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Mult Scler ; 28(13): 2027-2037, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138773


BACKGROUND: The use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in MS research has led to new insights in lesion evolution and disease outcomes. It has not yet been determined if, or how, pre-lesional abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) relate to the long-term evolution of new lesions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between abnormalities in MRI measures of axonal and myelin volume fractions (AVF and MVF) in NAWM preceding development of black-hole (BH) and non-BH lesions in people with MS. METHODS: We obtained magnetization transfer and diffusion MRI at 6-month intervals in patients with MS to estimate MVF and AVF during lesion evolution. Lesions were classified as either BH or non-BH on the final imaging visit using T1 maps. RESULTS: Longitudinal data from 97 new T2 lesions from 9 participants were analyzed; 25 lesions in 8 participants were classified as BH 6-12 months after initial appearance. Pre-lesion MVF, AVF, and MVF/AVF were significantly lower, and T1 was significantly higher, in the lesions that later became BHs (p < 0.001) compared to those that did not. No significant pre-lesion abnormalities were found in non-BH lesions (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present work demonstrated that pre-lesion abnormalities are associated with worse long-term lesion-level outcome.

Multiple Sclerosis , White Matter , Axons/pathology , Brain/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Myelin Sheath/pathology , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
Mult Scler ; 28(10): 1576-1590, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997275


BACKGROUND: Ofatumumab is approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Ongoing safety reporting is crucial to understand its long-term benefit-risk profile. OBJECTIVE: Report the safety and tolerability of ofatumumab in RMS after extended treatment up to 3.5 years. METHODS: Patients completing ASCLEPIOS I/II (phase 3), APLIOS, or APOLITOS (phase 2) trials could enter ALITHIOS, a phase 3b, open-label, long-term safety study. We analyzed cumulative data of continuous ofatumumab treatment and of patients newly switched from teriflunomide. RESULTS: The safety population had 1969 patients: 1292 continuously treated with ofatumumab (median time-at-risk 35.5 months, 3253 patient-years) and 677 newly switched (median time-at-risk 18.3 months, 986 patient-years). A total of 1650 patients (83.8%) had ⩾1 adverse events and 191 (9.7%) had ⩾1 serious adverse events. No opportunistic infections or progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy events were identified; the risk of malignancies was low. Mean serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels remained stable. Mean IgM levels decreased but remained above the lower limit of normal in most. Serious infection incidence was low; decreased Ig levels were not associated with serious infections. CONCLUSION: In patients with up to 3.5 years' exposure, ofatumumab was well tolerated, with no new safety risks identified. These findings, with its established effectiveness, support a favorable benefit-risk profile of ofatumumab in RMS.

Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117085, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695572


INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Several studies have been performed, focusing on understanding the acute respiratory syndrome and treatment strategies. However, there is growing evidence indicating neurological manifestations occur in patients with COVID-19. Similarly, the other coronaviruses (CoV) epidemics; severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) have been associated with neurological complications. METHODS: This systematic review serves to summarize available information regarding the potential effects of different types of CoV on the nervous system and describes the range of clinical neurological complications that have been reported thus far in COVID-19. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-five studies on CoV infections associated neurological manifestations in human were reviewed. Of those, 208 articles were pertinent to COVID-19. The most common neurological complaints in COVID-19 were anosmia, ageusia, and headache, but more serious complications, such as stroke, impairment of consciousness, seizures, and encephalopathy, have also been reported. CONCLUSION: There are several similarities between neurological complications after SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and COVID-19, however, the scope of the epidemics and number of patients are very different. Reports on the neurological complications after and during COVID-19 are growing on a daily basis. Accordingly, comprehensive knowledge of these complications will help health care providers to be attentive to these complications and diagnose and treat them timely.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Neuroimaging , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Stroke/etiology