BSI, occurring in 43 patients, were registered. 29 (56.9%) and 22 (43.1%) BSI were caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. The cumulative incidence of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI was of 229 episodes per 1000 ICU admissions (95% mid-p confidence interval [CI] 172-298). Most patients received an empirical therapy with at least one agent showing in vitro activity against the blood isolate (38/43, 88%). The crude 30-day mortality was 42% (18/43) and 57% (4/7) in the entire series and in patients with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium BSI, respectively. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score showed an independent association with increased mortality (odds ratio 1.32 per one-point increase, with 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.66, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Our results suggest a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.KEY MESSAGESThe cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19.The crude 30-day mortality of enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be higher than 40%.There could be a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Mortality , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Critical Illness , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 214, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have pathophysiological lung features characterized by perfusion abnormalities. However, to date no study has evaluated whether the changes in the distribution of pulmonary gas and blood volume are associated with the severity of gas-exchange impairment and the type of respiratory support (non-invasive versus invasive) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy during the first pandemic wave. Pulmonary gas and blood distribution was assessed using a technique for quantitative analysis of dual-energy computed tomography. Lung aeration loss (reflected by percentage of normally aerated lung tissue) and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (percentage of non-aerated, perfused lung tissue-shunt; aerated, non-perfused dead space; and non-aerated/non-perfused regions) were evaluated in critically ill COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity as reflected by the need for non-invasive or invasive respiratory support. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients admitted to the intensive care unit between February 29th and May 30th, 2020 were included. Patients requiring invasive versus non-invasive mechanical ventilation had both a lower percentage of normally aerated lung tissue (median [interquartile range] 33% [24-49%] vs. 63% [44-68%], p < 0.001); and a larger extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (43% [30-49%] vs. 25% [14-28%], p = 0.001), due to higher shunt (23% [15-32%] vs. 5% [2-16%], p = 0.001) and non-aerated/non perfused regions (5% [3-10%] vs. 1% [0-2%], p = 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio correlated positively with normally aerated tissue (ρ = 0.730, p < 0.001) and negatively with the extent of gas-blood volume mismatch (ρ = - 0.633, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and oxygenation impairment were associated with loss of aeration and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch.


Subject(s)
Blood Volume/physiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/metabolism , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/physiology , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 580-587, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has emerged as a complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The objectives of this multinational study were to determine the prevalence of CAPA in patients with COVID-19 in intensive care units (ICU) and to investigate risk factors for CAPA as well as outcome. METHODS: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) conducted a multinational study including 20 centres from nine countries to assess epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of CAPA. CAPA was defined according to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus definitions. RESULTS: A total of 592 patients were included in this study, including 11 (1.9%) patients with histologically proven CAPA, 80 (13.5%) with probable CAPA, 18 (3%) with possible CAPA and 483 (81.6%) without CAPA. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 8 days (range 0-31 days) after ICU admission predominantly in older patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) with any form of invasive respiratory support (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.84-6.25) and receiving tocilizumab (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.41-4.25). Median prevalence of CAPA per centre was 10.7% (range 1.7%-26.8%). CAPA was associated with significantly lower 90-day ICU survival rate (29% in patients with CAPA versus 57% in patients without CAPA; Mantel-Byar p < 0.001) and remained an independent negative prognostic variable after adjusting for other predictors of survival (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.87, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CAPA varied between centres. CAPA was significantly more prevalent among older patients, patients receiving invasive ventilation and patients receiving tocilizumab, and was an independent strong predictor of ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Mycology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 1837-1885, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333141

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Italian Society of Anti-Infective Therapy (SITA) and the Italian Society of Pulmonology (SIP) constituted an expert panel for developing evidence-based guidance for the clinical management of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outside intensive care units. METHODS: Ten systematic literature searches were performed to answer ten different key questions. The retrieved evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The literature searches mostly assessed the available evidence on the management of COVID-19 patients in terms of antiviral, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. Most evidence was deemed as of low certainty, and in some cases, recommendations could not be developed according to the GRADE system (best practice recommendations were provided in similar situations). The use of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies may be considered for outpatients at risk of disease progression. For inpatients, favorable recommendations were provided for anticoagulant prophylaxis and systemic steroids administration, although with low certainty of evidence. Favorable recommendations, with very low/low certainty of evidence, were also provided for, in specific situations, remdesivir, alone or in combination with baricitinib, and tocilizumab. The presence of many best practice recommendations testified to the need for further investigations by means of randomized controlled trials, whenever possible, with some possible future research directions stemming from the results of the ten systematic reviews.

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