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1.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(7): 103114, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859332

ABSTRACT

From the introduction of hyperferritinemic syndrome concept, a growing body of evidence has suggested the role of ferritin as a pathogenic mediator and a relevant clinical feature in the management of patients with inflammatory diseases. From a pathogenic point of view, ferritin may directly stimulate the aberrant immune response by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in inducing a vicious pathogenic loop and contributing to the occurrence of cytokine storm syndrome. The latter has been recently defined as a clinical picture characterised by elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms, and secondary organ dysfunction beyond that which could be attributed to a normal response to a pathogen It is noteworthy that the occurrence of hyperferritinemia may be correlated with the development of the cytokine storm syndrome in the context of an inflammatory disease. In addition to adult onset Still's disease, macrophage activation syndrome, catastrophic anti-phospholipids syndrome, and septic shock, recent evidence has suggested this association between ferritin and life-threatening evolution in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, with anti-MDA5 antibodies in the context of poly-dermatomyositis, with severe COVID-19, and with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. The possible underlying common inflammatory mechanisms, associated with hyperferritinemia, may led to the similar clinical picture observed in these patients. Furthermore, similar therapeutic strategies could be suggested inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and improving long-term outcomes in these disorders. Thus, it could be possible to expand the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome to those diseases burdened by a dreadful clinical picture correlated with hyperferritinemia and the occurrence of the cytokine storm syndrome. In addition, the assessment of ferritin may provide useful information to the physicians in clinical practice to manage these patients. Therefore, ferritin may be considered a relevant clinical feature to be used as biomarker in dissecting the unmet needs in the management of these disorders. Novel evidence may thus support an expansion of the spectrum of the hyperferritinemic syndrome to these diseases burdened by a life-threatening clinical picture correlated with hyperferritinemia and the occurrence of the cytokine storm syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperferritinemia , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokines , Ferritins , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/therapy , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/therapy , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/complications , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/diagnosis , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/therapy
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294702

ABSTRACT

Background: Autoimmune systemic diseases (ASD) may show impaired immunogenicity to COVID-19 vaccines . Our prospective observational multicenter study aimed to evaluate the seroconversion after the vaccination cycle and at 6-12-month follow-up, as well the safety and efficacy of vaccines in preventing COVID-19.<br><br>Methods: The study included 478 unselected ASD patients (mean age 59±15 years), namely 101 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 38 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 265 systemic sclerosis (SSc), 61 cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV), and a miscellanea of 13 systemic vasculitis. The control group included 502 individuals from the general population (mean age 59±14SD years). The immunogenicity of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) was evaluated by measuring serum IgG-neutralizing antibody (NAb) (SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant antibody test kit;Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL) on samples obtained within 3 weeks after vaccination cycle.<br><br>Findings: The short-term results of our prospective study revealed significantly lower NAb levels in ASD series compared to controls [286 (53-1203) vs 825 (451-1542) BAU/mL, p<0.0001], as well as between single ASD subgroups and controls. More interestingly, higher percentage of non-responders to vaccine was recorded in ASD patients compared to controls [13.2% (63/478), vs 2.8% (14/502);p<0.0001]. Increased prevalence of non-response to vaccine was also observed in different ASD subgroups, in patients with ASD-related interstitial lung disease (p=.009), and in those treated with glucocorticoids (p=.002), mycophenolate-mofetil (p<.0001), or rituximab (p<.0001). Comparable percentages of vaccine-related adverse effects were recorded among responder and non-responder ASD patients.<br><br>Interpretations: Patients with weak/absent seroconversion, believed to be immune to SARS-CoV-2 infection, are at high risk to develop COVID-19. Early determination of serum NAb after vaccination cycle may allow to identify three main groups of ASD patients: responders, subjects with suboptimal response, non-responders. Patients with suboptimal response should be prioritized for a booster-dose of vaccine;while a different type of vaccine could be administered to non-responder individuals.<br><br>Funding Information: None.<br><br>Declaration of Interests: The authors do not have conflict of interest.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved by local ethic committee (RETRO-CoV2 study code #17886_bio);informed consent was obtained from all patients before participation.

5.
J Autoimmun ; 125: 102744, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509938

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune systemic diseases (ASD) may show impaired immunogenicity to COVID-19 vaccines. Our prospective observational multicenter study aimed to evaluate the seroconversion after the vaccination cycle and at 6-12-month follow-up, as well the safety and efficacy of vaccines in preventing COVID-19. The study included 478 unselected ASD patients (mean age 59 ± 15 years), namely 101 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 38 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 265 systemic sclerosis (SSc), 61 cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV), and a miscellanea of 13 systemic vasculitis. The control group included 502 individuals from the general population (mean age 59 ± 14SD years). The immunogenicity of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) was evaluated by measuring serum IgG-neutralizing antibody (NAb) (SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant antibody test kit; Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL) on samples obtained within 3 weeks after vaccination cycle. The short-term results of our prospective study revealed significantly lower NAb levels in ASD series compared to controls [286 (53-1203) vs 825 (451-1542) BAU/mL, p < 0.0001], as well as between single ASD subgroups and controls. More interestingly, higher percentage of non-responders to vaccine was recorded in ASD patients compared to controls [13.2% (63/478), vs 2.8% (14/502); p < 0.0001]. Increased prevalence of non-response to vaccine was also observed in different ASD subgroups, in patients with ASD-related interstitial lung disease (p = 0.009), and in those treated with glucocorticoids (p = 0.002), mycophenolate-mofetil (p < 0.0001), or rituximab (p < 0.0001). Comparable percentages of vaccine-related adverse effects were recorded among responder and non-responder ASD patients. Patients with weak/absent seroconversion, believed to be immune to SARS-CoV-2 infection, are at high risk to develop COVID-19. Early determination of serum NAb after vaccination cycle may allow to identify three main groups of ASD patients: responders, subjects with suboptimal response, non-responders. Patients with suboptimal response should be prioritized for a booster-dose of vaccine, while a different type of vaccine could be administered to non-responder individuals.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , /immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Scleroderma, Systemic/immunology , Systemic Vasculitis/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccine Potency
6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 34-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
8.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Postacute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is an emerging entity characterised by a large array of manifestations, including musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue and cognitive or sleep disturbances. Since similar symptoms are present also in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), we decided to perform a web-based cross-sectional survey aimed at investigating the prevalence and predictors of FM in patients who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: Data were anonymously collected between 5 and 18 April 2021. The collection form consisted of 28 questions gathering demographic information, features and duration of acute COVID-19, comorbid diseases, and other individual's attributes such as height and weight. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Survey Criteria and the Italian version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire completed the survey. RESULTS: A final sample of 616 individuals (77.4% women) filled the form 6±3 months after the COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these, 189 (30.7%) satisfied the ACR survey criteria for FM (56.6% women). A multivariate logistic regression model including demographic and clinical factors showed that male gender (OR: 9.95, 95% CI 6.02 to 16.43, p<0.0001) and obesity (OR: 41.20, 95% CI 18.00 to 98.88, p<0.0001) were the strongest predictors of being classified as having post-COVID-19 FM. Hospital admission rate was significantly higher in men (15.8% vs 9.2%, p=0.001) and obese (19.2 vs 10.8%, p=0.016) respondents. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that clinical features of FM are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 and that obesity and male gender affect the risk of developing post-COVID-19 FM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibromyalgia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
9.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 45, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301901

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread rapidly, there are still many unresolved questions of how this virus would impact on autoimmune inflammatory joint diseases and autoinflammatory disorders. The main aim of this paper is to describe the main studies focusing their attention on COVID-19 incidence and outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondylarthritis (SpA), and autoinflammatory disease cohorts. We also revised possible pathogenic mechanisms associated with. Available data suggest that, in patients with RA and SpA, the immunosuppressive therapy, older age, male sex, and the presence of comorbidities (hypertension, lung disease, diabetes, CVD, and chronic renal insufficiency/end-stage renal disease) could be associated with an increased risk of infections and high rate of hospitalization. Other studies have shown that lower odds of hospitalization were associated with bDMARD or tsDMARDs monotherapy, driven largely by anti-TNF therapies. For autoinflammatory diseases, considering the possibility that COVID-19 could be associated with a cytokine storm syndrome, the question of the susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients displaying innate immunity disorders has been raised. In this context, data are very scarce and studies available did not clarify if having an autoinflammatory disorder could be or not a risk factor to develop a more severe COVID-19. Taking together these observations, further studies are likely to be needed to fully characterize these specific patient groups and associated SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immune System Diseases/complications , Age Factors , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Comorbidity , Humans , Incidence , Observational Studies as Topic , Risk Factors , Spondylarthritis/complications
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215400

ABSTRACT

Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology affecting young adults, which is burdened by life-threatening complications, mostly macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Interferons (IFNs) are signalling molecules that mediate a variety of biological functions from defence against viral infections, to antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. These molecules have been classified into three major types: IFN I, IFN II, IFN III, presenting specific characteristics and functions. In this work, we reviewed the role of IFNs on AOSD and MAS, focusing on their pathogenic role in promoting the hyperinflammatory response and as new possible therapeutic targets. In fact, both preclinical and clinical observations suggested that these molecules could promote the hyperinflammatory response in MAS during AOSD. Furthermore, the positive results of inhibiting IFN-γ in primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis may provide a solid rationale to arrange further clinical studies, paving the way for reducing the high mortality rate in MAS during AOSD.

13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe systemic inflammation associated with some stages of COVID-19 and in fatal cases led therapeutic agents developed or used frequently in Rheumatology being at the vanguard of experimental therapeutics strategies. The aim of this project was to elaborate EULAR Points to consider (PtCs) on COVID-19 pathophysiology and immunomodulatory therapies. METHODS: PtCs were developed in accordance with EULAR standard operating procedures for endorsed recommendations, led by an international multidisciplinary Task Force, including rheumatologists, translational immunologists, haematologists, paediatricians, patients and health professionals, based on a systemic literature review up to 15 December 2020. Overarching principles (OPs) and PtCs were formulated and consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: Two OPs and fourteen PtCs were developed. OPs highlight the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need of a multifaceted approach to target the different pathophysiological mechanisms. PtCs 1-6 encompass the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 including immune response, endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers. PtCs 7-14 focus on the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection with immunomodulators. There was evidence supporting the use of glucocorticoids, especially dexamethasone, in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy. No other immunomodulator demonstrated efficacy on mortality to date, with however inconsistent results for tocilizumab. Immunomodulatory therapy was not associated with higher infection rates. CONCLUSIONS: Multifactorial pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune abnormalities, play a key role in COVID-19. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in cases requiring oxygen therapy suggests that immunomodulatory treatment might be effective in COVID-19 subsets. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should continue in ongoing clinical trials delineating optimal immunomodulatory therapy utilisation in COVID-19.

14.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(8): 516-518, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A virally-induced cytokine storm syndrome, associated with a massive and overwhelming systemic inflammation, burdens a subgroup of patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which leads to pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage. These severe COVID-19 patients are characterized by high ferritin levels. These findings mirror what was previously reported about the prognostic role of this iron storage protein in other inflammatory diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome. The latter suggests that ferritin could be a further pathogenic mediator in enhancing the inflammatory process, stimulating inflammatory pathways, and thus perpetuating a vicious pathogenic loop. Considering its activity as an immune activator, a therapeutic approach targeting ferritin may be also postulated in these diseases. Considering these observations, high ferritin levels characterize severe COVID-19 and other diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome. Because ferritin could enhance the inflammatory process, it could be tested as a possible new therapeutic target to improve the outcome of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins/blood , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/virology , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(12): 1205-1215, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965582

ABSTRACT

Introduction: On June 2020, the first case of concurrent Covid-19 and Kawasaki disease (KD) was published. After this first description, further works reported new cases of children affected by KD and KD-like syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical and biochemical features of these patients differed from the historical cohorts of KD, suggesting the possibility of a new multi-systemic inflammatory syndrome. Is still unclear if this new clinical entity, often referred as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) or multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), could be considered as part of the KD spectrum or is a new disease with different pathogenic mechanisms and uniquely linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The authors searched the available literature in MedLine (via Pubmed) with the terms ('coronaviruses' OR 'coronavirus') AND ('Kawasaki disease') for English studies without any temporal limit. Areas covered: This review aims to comprehensively describe multisystem inflammatory syndromes affecting children during Coronaviruses outbreak, and to evaluate the possible pathogenic role of human Coronaviridae in KD and KD-like syndromes. Expert opinion: An increased incidence of PIMS-TS, during the Covid-19 pandemic has been reported, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may trigger a severe hyper-inflammatory syndrome in childhood. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease are still unclear. Based on these findings, SARS-CoV-2 may be considered another trigger in the complex mosaic about the relationship among infectious agents and the occurrence of systemic hyper-inflammation related syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(6): 1247-1254, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People who are exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could develop a potentially fatal disease with lung involvement and severe cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) - coronavirus disease 2019 (hereafter, COVID-19). Tocilizumab (TCZ) was administered to these subjects, despite the lack of randomised clinical trial data. Hence, summarising data on the mortality rate and related risks factors may help physicians to correctly administer TCZ. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on mortality rate in TCZ- treated patients with COVID-19 according to the PRISMA guidelines. The pooled mortality rate in TCZ-treated persons was calculated and meta-regressions were done to investigate associated factors. RESULTS: We included 22 studies and 1520 TCZ-treated patients (mean age: 61 years, 95% CI: 59-64; male: 71%, 95% CI: 64-78%). The mortality estimated pooled prevalence was 19% (95% CI: 13-25, I2=100%, p<0.00001) and improvement estimated pooled prevalence was 71% (95% CI: 62-81). Factors associated with the mortality are the number of patients in intensive care unit, the number of patients requiring invasive ventilation and the sera C-reactive protein value before TCZ administration. We observed a reduction in the odds of mortality in TCZ-treated patients when compared to those treated with other therapies (OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.22-0.98, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the mortality pooled prevalence in TCZ-treated patients is lower than the overall mortality reported in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patients , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resilience is defined as the capacity to cope successfully with change or adversity. The aims of our study were to investigate levels of resilience in Italian healthcare professionals (HCPs) during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to identify potential predictors of resilience. METHODS: We performed a web-based survey of HCPs (n = 1009) working in Italian hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey contained a 14-item resilience scale (RS14) and questionnaires to evaluate depression and anxiety symptoms. Non-HCP individuals (n = 375) from the general population were used for comparison. RESULTS: HCPs showed significantly lower resilience compared to the control group (p = 0.001). No significant differences were observed after stratification for geographical area, work setting, role, or suspected/confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. In a linear regression analysis, RS14 was inversely correlated with depression (R2 = 0.227, p < 0.001) and anxiety (R2 = 0.117, p < 0.001) and directly correlated with age (R2 = 0.012, p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI, R2 = 0.002, p = 0.213). In male HCPs, higher depression score (odds ratio (OR) 1.147, p < 0.001) or BMI (OR 1.136, p = 0.011) significantly predicted having low resilience. In female HCPs, higher depression score (OR 1.111, p < 0.0001) and working in a COVID-19 free setting (OR 2.308, p = 0.002) significantly predicted having low resilience. HCPs satisfied with personal protective equipment had higher levels of resilience (p < 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that resilience was lower in Italian HCPs than in the general population after the first COVID-19 wave. Specific factors can be identified, and targeted interventions may have an important role to foster resilience of HCPs.

18.
BMC Rheumatol ; 4: 65, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different proportions of musculoskeletal or autoimmune manifestations associated with COVID-19 have been reported in literature. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aim of assessing the prevalence of rheumatic manifestations in patients affected by COVID-19, as initial symptom or during disease course. METHODS: A database search was run on May 18th, 2020, using two distinct strategies. We were interested in the percentage of symptoms of potential rheumatologic interest observed in large population studies of COVID-19 cases, and in identifying uncommon autoimmune disorders described in patients with COVID-19. For manifestations individually reported, a meta-analysis was performed taking into consideration the proportion of COVID-19 patients presenting the symptom. RESULTS: Eighty eight original articles were included in the systematic review and 51 in the meta-analysis. We found pooled estimates of 19% for muscle pain and 32% for fatigue as initial symptom of COVID-19 presentation and, respectively, of 16 and 36% during the disease course. Only one article discussed arthralgia as unique symptom. Additionally, we found that vasculitis, chilblains, presence of autoantibodies commonly found in patients with rheumatic diseases, or autoimmune haematological and neurological disorders have all been reported in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our review and meta-analysis emphasises that symptoms potentially leading to rheumatologic referral are common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, COVID-19 is a new differential diagnosis to bear in mind when evaluating patients with musculoskeletal symptoms and rheumatologists might play a crucial role in identifying COVID-19 cases in early phases of the illness.

20.
The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ ; 8(22):450-452, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-723190

ABSTRACT

A virally-induced cytokine storm syndrome, associated with a massive and overwhelming systemic inflammation, burdens a subgroup of patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which leads to pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage. These severe COVID-19 patients are characterized by high ferritin levels. These findings mirror what was previously reported about the prognostic role of this iron storage protein in other inflammatory diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome. The latter suggests that ferritin could be a further pathogenic mediator in enhancing the inflammatory process, stimulating inflammatory pathways, and thus perpetuating a vicious pathogenic loop. Considering its activity as an immune activator, a therapeutic approach targeting ferritin may be also postulated in these diseases. Considering these observations, high ferritin levels characterize severe COVID-19 and other diseases included in the hyperferritinemic syndrome. Because ferritin could enhance the inflammatory process, it could be tested as a possible new therapeutic target to improve the outcome of these patients.

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